Evolution of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene family in relation to vertebrate tetraploidizations.


:The neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in the control of reproductive functions. Vertebrates possess multiple GnRH isoforms that are classified into three main groups, namely GnRH1, GnRH2 and GnRH3. In the present study, we show that the chromosomal organization of the three GnRH loci is very well conserved among gnathostome species. We analyzed genes belonging to several other multigenic families that are present in the vicinity of GnRH genes. Five of them were seen to occur in four chromosomal regions that clearly form a paralogon. Moreover, we show that the homologous regions in the amphioxus genome are present on a single locus. Taken together, these observations indicate that GnRH1, GnRH2 and GnRH3 genes represent three paralogous genes that resulted from the two rounds of tetraploidization that took place early in vertebrate evolution. They confirm that the GnRH3 gene which is currently known only in teleost has most likely been lost in the tetrapod lineage. Finally, they suggest the existence of a fourth GnRH gene, named GnRH4. Whether the GnRH4 gene still exists in extant vertebrates is currently unknown. A search for this putative gene would be particularly useful in basal groups such as agnathans and cartilaginous fish.


Gen Comp Endocrinol


Tostivint H




Has Abstract


2011-02-01 00:00:00














  • Partial food restriction increases hepatic inner ring deiodinating activity in the chicken and the rat.

    abstract::The effects of a long term partial food restriction were studied in chickens and rats. In chickens the treatment resulted in increased plasma T4 levels while T4 levels in rats remained unchanged. Plasma T3 decreased in both species. In vitro hepatic outer ring deiodinating type I (ORD-I) activity was not influenced by...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Darras VM,Cokelaere M,Dewil E,Arnouts S,Decuypere E,Kühn ER

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Ultrastructural features of neurosecretory cells in the medulla externa of the crayfish eyestalk.

    abstract::A conglomerate of 8-12 neurons in the medulla externa of the crayfish eyestalk was explored in their reaction to a polyclonal antibody against the tyrosinated octapeptide Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone (Tyr-RPCH). These are large neurons with diameters within a range of 33-43 microns and they were all positively st...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Preciado M,Tsutsumi V,Aréchiga H

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • A correlation of fecal volatiles and steroid hormone profiles with behavioral expression during estrous cycle of goat, Capra hircus.

    abstract::Chemical signals (both volatile and non-volatile) form the major communication channels in animals. These signals are transferred mainly through excretory sources to facilitate inter-individual communication. In particular, the reproductive cycle of female mammals, including goats, exhibits significant changes in the ...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: SankarGanesh D,Ramachandran R,Muniasamy S,Saravanakumar VR,Suriyakalaa U,Kannan S,Archunan G,Achiraman S

    更新日期:2014-09-15 00:00:00

  • Testosterone influences song behaviour and social dominance - but independent of prenatal yolk testosterone exposure.

    abstract::In the last two decades, maternally derived yolk androgens have been shown to significantly alter offspring development, and a number of these effects persist into adulthood. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms. Mechanisms that have been suggested are changes in the endogenous androgen productio...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vergauwen J,Groothuis TG,Eens M,Müller W

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of hypophysectomy on coho salmon interrenal: maintenance of steroidogenic pathway and restoration of in vitro responsiveness to adrenocorticotropin after handling.

    abstract::The role of the pituitary in regulating interrenal activity in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was examined using short- (1 week) or long- (10 week) term hypophysectomized (Hx) animals. In experiments in which Hx animals were injected with ovine growth hormone (oGH), triiodothyronine, or vehicle, plasma cortisol wa...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Young G

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular, cellular, morphological, physiological and behavioral aspects of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone.

    abstract::Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that was isolated from the brains of Japanese quail in 2000, which inhibited luteinizing hormone release from the anterior pituitary gland. Here, we summarize the following fifteen years of researches that investigated on the mechanism of GnIH actio...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ubuka T,Son YL,Tsutsui K

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Measurement of plasma renin activity in the freshwater turtle.

    abstract::Components of the renin angiotensin system have been identified in many nonmammalian vertebrates. However, in many of these animals, including reptiles, the physiological functions and importance of the system remain unclear. To aid in the study of the system in a reptile we modified a commercially available radioimmu...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stephens GA,Caron B

    更新日期:1988-06-01 00:00:00

  • Chronically raised glucocorticoids reduce innate immune function in Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) after an immune challenge.

    abstract::The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis releases glucocorticoids (GCs), or stress hormones, during the vertebrate stress response. GCs can both enhance and suppress the immune system depending on whether the experienced stressor is acute or chronic and what aspect of immune function is measured. More research is...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brooks KC,Mateo JM

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • cDNA cloning of thyroid hormone receptor beta for the Japanese flounder.

    abstract::cDNA encoding the beta type of thyroid hormone receptor (THR) was cloned from a lambda gt10 library prepared from the whole bodies of metamorphosing flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The deduced amino acid sequence of the flounder THR beta (fTHR beta 1) showed higher homologies to the known THR beta s of other verteb...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamano K,Inui Y

