Under-representation of developing countries in the research literature: ethical issues arising from a survey of five leading medical journals.


BACKGROUND:It is widely acknowledged that there is a global divide on health care and health research known as the 10/90 divide. METHODS:A retrospective survey of articles published in the BMJ, Lancet, NEJM, Annals of Internal Medicine & JAMA in a calendar year to examine the contribution of the developing world to medical literature. We categorized countries into four regions: UK, USA, Other Euro-American countries (OEAC) and (RoW). OEAC were European countries other than the UK but including Australia, New Zealand and Canada. RoW comprised all other countries. RESULTS:The average contribution of the RoW to the research literature in the five journals was 6.5%. In the two British journals 7.6% of the articles were from the RoW; in the three American journals 4.8% of articles were from RoW. The highest proportion of papers from the RoW was in the Lancet (12%). An analysis of the authorship of 151 articles from RoW showed that 104 (68.9%) involved authorship with developed countries in Europe or North America. There were 15 original papers in these journals with data from RoW but without any authors from RoW. CONCLUSIONS:There is a marked under-representation of countries in high-impact general medical journals. The ethical implications of this inequity and ways of reducing it are discussed.


BMC Med Ethics


BMC medical ethics


Sumathipala A,Siribaddana S,Patel V





Has Abstract


2004-10-04 00:00:00










  • Dying well with reduced agency: a scoping review and thematic synthesis of the decision-making process in dementia, traumatic brain injury and frailty.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In most Anglophone nations, policy and law increasingly foster an autonomy-based model, raising issues for large numbers of people who fail to fit the paradigm, and indicating problems in translating practical and theoretical understandings of 'good death' to policy. Three exemplar populations are frail olde...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Birchley G,Jones K,Huxtable R,Dixon J,Kitzinger J,Clare L

    更新日期:2016-07-27 00:00:00

  • Is informed consent related to success in exercise and diet intervention as evaluated at 12 months? DR's EXTRA study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is a permanent need to evaluate and develop the ethical quality of scientific research and to widen knowledge about the effects of ethical issues. Therefore we evaluated whether informed consent is related to implementation and success in a lifestyle intervention study with older research participants....

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Länsimies-Antikainen H,Pietilä AM,Laitinen T,Kiviniemi V,Rauramaa R

    更新日期:2010-06-08 00:00:00

  • A biobank management model applicable to biomedical research.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The work of Research Ethics Boards (REBs), especially when involving genetics research and biobanks, has become more challenging with the growth of biotechnology and biomedical research. Some REBs have even rejected research projects where the use of a biobank with coded samples was an integral part of the s...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Auray-Blais C,Patenaude J

    更新日期:2006-04-06 00:00:00

  • A framework for the ethical assessment of chimeric animal research involving human neural tissue.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Animal models of human diseases are often used in biomedical research in place of human subjects. However, results obtained by animal models may fail to hold true for humans. One way of addressing this problem is to make animal models more similar to humans by placing human tissue into animal models, renderi...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Porsdam Mann S,Sun R,Hermerén G

    更新日期:2019-01-25 00:00:00

  • Actual implementation of sick children's rights in Italian pediatric units: a descriptive study based on nurses' perceptions.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Several charters of rights have been issued in Europe to solemnly proclaim the rights of children during their hospital stay. However, notwithstanding such general declarations, the actual implementation of hospitalized children's rights is unclear. The purpose of this study was to understand to which extent...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bisogni S,Aringhieri C,McGreevy K,Olivini N,Lopez JR,Ciofi D,Merlo AM,Mariotti P,Festini F

    更新日期:2015-05-13 00:00:00

  • Complexity of consenting for medical termination of pregnancy: prospective and longitudinal study in Paris.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We analyzed the patients' perception of prenatal diagnosis of fetal cardiac pathology, and the reasons for choosing to continue with pregnancy despite being eligible to receive a medical termination of pregnancy. We also identified the challenges, the motives interfering in decision-making, and the consequen...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abi Tayeh G,Jouannic JM,Mansour F,Kesrouani A,Attieh E

    更新日期:2018-05-02 00:00:00

  • Patients as consumers of health care in South Africa: the ethical and legal implications.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:South Africa currently has a pluralistic health care system with separate public and private sectors. It is, however, moving towards a socialised model with the introduction of National Health Insurance. The South African legislative environment has changed recently with the promulgation of the Consumer Prot...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rowe K,Moodley K

