Pain outcomes: a brief review of instruments and techniques.


:Pain is a difficult outcome to measure due to its multifaceted and subjective nature. The need for selecting proper outcome measures is high because of the increasing demand for scientifically valid demonstrations of treatment efficacy. This article discusses some basic topics in the measurement of pain outcomes and addresses issues such as statistical versus clinical significance, daily home data collection, appropriate length of outcome measurement packets, and the possibility of objective pain measurements. This article also reviews some of the more commonly used tools for measuring pain and pain-related disability. By selecting the proper tools and employing them correctly, we can obtain highly reliable and valid measures of pain outcomes in research and clinical care.


Curr Pain Headache Rep


Younger J,McCue R,Mackey S




Has Abstract


2009-02-01 00:00:00












  • Animal models of chronic migraine.

    abstract::Many animal models of migraine have been described. Some of them have been useful in the development of new therapies. All of them have their shortcomings. Animal models of chronic migraine have been relatively less frequently described. Whether a rigid distinction between episodic and chronic migraine is useful when ...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Storer RJ,Supronsinchai W,Srikiatkhachorn A

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cancer-induced oxidative stress and pain.

    abstract::Cancer pain is a well-documented and prevalent healthcare problem, with current treatment strategies often failing to achieve acceptable efficacy. One of the major difficulties in treating cancer pain owes to the complex interplay between the cancer microenvironment, cancer therapy, and the body's own responses to the...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nashed MG,Balenko MD,Singh G

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Intravenous treatment of chronic daily headaches in the outpatient headache clinic.

    abstract::The most likely future of aggressive headache treatment will reside in the sphere of the specialist's clinic. This is a far more cost- and time-effective mode of treating intractable chronic daily headaches (CDH), including chronic migraines. We have used this technique successfully in our clinic for many years. Our e...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Krusz JC

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • CGRP Monoclonal Antibodies for the Preventative Treatment of Migraine.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:CGRP is a key neuropeptide in migraine pathophysiology. The blockade of the CGRP pathway at the side of the CGRP receptor of the CGRP peptide leads to the interruption of trigeminal nerve system-mediated headache syndromes such as migraine. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the CGRP pathway have ...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Israel H,Neeb L,Reuter U

    更新日期:2018-04-06 00:00:00

  • Chronic lumbar spine and radicular pain: pathophysiology and treatment.

    abstract::The lumbar spine forms the foundation and infrastructure of an organic skyscraper equipped with the physiologic capacity to act as a crane for lifting and a crankshaft for walking. Subjected to aging like other "human machinery," the lumbar spine adapts to the wear and tear of gravity and biomechanical loading through...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wheeler AH,Murrey DB

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • The role of extraocular and facial muscle trigger points in cephalalgia.

    abstract::Trigger points play a part in the development and maintenance of chronic headache states. This article reviews the physiology of trigger points, with a focus on the -latest understanding of their biochemistry. The importance of facial muscle and extraocular muscle trigger points is only beginning to be understood; the...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McMurray CA,Bajwa ZH

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • A review of the use of topical analgesics for myofascial pain.

    abstract::Numerous treatment strategies for myofascial pain syndrome are available, including physical therapy, behavioral pain management techniques, acupuncture, various types of injections, and the use of various pharmacotherapeutic approaches. The use of topical analgesics for myofascial pain syndrome is the focus of this r...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Argoff CE

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • The psychiatric comorbidities of cluster headache.

    abstract::Although the comorbidity of migraine has been extensively studied, the relationships between cluster headache and psychiatric disease have not been well-addressed. In this review the available literature concerning cluster headache and depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, aggression, suicide, and their implications ...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Robbins MS

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Contribution of primary afferent channels to neuropathic pain.

    abstract::Neuropathic pain remains a serious medical problem because of patient morbidity and the absence of effective therapeutic interventions. Recent evidence suggests that this type of pain may be particularly difficult to manage because underlying mechanisms are influenced by a variety of factors, including type of injury,...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Harriott AM,Gold MS

