Evolution of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene family in relation to vertebrate tetraploidizations.


:The neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in the control of reproductive functions. Vertebrates possess multiple GnRH isoforms that are classified into three main groups, namely GnRH1, GnRH2 and GnRH3. In the present study, we show that the chromosomal organization of the three GnRH loci is very well conserved among gnathostome species. We analyzed genes belonging to several other multigenic families that are present in the vicinity of GnRH genes. Five of them were seen to occur in four chromosomal regions that clearly form a paralogon. Moreover, we show that the homologous regions in the amphioxus genome are present on a single locus. Taken together, these observations indicate that GnRH1, GnRH2 and GnRH3 genes represent three paralogous genes that resulted from the two rounds of tetraploidization that took place early in vertebrate evolution. They confirm that the GnRH3 gene which is currently known only in teleost has most likely been lost in the tetrapod lineage. Finally, they suggest the existence of a fourth GnRH gene, named GnRH4. Whether the GnRH4 gene still exists in extant vertebrates is currently unknown. A search for this putative gene would be particularly useful in basal groups such as agnathans and cartilaginous fish.


Gen Comp Endocrinol


Tostivint H




Has Abstract


2011-02-01 00:00:00














  • Interannual variation in the adrenal responsiveness of black-legged kittiwake chicks (Rissa tridactyla).

    abstract::Over the last decade, field endocrinologists have explored the efficacy of using plasma corticosterone concentrations of breeding seabirds as an indicator of food availability and predictor of breeding success. However, studies have been predominately confined to adults and the results have been inconsistent. We exami...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brewer JH,O'Reilly KM,Dean Kildaw S,Loren Buck C

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Adaptive evolution of GPR39 in diverse directions in vertebrates.

    abstract::G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play an important role in physiology and disease and represent productive drug targets. Orphan GPCRs, which have unknown endogenous ligands, are considered drug targets and consequently have attracted great interest in identifying their endogenous cognate ligands for deorphanization...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang L,Song J,Zang Z,Tang H,Li W,Lai S,Deng C

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Reproduction in hens: is testosterone necessary for the ovulatory process?

    abstract::Avian reproduction entails complex endocrine interactions at the hypothalamic and ovarian levels. The initiation of the reproductive season is due to the reduction in melatonin and GnIH production as day length increases. The decline in GnIH permits GnRH and gonadotropin secretion starting follicle growth. Follicular ...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rangel PL,Gutierrez CG

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Reverse genetics tools in zebrafish: a forward dive into endocrinology.

    abstract::The zebrafish is a powerful genetic model organism. In recent years, zebrafish has been increasingly used to model human diseases. Due to a number of recent technological advancements, the genetic tool box is now also stocked with sophisticated transgenic and reverse genetic tools. Here, we focus on both commonly used...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sugano Y,Neuhauss SC

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • GTH I and GTH II secretion profiles during the reproductive cycle in female rainbow trout: relationship with pituitary responsiveness to GnRH-A stimulation.

    abstract::The recent purification of two gonadotropins, GTH I and GTH II, in teleost fish and the development of their specific radioimmunoassays using antibodies directed against their beta subunits have demonstrated that earlier assays for GTH II also measured GTH I. Most of the results on the gonadotropic control of reproduc...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Breton B,Govoroun M,Mikolajczyk T

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Saturable triiodothyronine-binding sites in the pituitary nuclei of salmonid teleost fish.

    abstract::High-affinity, limited-capacity, 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3)-binding sites were established by in vitro saturation analysis in cell nuclei of the pituitary gland of arctic charr. The sites were extracted from the purified nuclei using 0.4 M NaCl and incubated with [125I]T3 in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl. T3 saturab...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bres O,Eales JG

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Preovulatory follicle dynamics and ovulatory efficiency in sows with thrifty genotype and leptin resistance due to leptin receptor gene polymorphisms (Iberian pig).

    abstract::This study compares follicular function and ovulatory efficiency in 20 sows with obesity/leptin resistance genotype (Iberian pig) and 20 females of lean commercial crosses (Large White × Landrace; LW×L). Estrous cycle was synchronized with progestagens; ovulation was induced with eCG and hCG, in half of the females of...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gonzalez-Añover P,Encinas T,Sanz E,Letelier CA,Torres-Rovira L,de Mercado E,Pallares P,Sanchez-Sanchez R,Gonzalez-Bulnes A

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of glycogen phosphorylase activity in fat body of Locusta migratoria and Periplaneta americana.

    abstract::Saline extracts of the corpus cardiacum (CC) of Locusta migratoria activate glycogen phosphorylase in locust fat body. The response of phosphorylase to CC extracts and to synthetic adipokinetic hormone (AKH) suggests that the factor responsible for the activating effect of the CC on phosphorylase is AKH, supplemented ...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van Marrewijk WJ,Van den Broek AT,Beenakkers AM

