Correlates of non-medical prescription drug use among a cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore City.


:Despite reports of increasing non-medical prescription drug use, relatively few studies have systematically evaluated the prevalence and correlates of non-medical prescription drug use, particularly in populations that might be especially vulnerable (e.g., injection drug users [IDUs]). We examined factors associated with non-medical prescription drug use among a community-based cohort of current and former IDUs in Baltimore (The ALIVE Study). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from cohort participants that responded to a survey that included questions on non-medical prescription drug use between 2005-06 (n=1320). Non-medical prescription drug use was considered to be use of any of the following: Opiates (Oxycontin, Percocet), Benzodiazepines or Clonidine, purchased on the street and taken orally within the last six months. Data on other covariates of interest (e.g., demographics, substance use, general health) was obtained through a standardized interview. The median age was 46 years; 66% were male, 85% were African-American. Twenty one percent reported any non-medical prescription drug use; 12% reported using more than one drug. Non-medical use of opiates was most common (17%). In multivariate analysis, non-medical prescription drug use was significantly associated with Caucasian race (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.79), self-reported bodily pain (PR: 1.58), hazardous alcohol use (PR: 1.47), marijuana use (PR: 1.65), non-injection cocaine/heroin use (PR: 1.70), diverted use of buprenorphine (PR: 1.51) or methadone (PR: 2.51), and active injection drug use (PR: 3.50; p<0.05 for all). The association between bodily pain and non-medical prescription drug use was stronger among persons that were not using substances (marijuana, injecting drugs, snorting/smoking heroin, cocaine, using crack) as compared to those using these substances. The high prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use among this population warrants further research and action. Information on the risks of nonmedical prescription drug use especially overdose, should be incorporated into interventions targeted at IDUs.


Addict Behav


Addictive behaviors


Khosla N,Juon HS,Kirk GD,Astemborski J,Mehta SH




Has Abstract


2011-12-01 00:00:00














  • Implicit cocaine associations in active cocaine users and controls.

    abstract::Implicit and explicit cocaine-related cognitions were assessed in a sample of 16 cocaine-dependent poly-substance abusers and 16 age, gender, and SES-matched controls. Implicit associations were assessed with four unipolar versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), assessing associations between cocaine and posi...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wiers RW,Houben K,de Kraker J

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of alcohol, expectancy, and sensation seeking on driving risk taking.

    abstract::Using a cover story of the effects of alcohol on perceptual and motor abilities, two levels of alcohol consumed (moderate and none), two levels of alcohol expectancy (moderate and none), and two levels of sensation seeking (high and low) were combined to determine their effect on risk taking in a driving simulator. Ni...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: McMillen DL,Smith SM,Wells-Parker E

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Modeling associations between posttraumatic stress symptoms and substance use.

    abstract::Comorbid substance use and posttraumatic stress disorders (SUD-PTSD) predict poorer treatment outcomes. Self-medication has been forwarded as a symptom-level explanatory model. However, research has yet to be conducted that can provide detailed examination of SUD and PTSD symptom fluctuations over time as posited by s...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ouimette P,Read JP,Wade M,Tirone V

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Perceived support to stay quit: what happens after delivery?

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess whether perceived changes in postpartum support were associated with postpartum return to smoking. STUDY DESIGN:This is a prospective repeated measures, mixed methods observational study. Sixty-five women who smoked prior to pregnancy were recruited at delivery and surveyed at 2, 6, 12, and 24 week...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Park ER,Chang Y,Quinn VP,Ross K,Rigotti NA

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • The role of smoking expectancies in the relationship between PTSD symptoms and smoking behavior among women exposed to intimate partner violence.

    abstract::Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem associated with negative health consequences, including higher rates of tobacco smoking. Smoking expectancies are related to motivation to quit and relapse. IPV-exposed women endorse higher rates of PTSD symptoms, which are related to smoking and smoking expec...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ashare RL,Weinberger AH,McKee SA,Sullivan TP

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • Psychometric properties of the German version of the CRAFFT.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The CRAFFT questionnaire is a widely utilized measure of problematic alcohol and drug use. The brief screening instrument has been translated into multiple languages, and some studies regarding its psychometric properties have been published. However, investigations on the factorial validity of the CRAFFT ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wartberg L,Kriston L,Diestelkamp S,Arnaud N,Thomasius R

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in club drug use between heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual females.

    abstract::Although there has been much empirical research documenting current trends in club drug use among gay and bisexual men, little research has addressed the variance among lesbian, bisexual, or heterosexual women. Using data collected through time-space sampling from dance clubs in New York City during 2005 (N=1104), thi...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parsons JT,Kelly BC,Wells BE

