Justice and care: decision making by medical school student promotions committees.


CONTEXT:The function of medical school entities that determine student advancement or dismissal has gone largely unexplored. The decision making of 'academic progress' or student promotions committees is examined using a theoretical framework contrasting ethics of justice and care, with roots in the moral development work of theorists Kohlberg and Gilligan. OBJECTIVES:To ascertain promotions committee members' conceptualisation of the role of their committee, ethical orientations used in member decision making, and student characteristics most influential in that decision making. METHODS:An electronic survey was distributed to voting members of promotions committees at 143 accredited allopathic medical schools in the USA. Descriptive statistics were calculated and data were analysed by gender, role, institution type and class size. RESULTS:Respondents included 241 voting members of promotions committees at 55 medical schools. Respondents endorsed various promotions committee roles, including acting in the best interest of learners' future patients and graduating highly qualified learners. Implementing policy was assigned lower importance. The overall pattern of responses did not indicate a predominant orientation toward an ethic of justice or care. Respondents indicated that committees have discretion to take individual student characteristics into consideration during deliberations, and that they do so in practice. Among the student characteristics with the greatest influence on decision making, professionalism and academic performance were paramount. Eighty-five per cent of participants indicated that they received no training. CONCLUSIONS:Promotions committee members do not regard orientations of justice and care as being mutually exclusive and endorse an array of statements regarding the committee's purpose that may conflict with one another. The considerable variance in the influence of student characteristics and the general absence of committee member training indicate a need for clear delineation of the medical profession's priorities in terms of justice and care, and of the specific student characteristics that should factor into deliberations.


Med Educ


Medical education


Green EP,Gruppuso PA




Has Abstract


2017-06-01 00:00:00












  • Phenomenological analysis of patient experiences of medical student teaching encounters.

    abstract:CONTEXT:It is important to know how patients are affected by becoming opportunistically involved in medical student education. In previous studies, researchers rather than patients set the research agenda and expert patients or people well known to teachers were more often involved than ordinary people. OBJECTIVES:Thi...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McLachlan E,King N,Wenger E,Dornan T

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Medical students' experiences and needs from written reflective journal feedback.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Reflective ability is an important skill for enhancing professionalism and developing communication skills. To improve reflective ability, medical educators encourage use of written reflective journals, for which feedback is important. It is difficult for educators to anticipate how their feedback will be ...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rozental L,Meitar D,Karnieli-Miller O

    更新日期:2020-11-03 00:00:00

  • Clinical problem solving: the beginning of the process.

    abstract::The diagnostic thinking process is often described as one of hypothesis generation and testing. Yet descriptions of the clinical problem solver's thinking prior to generation of the first diagnostic hypothesis are lacking. This paper reports a study of this phase in students, house officers and registrars. Theories of...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gale J,Marsden P

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00

  • Problem-based learning versus lecture-based learning in a course of basic pharmacology: a controlled, randomized study.

    abstract::Since its first implementation in a medical programme at McMaster University, Canada, problem-based learning (PBL) has become a well-established means of teaching and learning medicine. Extensive research has been conducted and a number of strengths of the method are well supported. Several items, however, remain uncl...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Antepohl W,Herzig S

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

  • Reliability of global rating scales in the assessment of clinical competence of medical students.

    abstract::Undergraduate medical students of the Ben Gurion University were evaluated upon completion of their fourth- and sixth-year medical clerkships by a 17-item rating scale, a multiple choice question (MCQ) test and a patient-oriented oral examination by two academic staff members. Pearson's correlation coefficient between...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keynan A,Friedman M,Benbassat J

    更新日期:1987-11-01 00:00:00

  • Second-year medical students' motivational beliefs, emotions, and achievement.

    abstract:CONTEXT:A challenge for medical educators is to better understand the personal factors that lead to individual success in medical school and beyond. Recently, educational researchers in fields outside medicine have acknowledged the importance of motivation and emotion in students' learning and performance. These affect...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Artino AR,La Rochelle JS,Durning SJ

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Instructional methods and cognitive and learning styles in web-based learning: report of two randomised trials.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Adapting web-based (WB) instruction to learners' individual differences may enhance learning. Objectives This study aimed to investigate aptitude-treatment interactions between learning and cognitive styles and WB instructional methods. METHODS:We carried out a factorial, randomised, controlled, crossover, pos...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Cook DA,Gelula MH,Dupras DM,Schwartz A