    更新日期:1983-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of serotonin on gonadotropin and growth hormone release from in vitro perifused goldfish pituitary fragments.

    abstract::The effects of serotonin (5-HT) on gonadotropin and growth hormone release from perifused goldfish (Carassius auratus, L.) pituitary glands were studied. Serotonin, at micromolar concentrations, caused a dose-related release of gonadotropin and an inhibition of growth hormone release in pituitaries from goldfish at di...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Somoza GM,Peter RE

    更新日期:1991-04-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of angiotensin I in several vertebrate species: its structural and functional evolution.

    abstract::In order to delineate further the molecular evolution of the renin-angiotensin system in vertebrates, angiotensin I (ANG I) has been isolated after incubation of plasma and kidney extracts of emu (Dromiceus novaehollandiae), axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The identified sequences ...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takei Y,Joss JM,Kloas W,Rankin JC

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of hypophysectomy on coho salmon interrenal: maintenance of steroidogenic pathway and restoration of in vitro responsiveness to adrenocorticotropin after handling.

    abstract::The role of the pituitary in regulating interrenal activity in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was examined using short- (1 week) or long- (10 week) term hypophysectomized (Hx) animals. In experiments in which Hx animals were injected with ovine growth hormone (oGH), triiodothyronine, or vehicle, plasma cortisol wa...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Young G

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Specific gonadotrophin binding sites in the bullfrog testis.

    abstract::We demonstrated the presence of specific binding sites for bullfrog luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in a testicular crude plasma membrane fraction of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. The equilibrium analysis of the binding showed that a straight line was fitted to the Scatchard plot of L...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takada K,Kubokawa K,Ishii S

    更新日期:1986-02-01 00:00:00

  • Role of natriuretic peptide receptor 2-mediated signaling in meiotic arrest of zebrafish oocytes and its estrogen regulation through G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (Gper).

    abstract::Natriuretic peptide type C (NPPC) and its receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2), have essential roles in maintaining meiotic arrest of oocytes in several mammalian species. However, it is not known if a similar mechanism exists in non-mammalian vertebrates. Using zebrafish as a model, we show that Nppc is ex...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pang Y,Thomas P

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of Aib and PEG-polymer insect kinin analogs on mosquito and tick GPCRs identifies potent new pest management tools with potentially enhanced biostability and bioavailability.

    abstract::Insect kinins modulate aspects of diuresis, digestion, development, and sugar taste perception in tarsi and labellar sensilla in mosquitoes. They are, however, subject to rapid biological degradation by endogenous invertebrate peptidases. A series of α-aminoisobutyric (Aib) acid-containing insect kinin analogs incorpo...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiong C,Kaczmarek K,Zabrocki J,Pietrantonio PV,Nachman RJ

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::By mapping the distribution of cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor types onto an established phylogenetic hypothesis of vertebrate relationships, we tested two hypothesis about the evolution of CCK receptors: (1) A single CCK receptor type, CCK-X, is the ancestral receptor, while CCK-A and CCK-B receptors represent derived...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oliver AS,Vigna SR

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Steroid 5 alpha-reductase activity in the harderian glands of male and female Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    abstract::The activity of the enzyme steroid 5 alpha-reductase in Harderian glands of adult syrian hamsters was assessed by measuring the conversion of testosterone (T) to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The optimal conditions for this reaction were determined in vitro using whole gland homogenates and [3H]testosterone as su...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vilchis F,Enriquez J,Queipo G,Pérez-Palacios G,Chávez B

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-immunoreactive neurons and associated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase-positive neurons in the brain of a teleost, Rhodeus amarus.

    abstract::Using combined nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) immunocytochemistry, it is reported for the first time that possible potential contacts occur between the nitric oxide (NO)- and the GnRH-containing neurons in the brain of a ...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baby SM,Ueck M,Prasada Rao PD

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Melatonin synthesis and clock gene regulation in the pineal organ of teleost fish compared to mammals: Similarities and differences.

    abstract::The pineal organ of all vertebrates synthesizes and secretes melatonin in a rhythmic manner due to the circadian rhythm in the activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) - the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis pathway. Nighttime increase in AANAT activity and melatonin synthesis depends on increa...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Saha S,Singh KM,Gupta BBP

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cloning of complimentary deoxyribonucleic acid encoding follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone beta subunit precursor molecules in Reeves's turtle (Geoclemys reevesii) and Japanese grass lizard (Takydromus tachydromoides).

    abstract::Reptilia is the only vertebrate class in which cDNA for the gonadotropin beta subunit precursor molecule has not been cloned. We have isolated the full-length cDNA clone encoding the LH beta subunit precursor molecule and a partial cDNA clone encoding the FSH beta subunit precursor molecule from a pituitary cDNA libra...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aizawa Y,Ishii S

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • Corticosterone, foraging behavior, and metabolism in dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis.