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Paternal alcoholism, negative parenting, and the mediating role of marital satisfaction.

    abstract::Given the documented association between paternal alcoholism and negative parenting behaviors, the purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally whether marital satisfaction mediates this relationship. Participants consisted of 197 families (102 without an alcoholic father, 95 with an alcoholic father) who were ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kachadourian LK,Eiden RD,Leonard KE

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Risk factors for pathological gambling.

    abstract::To better understand pathological gambling, potential risk factors were assessed within three domains--gambling behaviors, substance abuse and other problem behaviors, and sociodemographic factors. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted in 1999-2000 with a representative sample of the U.S. population aged ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Welte JW,Barnes GM,Wieczorek WF,Tidwell MC,Parker JC

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Reports of smoking withdrawal symptoms over a 21 day period of abstinence.

    abstract::This paper presents results from a study which examined the occurrence and time course of smoking withdrawal symptoms in a group of 33 smokers followed over a 21 day period of abstinence. Smoking withdrawal symptoms examined included: irritability, feeling sleepy, sleeplessness, dizziness, coughing, tightness in the c...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cummings KM,Giovino G,Jaén CR,Emrich LJ

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Beyond personality-experimental investigations of the effects of personality traits on in situ alcohol consumption in social and solitary drinking contexts.

    abstract::Numerous studies have highlighted that personality traits are associated with alcohol problems and disorders; however, little is known on the link between personality and the quantities of alcohol actually ingested during given drinking episodes (i.e. in situ alcohol consumption, in grams of pure alcohol). Based on da...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuendig H,Kuntsche E

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Smoking, health behavior, and values: a replication, refinement, and extension.

    abstract::Within a larger study, 181 female undergraduates completed the Rokeach instrumental value survey and a version of the terminal value survey which included the value 'health', as well as measures of general preventive health behavior and social desirability. Analyses showed that nonsmokers reported better health behavi...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kristiansen CM

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Racial and ethnic differences in associations between psychological distress and the presence of binge drinking: Results from the California health interview survey.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Racial and ethnic minorities often suffer from poorer health than Whites given their exposure to more stressors and fewer resources that buffer the effects of stress. Given that alcohol is often consumed to alleviate the negative moods, the present study hypothesized that psychological distress may impact ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Woo B,Wang K,Tran T

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Developmental trajectory classes in psychological dysregulation predict later decision-making competence.

    abstract::Adolescence and emerging adulthood are developmental periods associated with increased risk taking, including alcohol and substance use and antisocial behaviors. Typical psychological growth from adolescence into early adulthood reflects increases in traits related to psychological regulation (e.g., greater emotional ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weller JA,Parker AM,Reynolds M,Kirisci L

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Substance use disorders and PTSD: an exploratory study of treatment preferences among military veterans.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Substance use disorders (SUDs) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur among Veterans and are associated with poor treatment outcomes. Historically, treatments for SUDs and PTSD have been delivered sequentially and independently. More recently, however, integrated treatments have shown ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Back SE,Killeen TK,Teer AP,Hartwell EE,Federline A,Beylotte F,Cox E

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Perceived invulnerability and cigarette smoking among adolescents.

    abstract::Adolescent perceptions of invulnerability toward smoking and nonsmoking-related health risks were examined among 442 continuation high school students. Smokers were less likely than nonsmokers to report feeling invulnerable to both smoking and nonsmoking-related health risks. Among the smokers, those who reported feel...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Milam JE,Sussman S,Ritt-Olson A,Dent CW

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Self-consciousness moderates the relationship between perceived norms and drinking in college students.

    abstract::The current research examines whether self-consciousness subscales have prognostic value in the relationship between perceived norms and drinking and if that differs among college men and women. Results indicate that self-consciousness moderates gender differences in the relationship between perceived social norms and...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: LaBrie JW,Hummer JF,Neighbors C

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of aftercare arrangements on the maintenance of treatment success in abusive drinkers.

    abstract::Aftercare to prevent relapse following alcohol treatment has not received adequate experimental investigation. The present study monitored alcohol intake of 50 patients following assignment to either an intensive aftercare recruitment procedure or regular clinic aftercare. The results indicated that those who received...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Ahles TA,Schlundt DG,Prue DM,Rychtarik RG

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • Statistical definition of relapse: case of family drug court.

    abstract::At any point in time, a patient's return to drug use can be seen either as a temporary event or as a return to persistent use. There is no formal standard for distinguishing persistent drug use from an occasional relapse. This lack of standardization persists although the consequences of either interpretation can be l...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alemi F,Haack M,Nemes S

