Physical Training, Fitness, and Injuries: Lessons Learned From Military Studies.

Abstract:

:Injuries are the leading cause of medical encounters across the U.S. military services resulting in more than 2.0 million clinic visits per year. Almost 50% of military service members experience an injury each year and half of those injuries are caused by physical training (PT), exercise, or sports. To prevent a problem as large and complex as injuries in the military requires a systematic approach. Several key questions must be answered to effectively address a problem such as injuries: (1) how big is the problem? (2) what are the causes and risk factors for the problem? (3) do modifiable risk factors for the problem exist? and (4) what works to prevent the problem? The article discusses leading causes of injuries for U.S. Army populations. It then explores key risk factors for exercise and training-related injuries: (1) the amounts of training, (2) types of training activities, (3) participants level of fitness, and (4) personal health risk behaviors. The article concludes with a review of prevention strategies illustrating interventions that have been shown to be effective, and others that are not effective. The data presented suggest that PT and exercise cause injuries and that modifications of training are most likely to prevent the problem.

journal_name

J Strength Cond Res

authors

Jones BH,Hauschild VD

doi

10.1519/JSC.0000000000001115

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2015-11-01 00:00:00

pages

S57-64

eissn

1064-8011

issn

1533-4287

pii

00124278-201511001-00010

journal_volume

29 Suppl 11

pub_type

杂志文章,评审
  • Lumbopelvic control and pitching performance of professional baseball pitchers.

    abstract::This study assessed the correlation between lumbopelvic control during a single-leg balancing task and in-game pitching performance in Minor-League baseball pitchers. Seventy-five healthy professional baseball pitchers performed a standing lumbopelvic control test during the last week of spring training for the 2008 a...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31820f5075

    authors: Chaudhari AM,McKenzie CS,Borchers JR,Best TM

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of number of sets on blood pressure and heart rate variability after a strength training session.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of 1, 3, and 5 sets of strength training (ST), on heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure. Eleven male volunteers (age: 26.1 ± 3.6 years; body mass: 74.1 ± 8.1 kg; height: 172 ± 4 cm) with at least 6 months previous experience in ST participated in the...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000774

    authors: Figueiredo T,Rhea MR,Peterson M,Miranda H,Bentes CM,dos Reis VM,Simão R

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of rest interval length on acute bench press performance: the influence of gender and muscle strength.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rest interval (RI) length on bench press performance in subjects with disparity in maximum strength. Two cohorts of subjects performed 3 bench press protocols in random order consisting of 3 sets of up to 10 repetitions with 75% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) ...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825bb492

    authors: Ratamess NA,Chiarello CM,Sacco AJ,Hoffman JR,Faigenbaum AD,Ross RE,Kang J

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Differences in Physical Fitness and Occupational Task Performance Between Trainees and Active Duty Soldiers.

    abstract::Canino, MC, Foulis, SA, Zambraski, EJ, Cohen, BS, Redmond, JE, Hauret, KG, Frykman, PN, and Sharp, MA. U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Differences in physical fitness and occupational task performance between trainees and active duty soldiers. J Strength Cond Res 33(7): 1864-1870, 2019-U.S. Army initial entry traini...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002681

    authors: Canino MC,Foulis SA,Zambraski EJ,Cohen BS,Redmond JE,Hauret KG,Frykman PN,Sharp MA

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Attack and serve performances according to the match period and quality of opposition in elite volleyball matches.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to examine attack and serve performances in the beginning and end of the initial and final sets of volleyball matches according to the quality of opposition. Six hundred rallies from the Men's World Cup 2007 were selectively sampled from a total of 5,117 rallies observed using video match...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182474269

    authors: Marcelino RO,Sampaio JE,Mesquita IM

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Running Performance, Nationality, Sex, and Age in the 10-km, Half-Marathon, Marathon, and the 100-km Ultramarathon IAAF 1999-2015.