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Tension-type headache in the elderly.

    abstract::Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common type of headache in the general population, including individuals over the age of 65 years. Although the prevalence of migraine decreases markedly with age, TTH has a greater tendency to persist later in life. Less commonly, TTH can present for the first time after the ag...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Crystal SC,Grosberg BM

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Managing difficult pain conditions in the cancer patient.

    abstract::Whereas most pain due to cancer can be relieved with relatively simple methods using oral analgesics, as suggested by WHO guidelines, some patients may have difficult pain situations that require more complex approaches. It is estimated that 10-20 % of cancer patients suffer from pain that is not easily relieved. Ther...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mercadante S

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Migrainous features in cluster headache.

    abstract::Migraine and cluster headache have been considered entirely separate clinical syndromes, both in routine clinical practice and in the 1988 International Headache Society classification. Neurologists seeing large numbers of patients soon realize, however, that there is a considerable overlap between the two conditions....

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Peatfield R

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • A Review of Recent Advances in Ultrasound, Placed in the Context of Pain Diagnosis and Treatment.

    abstract::Ultrasound plays a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of pain, with significant literature reaching back many years, especially with regard to diagnostic ultrasound and its use for guiding needle-based delivery of drugs. Advances in ultrasound over at least the last decade have opened up new areas of inqu...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bobola MS,Chen L,Ezeokeke CK,Kuznetsova K,Lahti AC,Lou W,Myroniv AN,Schimek NW,Selby ML,Mourad PD

    更新日期:2018-07-10 00:00:00

  • Current Therapeutic Interventions in Lower Extremity Venous Insufficiency: a Comprehensive Review.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Chronic venous disease (CVD), although affecting up to 40% of the US population, is often underdiagnosed by healthcare professionals due to an incomplete understanding of the presenting symptoms. CVD is a common cause of lower extremity pain and discomfort, including aching, cramping, tingling, burnin...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Novak CJ,Khimani N,Kaye AD,Jason Yong R,Urman RD

    更新日期:2019-03-04 00:00:00

  • Emerging trends in understanding chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    abstract::Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major concern in oncology practice given the increasing number of cancer survivors and the lack of effective treatment. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy depends upon the anticancer drug used, but is commonly under-reported in clinical trials. Several animal ...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ferrier J,Pereira V,Busserolles J,Authier N,Balayssac D

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Sports-related headache.

    abstract::Sports-related or sports-associated headaches are common. They can be benign as in primary exertional headache or may signal serious pathology as in headache associated with traumatic subdural hematoma. Specific sports activities are associated with unique headache conditions such as decompression sickness headache or...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ramadan NM

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Is there genetic polymorphism evidence for individual human sensitivity to opiates?

    abstract::Opiate analgesics have been widely used for severe acute pain and chronic cancer-related pain. Individual differences in the effectiveness of opiates and their side effects limit the clinical benefits and increase risks of drug abuse. Genetic factors might affect variations of opiate sensitivity. The mu opioid peptide...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nagashima M,Katoh R,Sato Y,Tagami M,Kasai S,Ikeda K

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Invasive and Non-invasive Electrical Pericranial Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Primary Headaches.

    abstract::Chronic primary headaches are widespread disorders which cause significant quality of life and socioprofessional impairment. Available pharmacological treatments have often a limited efficacy and/or can generate unbearable side effects. Electrical nerve stimulation is a well-known non-destructive method of pain modula...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: D'Ostilio K,Magis D

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Neuromodulating drugs for the symptomatic treatment of neuropathic pain.

    abstract::Significant improvement of neuropathic pain has been achieved with studies that have demonstrated efficacy of newer anticonvulsants in relieving this type of pain, by having a neuromodulatory effect on the hyperexcitable damaged nervous system. Two drugs from this class, gabapentin and lamotrigine, have been submitted...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Backonja M