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Education and training in medicine.

    abstract::Education and training are terms which are often used loosely, interchangeably, and require definition. Training is often seen as a series of activities which are related to the acquisition of specific skills and may be narrowly based. Education, on the other hand, has an important value base and is broader in concept...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Calman KC,Downie RS

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • Gender in authorship and editorship in medical education journals: A bibliometric review.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Gender bias has been observed in the authorship and editorship of academic literature in varied medical specialties. This is important as peer-reviewed publications, and participation on editorial boards, are closely related to academic productivity and advancement. The aim of this paper was to examine whether ...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Madden C,O'Malley R,O'Connor P,O'Dowd E,Byrne D,Lydon S

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Self-explanation in learning clinical reasoning: the added value of examples and prompts.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Recent studies suggest that self-explanation (SE) while diagnosing cases fosters the development of clinical reasoning in medical students; however, the conditions that optimise the impact of SE remain unknown. The example-based learning framework justifies an exploration of students' use of their own SEs combi...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Chamberland M,Mamede S,St-Onge C,Setrakian J,Bergeron L,Schmidt H

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Population-based longitudinal analyses of offer likelihood in UK medical schools: 1996-2012.

    abstract:CONTEXT:The challenge of ensuring 'fair' selection processes confronts all medical schools around the globe. In the UK, historical analyses suggest applicants who are male, non-White, and from less advantaged socio-economic and school backgrounds have been less likely to be offered a place at medical school. We provide...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mathers J,Sitch A,Parry J

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Interdisciplinary team interactions: a qualitative study of perceptions of team function in simulated anaesthesia crises.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We placed anaesthesia teams into a stressful environment in order to explore interactions between members of different professional groups and to investigate their perspectives on the impact of these interactions on team performance. METHODS:Ten anaesthetists, 5 nurses and 5 trained anaesthetic assistants e...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weller JM,Janssen AL,Merry AF,Robinson B

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Medical education: the discontinuers' view point.

    abstract::A postal questionnaire was distributed to all students who had discontinued, for any reason, their studies at Aberdeen Medical School. Opinions were sought about their experiences while there, as well as their reactions to the discontinuation therefrom. Claiming that learning to cope with stress was an essential aspe...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alexander DA,Haldane JD

    更新日期:1980-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of reflection on medical students' situational interest: an experimental study.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Reflection has been considered crucial to learning. Engaging in reflection while solving problems is expected to foster identification of knowledge gaps and interest in learning more about them, the latter being a major motivational force in learning. Although theoretically sound, this assumption still lacks em...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ribeiro LMC,Mamede S,Moura AS,de Brito EM,de Faria RMD,Schmidt HG

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Publication pattern of medical theses, France, 1993-98.

    abstract:CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:In many countries, medical training must be completed by presentation of a thesis. We report publication patterns of French medical theses. MATERIALS:We drew a random sample of theses presented in the 36 French medical universities between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 1997. The sample was strat...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salmi LR,Gana S,Mouillet E

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Professional identity in clinician-scientists: brokers between care and science.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Despite increasing numbers of publications, science often fails to significantly improve patient care. Clinician-scientists, professionals who combine care and research activities, play an important role in helping to solve this problem. However, despite the ascribed advantages of connecting scientific knowledg...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kluijtmans M,de Haan E,Akkerman S,van Tartwijk J

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Improving medical student performance in adolescent anti-smoking health promotion.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We developed a 1-hour teaching seminar for medical students on anti-smoking health promotion for adolescents. We report the development of the programme and a performance-based evaluation. AIM:To develop a seminar for medical students with the objective of improving medical student inquiry into smoking and ...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roseby R,Marks MK,Conn J,Sawyer SM

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Application of continuous quality improvement to medical education.

    abstract:CONTEXT:The explicit, intentional and systematic application of continuous quality improvement (QI) in medical education practice and research can improve medical education and help it achieve its goals. Quality improvement and medical education share a foundation centred on learning-experiencing, reflecting, thinking ...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wong BM,Headrick LA

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • A test of medical problem-solving scored by nurses and doctors: the handicap of expertise.

    abstract::There is evidence that nurses fulfil the requirements of objective judgement better than doctors. Simulation of Initial Medical Problem-Solving (SIMP), a paper-and-pencil test for the assessment of medical problem-solving, consists of case histories, followed by an open-ended question. The scoring of open-ended questi...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Graaff E