    更新日期:2013-03-21 00:00:00

  • Generating genius: how an Alzheimer's drug became considered a 'cognitive enhancer' for healthy individuals.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has been widely cited in media and bioethics literature on cognitive enhancement (CE) as having the potential to improve the cognitive ability of healthy individuals. In both literatures, this claim has been repeatedly...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wade L,Forlini C,Racine E

    更新日期:2014-05-12 00:00:00

  • Giving samples or "getting checked": measuring conflation of observational biospecimen research and clinical care in Latino communities.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Expectations of receiving personal health information as a fringe benefit of biospecimen donation-termed diagnostic misconception-are increasingly documented. We developed an instrument measuring conflation of observational biospecimen-based research and clinical care for use with Latino communities, who may...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knerr S,Ceballos RM

    更新日期:2015-07-17 00:00:00

  • Research participants' perceptions and views on consent for biobank research: a review of empirical data and ethical analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Appropriate information and consent has been one of the most intensely discussed topics within the context of biobank research. In parallel to the normative debate, many socio-empirical studies have been conducted to gather experiences, preferences and views of patients, healthy research participants and fur...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: D'Abramo F,Schildmann J,Vollmann J

    更新日期:2015-09-09 00:00:00

  • Ethics of neuroimaging after serious brain injury.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patient outcome after serious brain injury is highly variable. Following a period of coma, some patients recover while others progress into a vegetative state (unresponsive wakefulness syndrome) or minimally conscious state. In both cases, assessment is difficult and misdiagnosis may be as high as 43%. Recen...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weijer C,Peterson A,Webster F,Graham M,Cruse D,Fernández-Espejo D,Gofton T,Gonzalez-Lara LE,Lazosky A,Naci L,Norton L,Speechley K,Young B,Owen AM

    更新日期:2014-05-20 00:00:00

  • Attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia among care-dependent older adults (50+) in Austria: the role of socio-demographics, religiosity, physical illness, psychological distress, and social isolation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Care-dependency constitutes an important issue with regard to the approval of end-of-life decisions, yet attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia are understudied among care-dependent older adults. We assessed attitudes towards assisted suicide and euthanasia and tested empirical correlates, includi...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stolz E,Mayerl H,Gasser-Steiner P,Freidl W

    更新日期:2017-12-07 00:00:00

  • Seeking consent for research with indigenous communities: a systematic review.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:When conducting research with Indigenous populations consent should be sought from both individual participants and the local community. We aimed to search and summarise the literature about methods for seeking consent for research with Indigenous populations. METHODS:A systematic literature search was cond...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fitzpatrick EF,Martiniuk AL,D'Antoine H,Oscar J,Carter M,Elliott EJ

    更新日期:2016-10-22 00:00:00

  • Patenting human genes: Chinese academic articles' portrayal of gene patents.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The patenting of human genes has been the subject of debate for decades. While China has gradually come to play an important role in the global genomics-based testing and treatment market, little is known about Chinese scholars' perspectives on patent protection for human genes. METHODS:A content analysis o...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Du L

    更新日期:2018-04-24 00:00:00

  • "Media, politics and science policy: MS and evidence from the CCSVI Trenches".

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In 2009, Dr. Paolo Zamboni proposed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as a possible cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although his theory and the associated treatment ("liberation therapy") received little more than passing interest in the international scientific and medical communities, hi...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pullman D,Zarzeczny A,Picard A

    更新日期:2013-02-12 00:00:00

  • Public appraisal of government efforts and participation intent in medico-ethical policymaking in Japan: a large scale national survey concerning brain death and organ transplant.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted. M...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sato H,Akabayashi A,Kai I

    更新日期:2005-01-20 00:00:00

  • Challenges and opportunities for ELSI early career researchers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Over the past 25 years, there has been growing recognition of the importance of studying the Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of genetic and genomic research. A large investment into ELSI research from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Genomic Project budget in 1990 stimulated the gr...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bell J,Ancillotti M,Coathup V,Coy S,Rigter T,Tatum T,Grewal J,Akcesme FB,Brkić J,Causevic-Ramosevac A,Milovanovic G,Nobile M,Pavlidis C,Finlay T,Kaye J,ELSI2.0.

