Dopamine signaling as a neural correlate of consciousness.


:The neural correlates of consciousness are largely unknown but many neural circuits are likely to be involved. Our experiments with mice that cannot synthesize dopamine suggest that dopamine signaling is a critical component necessary for the expression of consciousness. Although dopamine-deficient mice are awake and respond to many stimuli, they are unmotivated and have profound deficits in all but the simplest learning tasks. Dopamine-deficient mice are unable to attend to salient sensory information, integrate it with prior experience, store it in long-term memory, or choose appropriate actions. While clearly conscious from a general anesthetic point of view, dopamine-deficient mice have marginal arousal and appear to be virtually unconscious from a behavioral point of view. Restoration of dopamine signaling within the striatum by viral gene therapy strategies restores most behaviors. Therefore, I propose that dopaminergic modulation of glutamatergic inputs from the cortex and thalamus onto medium spiny neurons in the striatum contributes to cognition and the expression of consciousness.






Palmiter RD




Has Abstract


2011-12-15 00:00:00












  • Presenilin-1-deficient neurons are nitric oxide-dependently killed by hydrogen peroxide in vitro.

    abstract::Presenilin-1 (PS1) is the gene responsible for the development of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. To probe the functions of PS1 on neuronal resistance to oxidative stress, we pharmacologically examined the death signals in PS1-deficient neurons induced by oxidative stress. Because the death of primarily cult...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakajima M,Shirasawa T

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Emergence of a synaptic neuronal network within primary striatal cultures seeded in serum-free medium.

    abstract::In order to investigate the basic cellular mechanisms involved in neuronal interactions within the striatum, we prepared a primary striatal cell culture from rat fetal brain in chemically defined medium. Using morphological and whole-cell recording methods, we observed that an intensive neuritic elongation with a prog...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kowalski C,Crest M,Vuillet J,Pin T,Gola M,Nieoullon A

    更新日期:1995-02-01 00:00:00

  • Excitatory amino acid receptors and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in incubated slices of immature and adult rat cerebellum.

    abstract::Addition of the excitatory amino acids l-glutamate, l-aspartate and their analogues kainate and N-methyl-d-aspartate to incubated slices of adult rat cerebellum led to large increases in cyclic GMP levels. The order of apparent potencies was kainate greater than N-methyl-d-aspartate greater than glutamate and aspartat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garthwaite J

    更新日期:1982-10-01 00:00:00

  • Titration of synaptotagmin I expression differentially regulates release of norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y.

    abstract::Synaptotagmin (syt) I is a Ca(2+) sensor that has been thought to trigger all vesicle secretion with similar mechanisms. However, given the calcium and stimulation requirements of small clear, and large dense core vesicles, we hypothesized that syt I expression differentially regulates vesicle release. Therefore, in t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Papke JB,Moore-Dotson JM,Watson DJ,Wedell CD,French LR,Rendell SR,Harkins AB

    更新日期:2012-08-30 00:00:00

  • Modulation of septo-hippocampal Theta activity by GABAA receptors: an experimental and computational approach.

    abstract::Theta frequency oscillation of the septo-hippocampal system has been considered as a prominent activity associated with cognitive function and affective processes. It is well documented that anxiolytic drugs diminish septo-hippocampal oscillatory Theta activity contributing to their either therapeutic or unwanted side...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hajós M,Hoffmann WE,Orbán G,Kiss T,Erdi P

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Reversal of dopamine neurons and locomotor ability degeneration in aged rats with smilagenin.

    abstract::The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of smilagenin (SMI) (PYM50028), a sapogenin compound originally identified from Chinese medicinal herb, on dopamine neurons and locomotor ability in aged rats. Experiments were carried out on young and aged Sprague-Dawley rats, which were daily administered with either ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li J,Xia Z,Sun X,Zhang R,Huang G,Hickling R,Xia Z,Hu Y,Zhang Y

    更新日期:2013-08-15 00:00:00

  • Additive effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-4/5 on rat fetal nigral explant cultures.

    abstract::Transplantation of embryonic dopaminergic neurons is an experimental therapy for Parkinson's disease, but limited tissue availability and suboptimal survival of grafted dopaminergic neurons impede more widespread clinical application. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) exe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meyer M,Matarredona ER,Seiler RW,Zimmer J,Widmer HR

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Induction of Fos expression in the rat forebrain after intragastric administration of monosodium L-glutamate, glucose and NaCl.

    abstract::l-glutamate, an umami taste substance, is a key molecule coupled to a food intake signaling pathway. Furthermore, recent studies have unveiled new roles for dietary glutamate on gut-brain axis communication via activation of gut glutamate receptors and subsequent vagus nerve. In the present study, we mapped activation...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Otsubo H,Kondoh T,Shibata M,Torii K,Ueta Y

    更新日期:2011-11-24 00:00:00

  • The spinal transmission of nociceptive information: modulation by the caudal medulla.