    更新日期:1989-07-01 00:00:00

  • Faculty development: if you build it, they will come.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The goals of this study were three-fold: to explore the reasons why some clinical teachers regularly attend centralised faculty development activities; to compare their responses with those of colleagues who do not attend, and to learn how we can make faculty development programmes more pertinent to teachers...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Steinert Y,Macdonald ME,Boillat M,Elizov M,Meterissian S,Razack S,Ouellet MN,McLeod PJ

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Short answer questions in an undergraduate qualifying examination: a study of examiner variability.

    abstract::Scripts of a short answer Final MB examination paper were re-marked by the original examiner and three colleagues. While individual question marks varied considerably, most examiners agreed quite well as to the overall rank order of candidates--although not about absolute total marks--but a few disagreed considerably....

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wakeford RE,Roberts S

    更新日期:1984-05-01 00:00:00

  • Can general internal medicine be taught in general practice? An evaluation of the University College London model.

    abstract::There is national and international interest in increasing the community-based component of undergraduate medical education, but more research is needed on its potential, practicability and effectiveness. The objective of the study was to examine the feasibility and efficacy of general practitioners teaching basic cli...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murray E,Todd C,Modell M

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Language background, proficiency in English, and selection for language development.

    abstract::With a diverse language background profile in an Australian medical student population, teaching interventions are necessary for students whose English language proficiency is not adequate for the study of medicine. This paper describes the screening of written and aural English language proficiency in 143 first year ...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chur-Hansen A

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Feedback from health professionals in postgraduate medical education: Influence of interprofessional relationship, identity and power.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Capitalising on direct workplace observations of residents by interprofessional team members might be an effective strategy to promote formative feedback in postgraduate medical education. To better understand how interprofessional feedback is conceived, delivered, received and used, we explored both feedb...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miles A,Ginsburg S,Sibbald M,Tavares W,Watling C,Stroud L

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • The use of the nominal group technique as an evaluative tool in medical undergraduate education.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:In the present state of flux affecting UK medical undergraduate education, there is a pressing need for evaluative methods which will identify relevant outcomes both expected and unanticipated. The student perspective is now legitimately accepted to form part of any evaluative exercise but qualitative method...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lloyd-Jones G,Fowell S,Bligh JG

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • The art and science of clinical teaching.

    abstract::A review of the literature on clinical teaching indicates that medical schools emphasize didactic teaching of facts. Interpersonal skills, problem solving skills and cultivation of attitudes are neglected. However, the literature also described the skills of 'good' clinical teachers, and enumerates them. Programmes at...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yonke AM

    更新日期:1979-03-01 00:00:00

  • Who are the providers of postgraduate medical education?

    abstract::The view, background and motivation of providers of medical education was studied using a structured questionnaire which was sent to all those who organized courses for the Postgraduate Education Allowance in the West of Scotland. Two hundred and twenty-five replies were received from 254 course providers, giving an 8...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kelly MH,Murray TS

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Understanding paediatric resident-continuity preceptor relationships through the lens of apprenticeship learning.

    abstract:CONTEXT:Apprenticeship learning is common in medical education, but is often situated in theoretical frameworks which highlight its cognitive but not its social dimension. METHODS:We conducted an ethnographic case study of paediatric residents' learning relationships with their preceptors in a community-based paediatr...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Balmer DF,Serwint JR,Ruzek SB,Giardino AP

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Medical education in the later 19th century: the science take-over.

    abstract::Established in 1858, the General Medical Council was responsible, inter alia, for improving the standard of medical education in Britain. It was agreed on all hands that there were serious deficiencies: there was far too much book-learning and not enough practical knowledge; students graduated who were wholly ignorant...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Youngson AJ

    更新日期:1989-11-01 00:00:00

  • Married women doctors' training and re-employment schemes in the West Midlands Region, with particular reference to psychiatry.

    abstract::The response of one region to the Department of Health and Social Security recommendations on re-employment of women doctors contained in H.M. 69(6) is described. In many specialities there has been an encouraging return of married women doctors to medical practice within the hospital service. In the field of psychiat...

    journal_title:Medical education

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bluglass K,Dunn TL,Gaston FW

    更新日期:1976-07-01 00:00:00