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Fibromyalgia: the gastrointestinal link.

    abstract::Patients with fibromyalgia (FM) frequently have gastrointestinal symptoms and signs. This article critically reviews the available literature and concludes the following: evidence that inflammatory bowel disease is associated with FM is contradictory, but should be looked for in patients taking concomitant steroids; p...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wallace DJ,Hallegua DS

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of cancer pain.

    abstract::Pain can be a significant problem for the patient with advanced cancer, particularly if bone metastases are present. Radiation therapy is efficacious and has been a mainstay in the treatment of pain from bone metastases. In the past decade, radiosurgery has developed into a successful adjunct treatment for these patie...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Haley M,Gerszten PC

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence-Based Non-Pharmacological Therapies for Fibromyalgia.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Fibromyalgia (FM) is the second most common rheumatologic pain disorder after osteoarthritis with a multisystem presentation. While the treatment of FM in a clinical setting incorporates both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic modalities, the present investigation reviews evolving literature on cogni...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Aman MM,Jason Yong R,Kaye AD,Urman RD

    更新日期:2018-04-04 00:00:00

  • Pragmatic consideration of recent randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials for treatment of fibromyalgia.

    abstract::A flurry of recent randomized, placebo-controlled trials assessing dissimilar pharmacotherapeutic treatment options for fibromyalgia (FM) have been presented in the past few years. This review evaluates these trials in light of recent pathophysiological concepts germane to FM, including mood disorders, autonomic dysre...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Holman AJ

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Caffeine and headaches.

    abstract::Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychostimulant drug in the world. With intermittent exposures, caffeine may act as a mild analgesic for headache or as an adjuvant for the actions of other analgesics. Chronic repetitive exposures to caffeine increase the risks for development of analgesic-overuse headache, chroni...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shapiro RE

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic headache and sleep disturbance.

    abstract::Headache and sleep disturbance are common health complaints. Both complaints often co-exist in the same patient, leading some to suspect a causal relationship or common underlying pathology. However, the empirical literature in this area is limited. Some attempts have been made to explore the relationship between head...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rains JC,Penzien DB

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Anesthetic and Analgesic Management for Outpatient Knee Arthroplasty.

    abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Total knee arthroplasty traditionally has been associated with significant postoperative pain that can limit recovery and prolong hospital length of stay. Recently, however, due to financial pressures and an emphasis on improving patient satisfaction, many institutions are implementing outpatient and ...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cullom C,Weed JT

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Temperament, character, and personality disorders in chronic pain.

    abstract::In the past decades investigators have used personality inventories to help explain the relationship between personality and pain experience. This article reviews empirical research, which has examined temperament and character features in chronic pain patients. Robert Cloninger's temperament and character model of pe...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Conrad R,Wegener I,Geiser F,Kleiman A

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Headache as an emergency in children and adolescents.

    abstract::Pediatric and adolescence headache is one of the most common causes of access in emergency departments (ED). Primary headache and headache secondary to self-limited conditions are the majority of cases. Secondary life-threatening headaches are less frequent and may be recognized by a careful history and physical exami...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Papetti L,Capuano A,Tarantino S,Vigevano F,Valeriani M

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Medicolegal issues in cluster headache.

    abstract::This paper identifies legal issues of relevance to the diagnosis and treatment of cluster headache, including areas of actual and potential malpractice liability. Legal topics that are relevant to cluster headache can be divided into five categories: diagnostic-related issues, risks inherent in the disease process, pr...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loder E,Loder J

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Paroxysmal hemicrania: an update.

    abstract::Paroxysmal hemicrania (PH) is an underreported and underdiagnosed primary headache disorder. It usually begins in the third or fourth decade of life. The recent observations indicate that it is equally prevalent in both males and females. PH is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral head pain attacks that occur ...

    journal_title:Current pain and headache reports

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Prakash S,Patell R

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00