    abstract::Multiple descending systems for pain control originate from the rostral medulla and midbrain. These systems are involved in the antinociceptive action produced by opioids. One category of descending inhibitory controls is activated specifically by noxious stimuli and has been termed diffuse noxious inhibitory controls...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bouhassira D,Chitour D,Villaneuva L,Le Bars D

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Electrophysiological investigation of adenosine trisphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    abstract::Adenosine trisphosphate-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels in the substantia nigra pars reticulata were studied in rat brain slices using whole-cell patch clamp recording. Substantia nigra pars reticula neurons were identified as such by their spontaneous action potential firing at mean rate of 15.3 Hz1 virtual abse...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stanford IM,Lacey MG

    更新日期:1996-09-01 00:00:00

  • Functional brain imaging of walking while talking - An fNIRS study.

    abstract::Since functional imaging of whole body movements is not feasible with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study presents in vivo functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a suitable technique to measure body movement effects on fronto-temporo-parietal cortical activation in single- and dua...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Metzger FG,Ehlis AC,Haeussinger FB,Schneeweiss P,Hudak J,Fallgatter AJ,Schneider S

    更新日期:2017-02-20 00:00:00

  • Analysis and biophysical interpretation of bistable behaviour in thalamocortical neurons.

    abstract::Thalamocortical neurons display a wide spectrum of activity patterns that are the expressions of the non-linear interactions between the various voltage-gated ion channels. Here, we show how bistable behaviour can emerge in these neurons, and how it is brought about by the steady-state residual ("window") component of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tóth TI,Hughes SW,Crunelli V

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00

  • Glial fibrillary acidic protein mRNA levels in the cingulate cortex of individuals with depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    abstract::Recent studies have shown a decrease in glial number and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in the frontal and cingulate cortices of individuals with mood disorders and schizophrenia. In an attempt to verify and expand these findings we examined GFAP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels in postmortem se...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Webster MJ,O'Grady J,Kleinman JE,Weickert CS

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Nucleus accumbens opioids regulate flavor-based preferences in food consumption.

    abstract::Opioid signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) regulates feeding behavior, having particularly strong effects on consumption of highly palatable foods. Since macronutrient content may contribute to palatability, it is uncertain whether opioid regulation of food consumption is based primarily on its macronutrient con...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Woolley JD,Lee BS,Fields HL

    更新日期:2006-11-17 00:00:00

  • Activin induces long-lasting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation via scaffolding PDZ protein activin receptor interacting protein 1.

    abstract::Calcium entry into the postsynaptic neuron through N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) triggers the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), which is considered to contribute to synaptic plasticity and plays a critical role in behavioral learning. We report here that activin, a member of the trans...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kurisaki A,Inoue I,Kurisaki K,Yamakawa N,Tsuchida K,Sugino H

    更新日期:2008-02-19 00:00:00

  • Comparative study on the innervation of nerves with calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and neurokinin A immunoreactivity in the walls of the cerebral arteries of small bats (Mammalia: Microchiroptera).

    abstract::The distribution and origin of nerves with calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P or neurokinin A immunoreactivity in the walls of the cerebral arteries were investigated in three microchiropteran species. The supply of nerves immunoreactive for substance P and neurokinin A to the bat cerebral arteries is confin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ando K,Arai S,Kawamura K

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Nuclear factor-kappa β regulates Notch signaling in production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in murine BV-2 microglial cells.

    abstract::Microglial cells exhibit Notch-1 signaling expression which is enhanced upon activation. We reported previously that enhanced Notch-1 expression in activated microglia modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). Furthermore, Notch-1 modulates transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cao Q,Kaur C,Wu CY,Lu J,Ling EA

    更新日期:2011-09-29 00:00:00

  • The amnesic effect of intra-central amygdala administration of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, WIN55,212-2, is mediated by a β-1 noradrenergic system in rat.

    abstract::In this study, we investigated effects of intra-central amygdala (intra-CeA) administrations of a cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2 by itself and its interaction with β1-adrenoceptor agents on memory consolidation. We used a step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) task to assess memory in male Wistar rats. The results s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zarrindast MR,Ghiasvand M,Rezayof A,Ahmadi S

    更新日期:2012-06-14 00:00:00

  • Extrinsic origins of the somatostatin and neuropeptide Y innervation of the rat basolateral amygdala.

    abstract::The amygdalar basolateral nuclear complex (BLC) is a cortex-like structure that receives inputs from many cortical areas. It has long been assumed that cortico-amygdalar projections, as well as inter-areal intracortical connections, arise from cortical pyramidal cells. However, recent studies have shown that GABAergic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McDonald AJ,Zaric V

    更新日期:2015-05-21 00:00:00

  • Analysing functional connectivity in brain slices by a combination of infrared video microscopy, flash photolysis of caged compounds and scanning methods.

