Reorganizing the protein space at the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt).


:The mission of UniProt is to support biological research by providing a freely accessible, stable, comprehensive, fully classified, richly and accurately annotated protein sequence knowledgebase, with extensive cross-references and querying interfaces. UniProt is comprised of four major components, each optimized for different uses: the UniProt Archive, the UniProt Knowledgebase, the UniProt Reference Clusters and the UniProt Metagenomic and Environmental Sequence Database. A key development at UniProt is the provision of complete, reference and representative proteomes. UniProt is updated and distributed every 4 weeks and can be accessed online for searches or download at


Nucleic Acids Res


Nucleic acids research


UniProt Consortium.




Has Abstract


2012-01-01 00:00:00




Database issue










  • Structure and organization of the highly repeated and interspersed 1.3 kb EcoRI-Bg1II sequence family in mice.

    abstract::EcoRI digestion of total mouse DNA yields a prominant 1.3 kb fragment amounting to between 1 and 2% of the mouse genome. The majority of the 1.3 kb EcoRI fragments have a single Bg1II site 800 bp from one end. This EcoRI-Bg1II sequence family shows HindIII and HaeIII sequence heterogeneity. We have cloned representati...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heller R,Arnheim N

    更新日期:1980-11-11 00:00:00

  • Domain I of 23S rRNA competes with a paused transcription complex for ribosomal protein L4 of Escherichia coli.

    abstract::Ribosomal protein L4 of Escherichia coli regulates expression of its own eleven gene S10 operon both by inhibiting translation and by stimulating premature termination of transcription. Both regulatory processes presumably involve L4 recognition of the S10 leader RNA. To help define L4's regulatory target, we have inv...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zengel JM,Lindahl L

    更新日期:1993-05-25 00:00:00

  • In vitro optimization of 2'-OMe-4'-thioribonucleoside-modified anti-microRNA oligonucleotides and its targeting delivery to mouse liver using a liposomal nanoparticle.

    abstract::MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Previous studies, which characterized miRNA function, revealed their involvement in fundamental biological processes. Importantly, miRNA expression is deregulated in many human diseases. Specific inhibition of miRNAs usin...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takahashi M,Yamada N,Hatakeyama H,Murata M,Sato Y,Minakawa N,Harashima H,Matsuda A

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • An efficient string matching algorithm with k differences for nucleotide and amino acid sequences.

    abstract::There are a few algorithms designed to solve the problem of the optimal alignment of one sequence, the pattern, of length m, with another, longer sequence the text, of length n. These algorithms allow mismatches, deletions and insertions. Algorithms to date run in O(mn) time. Let us define an integer, k, which is the ...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Landau GM,Vishkin U,Nussinov R

    更新日期:1986-01-10 00:00:00

  • REDIdb: the RNA editing database.

    abstract::The RNA Editing Database (REDIdb) is an interactive, web-based database created and designed with the aim to allocate RNA editing events such as substitutions, insertions and deletions occurring in a wide range of organisms. The database contains both fully and partially sequenced DNA molecules for which editing infor...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Picardi E,Regina TM,Brennicke A,Quagliariello C

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Automated Gene Ontology annotation for anonymous sequence data.

    abstract::Gene Ontology (GO) is the most widely accepted attempt to construct a unified and structured vocabulary for the description of genes and their products in any organism. Annotation by GO terms is performed in most of the current genome projects, which besides generality has the advantage of being very convenient for co...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hennig S,Groth D,Lehrach H

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • An efficient system for selectively altering genetic information within mRNAs.

    abstract::Site-directed RNA editing (SDRE) is a strategy to precisely alter genetic information within mRNAs. By linking the catalytic domain of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR to an antisense guide RNA, specific adenosines can be converted to inosines, biological mimics for guanosine. Previously, we showed that a genetically encod...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montiel-González MF,Vallecillo-Viejo IC,Rosenthal JJ

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Inducible alkyltransferase DNA repair proteins in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans.