    abstract::Male, dark-eyed juncos, Junco hyemalis, were held in captivity under conditions simulating winter temperature and photoperiod. Birds were administered corticosterone (B), metapyrone (MET), or control (empty) implants in silastic tubing. B implants resulted in higher plasma levels of B, especially on the first day foll...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gray JM,Yarian D,Ramenofsky M

    更新日期:1990-09-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of testosterone and progesterone in hemolymph of larvae of the fleshfly Sarcophaga bullata.

    abstract::Testosterone- and progesterone-like substances were detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in chromatographed extracts of hemolymph from larvae of Sarcophaga bullata (S.B.). Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis after heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) derivation of hemolymph extracts, purified by paper and silica gel column chro...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Clerck D,Eechaute W,Leusen I,Diederik H,De Loof A

    更新日期:1983-12-01 00:00:00

  • Development of thyroid function and its pituitary control in embryonic and hatchling precocial Japanese quail and altricial Ring doves.

    abstract::We compared the developmental pattern of thyroid function and its pituitary control in precocial Japanese quail and altricial Ring doves. We measured thyroid hormone (TH) content of thyroid glands (TG), TH concentrations in the serum, relative pituitary gland thyrotropin (PG-TSH) content, and the ability of the TG to ...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McNichols MJ,McNabb FM

    更新日期:1988-04-01 00:00:00

  • Entry of extracellular calcium mediates dopamine D1-stimulated growth hormone release from goldfish pituitary cells.

    abstract::Unlike mammals, the goldfish is unique in having dopamine (DA) D1 receptors in the anterior pituitary. In this species, DA stimulates growth hormone (GH) release via D1 receptors coupled to the cAMP-dependent pathway. To further examine the postreceptor mechanisms of this novel pituitary DA D1 system, the role of extr...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wong AO,Van Goor F,Chang JP

    更新日期:1994-06-01 00:00:00

  • Isolation and biological characterization of a 6-kDa protein from hepatopancreas of lobster Panulirus argus with insulin-like effects.

    abstract::A protein with insulin-like effects was isolated from the hepatopancreas of the lobster Panulirus argus following a classic method for mammalian insulin purification from the pancreas. After acid-alcoholic extraction and ethanol-ether precipitation followed by molecular filtration chromatography, a protein with an app...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gallardo N,Carrillo O,Moltó E,Deás M,González-Suárez R,Carrascosa JM,Ros M,Andrés A

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in glucose metabolism and reversion of genes expression in the liver of insulin-resistant rats exposed to malathion. The protective effects of N-acetylcysteine.

    abstract::Organophosphorus pesticides are known to disturb glucose homeostasis and increase incidence of metabolic disorders and diabetes via insulin resistance. The current study investigates the influence of malathion on insulin signaling pathways and the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Malathion (200 mg/kg) and...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lasram MM,El-Golli N,Lamine AJ,Douib IB,Bouzid K,Annabi A,El Fazaa S,Abdelmoula J,Gharbi N

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Conserved transcriptional activity and ligand responsiveness of avian PPARs: Potential role in regulating lipid metabolism in mirgratory birds.

    abstract::Migratory birds undergo metabolic remodeling in tissues, including increased lipid storage in white adipose and fatty acid uptake and oxidation in skeletal muscle, to optimize energy substrate availability and utilization in preparation for long-distance flight. Different tissues undergo gene expression changes in kee...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hamilton A,Ly J,Robinson JR,Corder KR,DeMoranville KJ,Schaeffer PJ,Huss JM

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Age and socially related changes in fecal androgen metabolite concentrations in free-ranging male giraffes.

    abstract::In many mammal species, androgen levels in males are elevated during periods of mating activity, often to facilitate aggressive behavior between males over access to fertile females. However, this pattern might be less obvious in species with a rather low male-male aggression rate, or in those that are not strictly se...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wolf TE,Schaebs FS,Bennett NC,Burroughs R,Ganswindt A

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of neuropeptides on feeding initiation in larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    abstract::In insects, especially phytophagous insects, feeding behavior occurs at a regular frequency. Although a number of physiological studies have revealed various causal factors leading to feeding behavior in insects, little has been demonstrated regarding the regulatory mechanisms underlying insect feeding behavior. To co...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagata S,Morooka N,Matsumoto S,Kawai T,Nagasawa H

    更新日期:2011-05-15 00:00:00

  • Neurohormones and neuropeptides encoded by the genome of Lottia gigantea, with reference to other mollusks and insects.

    abstract::The Lottia gigantea genome was prospected for the presence of genes coding neuropeptides and neurohormones. Four genes code insulin-related peptides: two genes code molluscan insulin-like growth hormones, one gene an insulin very similar to vertebrate insulin, and the fourth a peptide related to drosophila insulin-lik...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Veenstra JA

    更新日期:2010-05-15 00:00:00

  • Species specificity in the magnitude and duration of the acute stress response in Mediterranean marine fish in culture.

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    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fanouraki E,Mylonas CC,Papandroulakis N,Pavlidis M

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00