    abstract::We evaluate a novel set-up for scanning functional connectivity in brain slices from the somatosensory cortex of the rat. Upright infrared video microscopy for targeted placement of electrodes is combined with rapid photolysis of bath-applied caged neurotransmitter induced by a xenon flash lamp. Flash photolysis of ca...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kötter R,Staiger JF,Zilles K,Luhmann HJ

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00

  • Ascending projections from the solitary tract nucleus to the hypothalamus. A Phaseolus vulgaris lectin tracing study in the rat.

    abstract::The course of the ascending pathways originating from the anterior gustatory and posterior visceral sensory part of the solitary tract nucleus and the topographic organization of the projections to the hypothalamus in the rat were studied with anterogradely transported Phaseolus vulgaris lectin. In general, the poster...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ter Horst GJ,de Boer P,Luiten PG,van Willigen JD

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Housing condition-related changes involved in reversal learning and its c-Fos associated activity in the prefrontal cortex.

    abstract::Our study examined how different housing conditions modulated the acquisition of a spatial reference memory task and also, a reversal task in the 4-radial arm water maze (4-RAWM). The animals were randomly assigned to standard or enriched cages, and, as a type of complementary stimulation along with the environmental ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sampedro-Piquero P,Zancada-Menendez C,Begega A

    更新日期:2015-10-29 00:00:00

  • Combined tissue plasminogen activator and an NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist: an effective treatment for reperfusion injury following acute ischemic stroke in rats.

    abstract::We have recently reported on the efficacy of an NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist in improving outcome following stroke, including reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, reduced cerebral edema and improved functional outcome. The clinically approved stroke treatment, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), has bee...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Turner RJ,Vink R

    更新日期:2012-09-18 00:00:00

  • GABA transport and neuroinflammation are coupled in multiple sclerosis: regulation of the GABA transporter-2 by ganaxolone.

    abstract::Interactions between neurotransmitters and the immune system represent new prospects for understanding neuroinflammation and associated neurological disease. GABA is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter but its actions on immune pathways in the brain are unclear. In the present study, we investigated GABAergic transp...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paul AM,Branton WG,Walsh JG,Polyak MJ,Lu JQ,Baker GB,Power C

    更新日期:2014-07-25 00:00:00

  • Increase in AMPA receptors in aged memory-impaired rats is not associated with increase in monoamine oxidase B levels.

    abstract::Aged rats may be behaviorally classified as either cognitively impaired or unimpaired based upon their performance in the Morris water maze task. In aged Long-Evans rats, emergence of functional deficits has been related to the increase in the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andrés N,Rodríguez MJ,Andrade C,Rowe W,Quirion R,Mahy N

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • The major neurotransmitter systems in the basolateral amygdala and the ventral tegmental area mediate morphine-induced memory consolidation impairment.

    abstract::In the present study, we investigated the possible participation of the endocannabinoid system in the basolateral amygdala and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) or GABA-A receptor neurotransmission in the ventral tegmental area in the memory consolidation impairment induced by morphine administration. To measure memory form...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharifi KA,Rezayof A,Torkaman-Boutorabi A,Zarrindast MR

    更新日期:2017-06-14 00:00:00

  • Imaging free zinc in synaptic terminals in live hippocampal slices.

    abstract::Some glutamatergic synapses in the mammalian central nervous system exhibit high levels of free ionic zinc in their synaptic vesicles. The precise role of this vesicular zinc remains obscure, despite suggestive evidence for zinc as a neuromodulator. As a step towards elucidating the role of free zinc in the brain we h...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Budde T,Minta A,White JA,Kay AR

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

  • Sympathectomy decreases size and invasiveness of tongue cancer in rats.

    abstract::The sympathetic nervous system plays a role in carcinogenesis wherein locally released sympathetic neurotransmitters affect proliferation, angiogenesis, vessel permeability, lymphocyte traffic and cytokine production. The present in vivo study was designed to investigate whether surgical sympathectomy, both unilateral...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Raju B,Haug SR,Ibrahim SO,Heyeraas KJ

    更新日期:2007-11-09 00:00:00

  • A gamma34.5 mutant of herpes simplex 1 causes severe inflammation in the brain.

    abstract::A number of viral vectors are currently being evaluated as potential gene therapy vectors for gene delivery to the brain. As well as evaluating their ability to express a transgene for extended periods of time it is also essential to examine any cytotoxic immune response to such vectors as this may not only limit tran...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McMenamin MM,Byrnes AP,Charlton HM,Coffin RS,Latchman DS,Wood MJ

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • Redistribution of secretory granule components precedes that of synaptic vesicle proteins during differentiation of a neuronal cell line in serum-free medium.

    abstract::Incubation of the rat sensory neuron-derived cell line ND7 in serum-free medium results in the arrest of mitosis and the appearance of numerous neuronal processes. During this differentiation event, secretory granule components such as chromogranins, neuropeptide Y and the C-flanking peptide of pro-neuropeptide Y move...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wheatley SC,Suburo AM,Horn DA,Vucicevic V,Terenghi G,Polak JM,Latchman DS

    更新日期:1992-12-01 00:00:00