    abstract::Nikolaidis PT, Onywera VO, and Knechtle B. Running performance, nationality, sex, and age in the 10-km, half-marathon, marathon, and the 100-km ultramarathon IAAF 1999-2015. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2189-2207, 2017-The aim of this study was to examine the performance of the world's best runners in the 10-km, half-ma...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001687

    authors: Nikolaidis PT,Onywera VO,Knechtle B

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • University Football Players, Postural Stability, and Concussions.

    abstract::Concussion in football athletes is certainly more prevalent and has potentially serious outcomes. With current concerns and increasing return-to-play issues, additional assessment focus is needed. Division 1 college football athletes, from 18 to 20.9 years (n = 177; age, 19.7 ± 1.2 years; height, 182.3 ± 4.5 cm; weigh...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001124

    authors: Graves BS

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Kinematics of the trunk and the lower extremities during restricted and unrestricted squats.

    abstract::Squatting is a common strength training exercise used for rehabilitation, fitness training, and in preparation for competition. Knowledge about the loading and the motion of the back during the squat exercise is crucial to avoid overuse or injury. The aim of this study was the measurement and comparison of the kinemat...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182736034

    authors: List R,Gülay T,Stoop M,Lorenzetti S

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Roles of an Upper-Body Compression Garment on Athletic Performances.

    abstract::Compression garments (CGs) have been previously shown to enhance proprioception; however, this benefit has not been previously shown to transfer to improved performance in sports skills. The purpose of this study was to assess whether enhanced proprioception and comfort can be manifested in improved sports performance...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000909

    authors: Hooper DR,Dulkis LL,Secola PJ,Holtzum G,Harper SP,Kalkowski RJ,Comstock BA,Szivak TK,Flanagan SD,Looney DP,DuPont WH,Maresh CM,Volek JS,Culley KP,Kraemer WJ

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • The contribution of step characteristics to sprint running performance in high-level male and female athletes.

    abstract::We investigated the interaction between step length and step rate and its effect on sprint performance in male and female sprinters during initial acceleration (IA) (0-10 m), transition phase (TP) (10-30 m), and at maximal speed (MS). Ten high-level male and female sprinters ran 2 all-out 60-m sprints. Force-time char...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825183ef

    authors: Debaere S,Jonkers I,Delecluse C

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pre- and post-game body mass changes during an international rugby tournament: a practical perspective.

    abstract::Pre- and post-game body mass changes were recorded throughout an international rugby union tournament to determine changes in body mass when training and competing on consecutive days. A squad of 28 players with a mean (+/-SD) age of 20.0 yrs (+/-0.6), height of 1.85 m (+/-0.1) and body mass of 94.71 kg (+/-10.71) wer...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/15434.1

    authors: Meir RA,Halliday AJ

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • The Effects of a Periodized vs. Traditional Military Training Program on 2-Mile Run Performance During the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT).

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an experimental versus traditional military run training on 2-mile run ability in Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets. Fifty college-aged cadets were randomly placed into two groups and trained for four weeks with either an experimental running prog...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002176

    authors: Stone BL,Heishman AD,Campbell JA

    更新日期:2017-07-31 00:00:00

  • Structure of Physical Fitness Among Young Female Basketball Players (Trends of Changes in 2006-2013).

    abstract::The aim of this study was to identify trends of changes in the structure and levels of motor effects among young women basketball players in 2006-2013. These changes were examined in the context of comprehensive development of functional, fitness-related, and technical fundamentals with respect to requirements of spec...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000943

    authors: Karpowicz K,Karpowicz M,Strzelczyk R

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of Load-Velocity Relationships and Repetitions-to-Failure Equations in the Presence of Male and Female Spotters.

    abstract::Nickerson, BS, Williams, TD, Snarr, RL, Garza, JM, and Salinas, G. Evaluation of load-velocity relationships and repetitions-to-failure equations in the presence of male and female spotters. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2427-2433, 2020-The purpose of this study was 2 fold: (a) to determine whether differences in mean co...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000003731

    authors: Nickerson BS,Williams TD,Snarr RL,Garza JM,Salinas G

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Game Demands of Seven-A-Side Soccer in Young Players.