    更新日期:1995-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of eyestalk removal on cholesterol uptake and ecdysone secretion by crab (Cancer antennarius) Y-organs in vitro.

    abstract::Y-Organs and control tissues from intact (intermolt) and 48-hr de-eyestalked Cancer antennarius donors were cultured for 12 and 24 hr in crustacean saline supplemented 10% with crab serum and containing [14C]cholesterol. Under these conditions, Y-organs took up significantly more [14C]cholesterol than ovary or muscle,...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watson RD,Spaziani E

    更新日期:1985-03-01 00:00:00

  • Abnormal growth hormone receptor gene expression in the sex-linked dwarf chicken.

    abstract::Sex-linked dwarfism is a recessive mutation that causes a reduction in body weight gain and long bone growth of chickens. We examined the effect of the dwarfing gene on body weight, hepatic GH-binding activity, and the structure and expression of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene in two different lines of sex-lin...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burnside J,Liou SS,Zhong C,Cogburn LA

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular cloning of the cDNAs encoding two gonadotropin beta subunits (GTH-I beta and -II beta) from the goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    abstract::Two types of cDNAs (GTH-I beta and -II beta) that encode the beta subunit of goldfish gonadotropin were cloned from a goldfish pituitary cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of GTH-I beta cDNA was 616 bp long, encoding 130 amino acids, and that of GTH-II beta was 552 bp long, encoding 140 amino acids. These two types...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoshiura Y,Kobayashi M,Kato Y,Aida K

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ultrastructural comparison of the perisympathetic organs in three Coleoptera: Chrysocarabus auronitens F., Oryctes rhinoceros L. and Tenebrio molitor L.

    abstract::Ultrastructural comparison of different types of perisympathetic organs (POs) in three species of Coleoptera (Chrysocarabus auronitens, Oryctes rhinoceros, and Tenebrio molitor) showed that the structure of these organs was not related to their morphological types but to their topography. Two kinds of PO structure may...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Provansal-Baudez A,Baudry-Partiaoglou N

    更新日期:1983-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of fasting on the central expression of appetite-regulating and reproductive hormones in wild-type and Casper zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    abstract::Appetite and reproduction are closely related functions that are both regulated by brain hormones. Appetite stimulators include orexin and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and reproductive hormones include gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), kisspeptin, and neurokinin B (NKB). GnRH stim...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: London S,Volkoff H

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Peripheral blood levels of progesterone in female camels during various reproductive stages.

    abstract::Determination of serum progesterone concentrations over a period of 2 years in female camels during various reproductive stages (estrus, pregnant, nonpregnant, and lactating) suggests that the progesterone levels exceeding 1 ng/ml are reached only if mating is fertile. A cycling camel does not have a luteal phase and ...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elias E,Bedrak E,Yagil R

    更新日期:1984-02-01 00:00:00

  • Corticosterone is correlated to mediators of neural plasticity and epigenetic potential in the hippocampus of Senegalese house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    abstract::Our previous research on range-expanding house sparrows in Kenya revealed that (i) range-edge birds released more corticosterone (CORT) in response to a stressor than range-core birds, ii) that range-edge birds were more exploratory than range-core birds, and that (iii) all birds exhibited extensive variation in genom...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kilvitis HJ,Ardia DR,Thiam M,Martin LB

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and developmental expression of lamprey transthyretins.

    abstract::We isolated and cloned full-length cDNAs of transthyretin (TTR) from 2 genera of lamprey, Petromyzon marinus and Lampetra appendix. These sequences represent the first report of TTR sequences in vertebrates basal to teleost fishes. The deduced amino acid sequence of lamprey TTR cDNAs showed 36-47% identity with those ...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Manzon RG,Neuls TM,Manzon LA

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • The oxytocin/vasopressin receptor family has at least five members in the gnathostome lineage, inclucing two distinct V2 subtypes.

    abstract::The vertebrate oxytocin and vasopressin receptors form a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate a large variety of functions, including social behavior and the regulation of blood pressure, water balance and reproduction. In mammals four family members have been identified, three of which respond t...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ocampo Daza D,Lewicka M,Larhammar D

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ligand binding pocket function of Drosophila USP is necessary for metamorphosis.

    abstract::The widely accepted paradigm that epoxidized methyl farnesoates ("juvenile hormones," JHs) are the principal sesquiterpenoid hormones regulating insect metamorphosis was assessed in Drosophila melanogaster. GC-MS analysis of circulating methyl farnesoids during the mid to late 3rd instar showed that methyl farnesoate ...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones G,Teal P,Henrich VC,Krzywonos A,Sapa A,Wozniak M,Smolka J,Jones D

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular cloning of three cDNAs encoding different GnRHs in the brain of barfin flounder.