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Forbidden Food Survey: measure of bulimic's anticipated emotional reactions to specific foods.

    abstract::The Forbidden Food Survey is an instrument that was designed for use with eating disordered individuals. The first experiment in this study includes a description of the Forbidden Food Survey and the reliability and internal consistency of its scales. The second investigation examined the discriminant validity of the ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruggiero L,Williamson D,Davis CJ,Schlundt DG,Carey MP

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • Injection opioid use as a predictor of treatment outcomes among methadone-maintained opioid-dependent patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Injection opioid use is associated with more severe health and psychosocial consequences relative to non-injection use, but few studies have examined whether injection use is associated with methadone maintenance treatment outcomes. The present study examined differential MMT outcomes among opioid injectors ...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ledgerwood DM,Lister JJ,LaLiberte B,Lundahl LH,Greenwald MK

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Belief incongruence and the intention-behavior gap in persons with at-risk alcohol use.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:When intentions are expressed, e.g., when filling in a health questionnaire, people may have unrealistic beliefs towards behavior change resulting in strong intentions to change. These may fail to correspond to reality when the behavior actually should be performed. Belief incongruence was tested as a poss...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baumann S,Gaertner B,Schnuerer I,Haberecht K,John U,Freyer-Adam J

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of diazepam (valium) and aggressive disposition on human aggression: an experimental investigation.

    abstract::Sixty male subjects with self-reported high, moderate, and low aggressive dispositions were given the opportunity to aggress, by administering electric shocks, against an increasingly provocative fictitious opponent within the context of a competitive reaction time task. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two c...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Ben-Porath DD,Taylor SP

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Marketing exposure and smokeless tobacco use initiation among young adults: A longitudinal analysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study examines the relationships between self-reported exposure to smokeless tobacco marketing and initiation/onset of smokeless tobacco use/susceptibility at 6-month follow-up, among a cohort of young adults in urban Texas. METHODS:Participants were 3597 18-25 year old never smokeless tobacco users, a...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mantey DS,Clendennen SL,Pasch KE,Loukas A,Perry CL

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cannabis use and psychological distress: An 8-year prospective population-based study among Swedish men and women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have reported positive associations between cannabis use and mental health problems. However, it has not been possible to draw a definitive conclusion regarding the causal direction between cannabis use and impaired mental health. This study aimed at examining possible associations between c...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Danielsson AK,Lundin A,Allebeck P,Agardh E

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Interaction effects may actually be nonlinear effects in disguise: A review of the problem and potential solutions.

    abstract::It is common in addictions research for statistical analyses to include interaction effects to test moderation hypotheses. Far less commonly do researchers consider the possibility that a given predictor may exert a nonlinear effect on the outcome. This lack of attention to the possible nonlinear effects of individual...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Belzak WCM,Bauer DJ

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • The global epidemic of waterpipe smoking.

    abstract::In the past decade waterpipe (WP) smoking (a.k.a. hookah, shisha, and narghile) has been steadily spreading among the youth around the world. The allure of this tobacco use method for the youth can stem from its pleasant smooth smoke, social ambience and the perception of reduced harm. The material in this review is b...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maziak W

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Utility of the comprehensive marijuana motives questionnaire among medical cannabis patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Little is known about motives for cannabis use among the population of adults using cannabis medically. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the 12 factor, 36-item Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire (CMMQ) among a sample of medical cannabis patients. METHODS:Study participants were adults a...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bohnert KM,Bonar EE,Arnedt JT,Conroy DA,Walton MA,Ilgen MA

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • The interplay between trauma, substance abuse and appetitive aggression and its relation to criminal activity among high-risk males in South Africa.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In persistently unsafe environments, the cumulative exposure to violence predicts not only the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also of increased aggression and violent outbursts. Substance use disorders interact with these developments, as drug consumption may blunt symptoms and also...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sommer J,Hinsberger M,Elbert T,Holtzhausen L,Kaminer D,Seedat S,Madikane S,Weierstall R

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Anxiety sensitivity: relationship to negative affect smoking and smoking cessation in smokers with past major depressive disorder.

    abstract::The present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity (AS) was related to negative reinforcement smoking motives and increased risk of relapse during the early stages of a quit attempt. Specifically, the role of AS was evaluated in 60 smokers with past major depressive disorder (MDD) during smoking cessation. Consis...

    journal_title:Addictive behaviors

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown RA,Kahler CW,Zvolensky MJ,Lejuez CW,Ramsey SE

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00