    abstract::We have investigated the response of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans to low, non-killing, doses of the alkylating agent MNNG (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine). Such treatment causes a substantial induction of DNA alkyltransferase activity, with the specific activity in treated cells increasing up to o...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baker SM,Margison GP,Strike P

    更新日期:1992-02-25 00:00:00

  • Hemicatenanes form upon inhibition of DNA replication.

    abstract::Plasmid DNA incubated in interphase Xenopus egg extracts is normally assembled into chromatin and then into synthetic nuclei which undergo one round of regulated replication. During a study of restriction endonuclease cut plasmid replication intermediates (RIs) by the Brewer-Fangman 2D gel electrophoresis technique, w...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lucas I,Hyrien O

    更新日期:2000-05-15 00:00:00

  • Structural mechanisms of the degenerate sequence recognition by Bse634I restriction endonuclease.

    abstract::Restriction endonuclease Bse634I recognizes and cleaves the degenerate DNA sequence 5'-R/CCGGY-3' (R stands for A or G; Y for T or C, '/' indicates a cleavage position). Here, we report the crystal structures of the Bse634I R226A mutant complexed with cognate oligoduplexes containing ACCGGT and GCCGGC sites, respectiv...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Manakova E,Grazulis S,Zaremba M,Tamulaitiene G,Golovenko D,Siksnys V

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Structure of recombinant rat UBF by electron image analysis and homology modelling.

    abstract::We have studied the structure of recombinant rat UBF (rrUBF), an RNA polymerase I transcription factor, by electron microscopy and image analysis of single particles contrasted with methylamine tungstate. Recombinant rat UBF appeared to be a flat, U-shaped protein with a central region of low density. In the dominant ...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neil KJ,Ridsdale RA,Rutherford B,Taylor L,Larson DE,Glibetic M,Rothblum LI,Harauz G

    更新日期:1996-04-15 00:00:00

  • Molecular modelling of the 3-D structure of RNA tetraloops with different nucleotide sequences.

    abstract::One surprisingly common element of RNA secondary structure consists of a hairpin capped by a four-base loop (or the tetraloop). Recently the 3-D structures of two RNA-tetraloops have been determined by NMR-studies. Both structures have a similar architecture: the first and the last bases of the loop form a hydrogen bo...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kajava A,Rüterjans H

    更新日期:1993-09-25 00:00:00

  • Synthesis and properties of DNA-PNA chimeric oligomers.

    abstract::Adenine, thymine and cytosine PNA monomers have been prepared using 3-amino-1,2-propanediol as a starting material. The benzoyl group was used to protect the exocyclic amines of the heterocyclic bases of A and C PNA monomers and the backbone primary amine was protected with the monomethoxytrityl group. The thymine and...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Finn PJ,Gibson NJ,Fallon R,Hamilton A,Brown T

    更新日期:1996-09-01 00:00:00

  • UTRdb and UTRsite: specialized databases of sequences and functional elements of 5' and 3' untranslated regions of eukaryotic mRNAs. Update 2002.

    abstract::The 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (5'- and 3'-UTRs) of eukaryotic mRNAs are known to play a crucial role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression modulating nucleo-cytoplasmic mRNA transport, translation efficiency, subcellular localization and stability. UTRdb is a specialized database of 5' and 3' unt...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pesole G,Liuni S,Grillo G,Licciulli F,Mignone F,Gissi C,Saccone C

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • VIDA: a virus database system for the organization of animal virus genome open reading frames.

    abstract::VIDA is a new virus database that organizes open reading frames (ORFs) from partial and complete genomic sequences from animal viruses. Currently VIDA includes all sequences from GenBank for Herpesviridae, Coronaviridae and Arteriviridae. The ORFs are organized into homologous protein families, which are identified on...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Albà MM,Lee D,Pearl FM,Shepherd AJ,Martin N,Orengo CA,Kellam P

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Epigenetic features of human telomeres.