    abstract::To examine the reproductive endocrinology of a large pleuronectiform fish, barfin flounder, Verasper moseri, a promising candidate for aquaculture and resource enhancement in northern Japan due to its high commercial value, three gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) in the brain was identified by isolation of their...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amano M,Takahashi A,Yamanome T,Okubo K,Aida K,Yamamori K

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Neurons that co-localize aromatase- and kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity may regulate the HPG axis of the Mallard drake (Anas platyrhynchos).

    abstract::Kisspeptin is a potent regulator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. The activation of several vernal and pubertal behaviors involves the action of locally synthesized estradiol by hypothalamic aromatase-expressing neurons. Little is known about kisspeptin in non-mammalian systems, and its interaction with arom...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saldanha CJ,Walters BJ,Fraley GS

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatic insulin-like growth-factor binding protein (igfbp) responses to food restriction in Atlantic salmon smolts.

    abstract::The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) system plays a central role in the regulation of growth in fishes. However, the roles of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) in coordinating responses to food availability are unresolved, especially in anadromous fishes preparing for seaward migration. We assayed plas...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Breves JP,Phipps-Costin SK,Fujimoto CK,Einarsdottir IE,Regish AM,Björnsson BT,McCormick SD

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular characterization of ghrelin and gastrin-releasing peptide in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): cloning, localization, developmental profile and role in food intake regulation.

    abstract::Full-length complementary deoxyribonucleic acid as well as genomic sequences encoding for two gastrointestinal appetite-related peptides, ghrelin and for gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) were cloned from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stomach using reverse transcription and rapid amplification of complementary deoxyribonu...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu M,Volkoff H

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd3b), star and ad4bp/sf-1 during gonadal development in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    abstract::In most vertebrates, sex steroids play a critical role in gonadal development, maturation of germ cells, and development of secondary sexual characteristics. Sex steroids are synthesized in steroid-producing cells (SPCs) in the testis known as Leydig cells, as well as in thecal and granulosa cells in the ovary. In SPC...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakamoto M,Fukasawa M,Tanaka S,Shimamori K,Suzuki A,Matsuda M,Kobayashi T,Nagahama Y,Shibata N

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Application of sensitive enzymeimmunoassay for determination of testosterone in blood plasma of yaks (Poephagus grunniens L.).

    abstract::As an alternative to radioimmunoassays, a simple, highly sensitive and quick enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) for determination of testosterone in blood plasma of yaks on microtitreplates using second antibody coating technique and testosterone-horseradish peroxidase as a label has been developed for the first time. The wells ...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sarkar M,Dutta Borah BK,Meyer HH,Prakash BS

    更新日期:2008-09-15 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of endocrine and transcriptomic markers of male maturation in winter-run Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    abstract::Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) display a varied life-history, including precocious male maturation at age-1 or age-2. In wild fish, precocious male maturation represents an important component of a diverse life-history portfolio. In hatchery programs, however, it is undesirable if rearing practices increase rat...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Middleton MA,Larsen DA,Dickey JT,Swanson P

    更新日期:2019-09-15 00:00:00

  • Fasting increases the plasma glucagon response in the migratory garden warbler (Sylvia borin).

    abstract::Acute pancreatic hormonal responses to oral glucose loads were investigated in garden warblers during the prolonged fast that follows their autumnal migratory fattening. Plasma glucose, free fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, insulin (INS), and glucagon (GLN) were measured prior to and 10 min after an oral glucose loa...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Totzke U,Hübinger A,Korthaus G,Bairlein F

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • Anandamide modulates the expression of GnRH-II and GnRHRs in frog, Rana esculenta, diencephalon.

    abstract::In the hypothalamus, endocannabinoids affect neuroendocrine activity by means of Gonadotropin-Releasing-Hormone-I (GnRH-I) inhibition. Since most vertebrates, human included, possess at least two GnRH molecular forms, the aim of this work was to investigate the effect of endocannabinoids on GnRH molecular forms other ...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chianese R,Ciaramella V,Fasano S,Pierantoni R,Meccariello R

    更新日期:2011-09-15 00:00:00

  • Histochemical and immunocytochemical identification of the pituitary cell types in three sciaenid fishes: Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    abstract::The adenohypophysial cell types in three species of sciaenid teleosts were identified using a combination of classical histochemical techniques and immunocytochemistry with antisera raised against piscine and human pituitary hormones. In general greater specificity for the different cell types was observed with antise...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yan HY,Thomas P

    更新日期:1991-12-01 00:00:00

  • Role of cortisol in hypoosmoregulation in larvae of the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    abstract::The total cortisol content in tilapia was 55 pg immediately following fertilization, then decreased abruptly and maintained a lower level of 10-20 pg until hatching; after hatching the cortisol content increased to 50 pg by the 7th day. Fertilized eggs were incubated in either 32% saltwater or fresh water and sampled ...

    journal_title:General and comparative endocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hwang PP,Wu SM

    更新日期:1993-11-01 00:00:00