    abstract::Barbero-Alvarez, JC, Gómez-López, M, Castagna, C, Barbero-Alvarez, V, Romero, DV, Blanchfield, AW, and Nakamura, FY. Game demands of seven-a-side soccer in young players. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1771-1779, 2017-The aim of this study was to examine the activity patterns and physiological demands of 7-a-side youth so...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001143

    authors: Barbero-Alvarez JC,Gómez-López M,Castagna C,Barbero-Alvarez V,Romero DV,Blanchfield AW,Nakamura FY

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • The Relationship Between Dynamic Stability and Multidirectional Speed.

    abstract::Lockie, RG, Schultz, AB, Callaghan, SJ, and Jeffriess, MD. The relationship between dynamic stability and multidirectional speed. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3033-3043, 2016-Dynamic stability is said to contribute to multidirectional (linear and change-of-direction) speed, although little research confirms this. This ...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182a744b6

    authors: Lockie RG,Schultz AB,Callaghan SJ,Jeffriess MD

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • A protocol of intermittent exercise (shuttle runs) to train young basketball players.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to set up a protocol of intermittent exercise to train young basketball players. Twenty-one players were asked to complete (a) an incremental test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the speed at the ventilatory threshold (vthr) and the energy cost of "linear" running (Cr) and (b...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181da85d1

    authors: Zadro I,Sepulcri L,Lazzer S,Fregolent R,Zamparo P

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • A biomechanical analysis of the squat between competitive collegiate, competitive high school, and novice powerlifters.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to measure and analyze kinematic differences between competitive collegiate (CLG, n = 9) powerlifters, competitive high school (HS, n = 9) powerlifters, and novice (NV, n = 11) powerlifters during a maximal squat to determine the effect of skill level on performance. All powerlifters perf...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a3c6ef

    authors: Miletello WM,Beam JR,Cooper ZC

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of circuit training on the sprint-agility and anaerobic endurance.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of circuit training directed toward motion and action velocity over the sprint-agility and anaerobic endurance. A total of 32 healthy male physical education students with a mean age of 23.92 +/- 1.51 years were randomly allocated into a circuit training group (CTG...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b3dfc0

    authors: Taşkin H

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Physical Fitness Predictors of a Warrior Task Simulation Test.

    abstract::Huang, H-C, Nagai, T, Lovalekar, M, Connaboy, C, and Nindl, BC. Physical fitness predictors of a warrior task simulation test. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2562-2568, 2018-The warrior task simulation test (WTST) has been developed in an attempt to better assess physical fitness required for soldiers to perform battlefie...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002607

    authors: Huang HC,Nagai T,Lovalekar M,Connaboy C,Nindl BC

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Spatial consistency of circle on the pedagogic pommel horse: influence of expertise.

    abstract::Gymnastics is a closed-skill sport, and the repeatability of a specific technique is accepted as a valuable indicator of a performer's level of expertise. The circle movement, defined as a gyrating movement in the horizontal plane, is a key component of all contemporary pommel horse exercises. The aims of this study w...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816346f3

    authors: Baudry L,Seifert L,Leroy D

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Blood Flow Restricted Exercise and Discomfort: A Review.

    abstract::Spitz, RW, Wong, V, Bell, ZW, Viana, RB, Chatakondi, RN, Abe, T, and Loenneke, JP. Blood flow restricted exercise and discomfort: A Review. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Blood flow restriction exercise involves using a pneumatic cuff or elastic band to restrict arterial inflow into the muscle and block veno...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000003525

    authors: Spitz RW,Wong V,Bell ZW,Viana RB,Chatakondi RN,Abe T,Loenneke JP

    更新日期:2020-02-13 00:00:00

  • Between-session reliability of four hop tests and the agility T-test.