    abstract::Although subtelomeric regions in humans are heterochromatic, the epigenetic nature of human telomeres remains controversial. This controversy might have been influenced by the confounding effect of subtelomeric regions and interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs) on telomeric chromatin structure analyses. In addition, ...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cubiles MD,Barroso S,Vaquero-Sedas MI,Enguix A,Aguilera A,Vega-Palas MA

    更新日期:2018-03-16 00:00:00

  • The International Gene Trap Consortium Website: a portal to all publicly available gene trap cell lines in mouse.

    abstract::Gene trapping is a method of generating murine embryonic stem (ES) cell lines containing insertional mutations in known and novel genes. A number of international groups have used this approach to create sizeable public cell line repositories available to the scientific community for the generation of mutant mouse str...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nord AS,Chang PJ,Conklin BR,Cox AV,Harper CA,Hicks GG,Huang CC,Johns SJ,Kawamoto M,Liu S,Meng EC,Morris JH,Rossant J,Ruiz P,Skarnes WC,Soriano P,Stanford WL,Stryke D,von Melchner H,Wurst W,Yamamura K,Young SG,

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Structural basis for S-adenosylmethionine binding and methyltransferase activity by mitochondrial transcription factor B1.

    abstract::Eukaryotic transcription factor B (TFB) proteins are homologous to KsgA/Dim1 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) methyltransferases. The mammalian TFB1, mitochondrial (TFB1M) factor is an essential protein necessary for mitochondrial gene expression. TFB1M mediates an rRNA modification in the small ribosomal subunit and thus plays a...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guja KE,Venkataraman K,Yakubovskaya E,Shi H,Mejia E,Hambardjieva E,Karzai AW,Garcia-Diaz M

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • CTdatabase: a knowledge-base of high-throughput and curated data on cancer-testis antigens.

    abstract::The potency of the immune response has still to be harnessed effectively to combat human cancers. However, the discovery of T-cell targets in melanomas and other tumors has raised the possibility that cancer vaccines can be used to induce a therapeutically effective immune response against cancer. The targets, cancer-...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Almeida LG,Sakabe NJ,deOliveira AR,Silva MC,Mundstein AS,Cohen T,Chen YT,Chua R,Gurung S,Gnjatic S,Jungbluth AA,Caballero OL,Bairoch A,Kiesler E,White SL,Simpson AJ,Old LJ,Camargo AA,Vasconcelos AT

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • The ovalbumin gene family: complete sequence and structure of the Y gene.

    abstract::The "ovalbumin Y" gene, one of three which constitute the ovalbumin gene family in chicken has been completely sequenced. The exact location of exons can be derived from the comparison with the ovalbumin gene sequence and from the map previously established by electron microscopy analysis. During evolution of the Y ge...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heilig R,Muraskowsky R,Kloepfer C,Mandel JL

    更新日期:1982-07-24 00:00:00

  • The binding of poly(rA) and poly(rU) to denatured DNA. I. Model studies with homopolymers.

    abstract::We have compared the properties of the poly(rA).oligo(dT) complex with those of the poly(rU).oligo(dA)n complex. Three main differences were found. First, poly(rA) and oligo(dT)n do not form a complex in concentrations of CsCl exceeding 2 M because the poly(rA) is insoluble in high salt. If the complex is made in low ...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mol JN,Borst P

    更新日期:1976-04-01 00:00:00

  • G-quadruplex formation at the 3' end of telomere DNA inhibits its extension by telomerase, polymerase and unwinding by helicase.

    abstract::Telomere G-quadruplex is emerging as a promising anti-cancer target due to its inhibition to telomerase, an enzyme expressed in more than 85% tumors. Telomerase-mediated telomere extension and some other reactions require a free 3' telomere end in single-stranded form. G-quadruplex formation near the 3' end of telomer...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang Q,Liu JQ,Chen Z,Zheng KW,Chen CY,Hao YH,Tan Z

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Sequence dependent phase separation of protein-polynucleotide mixtures elucidated using molecular simulations.

    abstract::Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are membraneless organelles (MLOs), which majorly consist of RNA and RNA-binding proteins and are formed via liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). Experimental studies investigating the drivers of LLPS have shown that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and nucleic acids like RNA...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Regy RM,Dignon GL,Zheng W,Kim YC,Mittal J

    更新日期:2020-12-16 00:00:00

  • Global regulation of alternative splicing during myogenic differentiation.

    abstract::Recent genome-wide analyses have elucidated the extent of alternative splicing (AS) in mammals, often focusing on comparisons of splice isoforms between differentiated tissues. However, regulated splicing changes are likely to be important in biological transitions such as cellular differentiation, or response to envi...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bland CS,Wang ET,Vu A,David MP,Castle JC,Johnson JM,Burge CB,Cooper TA

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • DNA methylation pattern and restriction endonuclease accessibility in chromatin of a germ-line specific gene, the rainbow trout protamine gene.

    abstract::The chromatin structure of a germ-line specific gene, the TPG-3 gene, one of the rainbow trout protamine genes was analyzed in various tissues. The protamine genes are expressed in early stage testis but not in late stage testis, liver or erythrocyte. Five potential CpG methylation sites in the coding and flanking reg...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Delcuve GP,Davie JR

    更新日期:1987-04-24 00:00:00

  • Determination of affinity, stoichiometry and sequence selectivity of minor groove binder complexes with double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    abstract::Electrospray mass spectrometry was evaluated regarding the reliability of the determination of the stoichiometries and equilibrium association constants from single spectra. Complexes between minor groove binders (Hoechst 33258, Hoechst 33342, DAPI, netropsin and berenil) and 12mer oligonucleotide duplexes with a cent...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rosu F,Gabelica V,Houssier C,De Pauw E

    更新日期:2002-08-15 00:00:00

  • The dual role of HOP2 in mammalian meiotic homologous recombination.

    abstract::Deletion of Hop2 in mice eliminates homologous chromosome synapsis and disrupts double-strand break (DSB) repair through homologous recombination. HOP2 in vitro shows two distinctive activities: when it is incorporated into a HOP2-MND1 complex it stimulates DMC1 and RAD51 recombination activities and the purified HOP2...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pezza RJ,Voloshin ON,Volodin AA,Boateng KA,Bellani MA,Mazin AV,Camerini-Otero RD

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • The p53 mRNA: an integral part of the cellular stress response.

    abstract::A large number of signalling pathways converge on p53 to induce different cellular stress responses that aim to promote cell cycle arrest and repair or, if the damage is too severe, to induce irreversible senescence or apoptosis. The differentiation of p53 activity towards specific cellular outcomes is tightly regulat...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Haronikova L,Olivares-Illana V,Wang L,Karakostis K,Chen S,Fåhraeus R

    更新日期:2019-04-23 00:00:00

  • Cloning of multiple copies of immunoglobulin variable kappa genes in cosmid vectors.

    abstract::The possibility of cloning large segments of DNA in cosmid vectors offers distinct advantages, in particular for the study of multigene families. Large size fragments of mouse embryo DNA were successfully cloned in the cosmid pHC 79. Twelve recombinants hybridizing specifically to an immunoglobulin kappa chain variabl...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cattaneo R,Gorski J,Mach B

    更新日期:1981-06-25 00:00:00

  • Fast and global detection of periodic sequence repeats in large genomic resources.

    abstract::Periodically repeating DNA and protein elements are involved in various important biological events including genomic evolution, gene regulation, protein complex formation, and immunity. Notably, the currently used genome editing tools such as ZFNs, TALENs, and CRISPRs are also all associated with periodically repeati...

    journal_title:Nucleic acids research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mori H,Evans-Yamamoto D,Ishiguro S,Tomita M,Yachie N

    更新日期:2019-01-25 00:00:00