    abstract::The purposes of this study were firstly to investigate whether learning affects were present in the administration of 4 hop tests and the Agility T-test and secondly to assess the between-session reliability of these tests. Twenty-two recreational athletes (11 women: age 22.3 ± 3.7 years, height 167.7 ± 6.2 cm, weight...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d83335

    authors: Munro AG,Herrington LC

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Strongmen sport is associated with larger absolute heart size and impaired cardiac relaxation.

    abstract::This study was carried out to compare cardiac structure and function and blood lipids among Strongmen, sedentary controls, and marathoners. Echocardiography was performed, and endothelial function, blood lipids and maximal oxygen uptake were measured in 27 Caucasian adult men (8 Strongmen, 10 marathoners, 9 controls)....

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31820f50ef

    authors: Venckunas T,Vasiliauskas D,Marcinkeviciene JE,Grizas V,Stasiulis A,Malkova D

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Strength and Conditioning Practices in Adolescent Rugby Players: Relationship With Changes in Physical Qualities.

    abstract::Weakley, JJS, Till, K, Darrall-Jones, J, Roe, GAB, Phibbs, PJ, Read, DB, and Jones, BL. Strength and conditioning practices in adolescent rugby players: relationship with changes in physical qualities. J Strength Cond Res 33(9): 2361-2369, 2019-Adolescent rugby players benefit from the implementation of resistance tra...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001828

    authors: Weakley JJS,Till K,Darrall-Jones J,Roe GAB,Phibbs PJ,Read DB,Jones BL

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Skinfold thickness is related to cardiovascular autonomic control as assessed by heart rate variability and heart rate recovery.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to determine if heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) are related to maximal aerobic fitness and selected body composition measurements. Fifty men (age = 21.9 ± 3.0 years, height = 180.8 ± 7.2 cm, weight = 80.4 ± 9.1 kg, volunteered to participate in this study. For e...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181f90174

    authors: Esco MR,Williford HN,Olson MS

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pole Dancing for Fitness: The Physiological and Metabolic Demand of a 60-Minute Class.

    abstract::Nicholas, JC, McDonald, KA, Peeling, P, Jackson, B, Dimmock, JA, Alderson, JA, and Donnelly, CJ. Pole dancing for fitness: The physiological and metabolic demand of a 60-minute class. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2704-2710, 2019-Little is understood about the acute physiological or metabolic demand of pole dancing clas...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002889

    authors: Nicholas JC,McDonald KA,Peeling P,Jackson B,Dimmock JA,Alderson JA,Donnelly CJ

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 and Its Relationship With Other Typical Soccer Field Tests in Female Collegiate Soccer Players.

    abstract::The ability to complete high-intensity running is essential for soccer. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YYIRT2) can measure this capacity, but there is limited information regarding this assessment in collegiate female soccer players. This study investigated the YYIRT2 as a measure of high-intensity runn...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001734

    authors: Lockie RG,Jalilvand F,Moreno MR,Orjalo AJ,Risso FG,Nimphius S

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Stature, Body Mass, and Body Mass Index in High School American Football Players: Appropriate Determinants of Obesity Prevalence?

    abstract::Mendez, AI, Miramonti, AA, Gillen, ZM, McKay, BD, Leutzinger, TJ, and Cramer, JT. Stature, body mass, and BMI in high school american football players: Appropriate determinants of obesity prevalence? J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3119-3126, 2018-The purpose of this study was to evaluate stature (HT), mass (BM), body mas...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002347

    authors: Mendez AI,Miramonti AA,Gillen ZM,McKay BD,Leutzinger TJ,Cramer JT

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of acute resistance training of different intensities and rest periods on anxiety and affect.

    abstract::The affective benefits associated with aerobic exercise are well documented. However, literature concerning resistance exercise has suggested a more variable response (i.e., a short duration increase in state anxiety, which eventually is reduced below baseline) and thus may play an important role in the adoption and m...

    journal_title:Journal of strength and conditioning research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181ae794b

    authors: Bibeau WS,Moore JB,Mitchell NG,Vargas-Tonsing T,Bartholomew JB

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00