    更新日期:2016-07-08 00:00:00

  • Ethical oversight in quality improvement and quality improvement research: new approaches to promote a learning health care system.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Institutional review boards (IRBs) distinguish health care quality improvement (QI) and health care quality improvement research (QIR) based primarily on the rigor of the methods used and the purported generalizability of the knowledge gained. Neither of these criteria holds up upon scrutiny. Rather, this ap...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fiscella K,Tobin JN,Carroll JK,He H,Ogedegbe G

    更新日期:2015-09-17 00:00:00

  • The values and ethical commitments of doctors engaging in macroallocation: a qualitative and evaluative analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In most socialised health systems there are formal processes that manage resource scarcity and determine the allocation of funds to health services in accordance with their priority. In this analysis, part of a larger qualitative study examining the ethical issues entailed in doctors' participation as techni...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gallagher S,Little M,Hooker C

    更新日期:2018-07-24 00:00:00

  • Personalized assent for pediatric biobanks.

    abstract::Pediatric biobanking is considered important for generating biomedical knowledge and improving (pediatric) health care. However, the inclusion of children's samples in biobanks involves specific ethical issues. One of the main concerns is how to appropriately engage children in the consent procedure. We suggest that c...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Giesbertz NA,Melham K,Kaye J,van Delden JJ,Bredenoord AL

    更新日期:2016-10-12 00:00:00

  • International variation in ethics committee requirements: comparisons across five Westernised nations.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Ethics committees typically apply the common principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice to research proposals but with variable weighting and interpretation. This paper reports a comparison of ethical requirements in an international cross-cultural study and discusses their implications....

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goodyear-Smith F,Lobb B,Davies G,Nachson I,Seelau SM

    更新日期:2002-04-19 00:00:00

  • Between Scylla and Charybdis: reconciling competing data management demands in the life sciences.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The widespread sharing of biologicaConcluding Comments: Teaching Responsible Datal and biomedical data is recognised as a key element in facilitating translation of scientific discoveries into novel clinical applications and services. At the same time, twenty-first century states are increasingly concerned t...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bezuidenhout LM,Morrison M

    更新日期:2016-05-17 00:00:00

  • Personal genome testing: test characteristics to clarify the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:As genetics technology proceeds, practices of genetic testing have become more heterogeneous: many different types of tests are finding their way to the public in different settings and for a variety of purposes. This diversification is relevant to the discourse on ethical, legal and societal issues (ELSI) s...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bunnik EM,Schermer MH,Janssens AC

    更新日期:2011-06-14 00:00:00

  • Obtaining subjects' consent to publish identifying personal information: current practices and identifying potential issues.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In studies publishing identifying personal information, obtaining consent is regarded as necessary, as it is impossible to ensure complete anonymity. However, current journal practices around specific points to consider when obtaining consent, the contents of consent forms and how consent forms are managed h...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoshida A,Dowa Y,Murakami H,Kosugi S

    更新日期:2013-11-25 00:00:00

  • Responsible data sharing in international health research: a systematic review of principles and norms.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Large-scale linkage of international clinical datasets could lead to unique insights into disease aetiology and facilitate treatment evaluation and drug development. Hereto, multi-stakeholder consortia are currently designing several disease-specific translational research platforms to enable international h...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kalkman S,Mostert M,Gerlinger C,van Delden JJM,van Thiel GJMW

    更新日期:2019-03-28 00:00:00

  • Medical and midwifery students' views on the use of conscientious objection in abortion care, following legal reform in Chile: a cross-sectional study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In August 2017, Chile lifted its complete ban on abortion by permitting abortion in three limited circumstances: 1) to save a woman's life, 2) lethal fetal anomaly, and 3) rape. The new law allows regulated use of conscientious objection (CO) in abortion care, including allowing institutions to register as o...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Biggs MA,Casas L,Ramm A,Baba CF,Correa SP

    更新日期:2020-05-24 00:00:00

  • "You would not be in a hurry to go back home": patients' willingness to participate in HIV/AIDS clinical trials at a clinical and research facility in Kampala, Uganda.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Few studies have examined factors associated with willingness of people living with HIV (PLHIV) to participate in HIV treatment clinical trials in Sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed the factors associated with participation of PLHIV in HIV treatment clinical trials research at a large urban clinical and researc...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sebatta DE,Siu G,Nabeta HW,Anguzu G,Walimbwa S,Lamorde M,Bukenya B,Kambugu A

    更新日期:2020-08-24 00:00:00

  • An interprofessional cohort analysis of student interest in medical ethics education: a survey-based quantitative study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is continued need for enhanced medical ethics education across the United States. In an effort to guide medical ethics education reform, we report the first interprofessional survey of a cohort of graduate medical, nursing and allied health professional students that examined perceived student need for...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: DeFoor MT,Chung Y,Zadinsky JK,Dowling J,Sams RW 2nd

    更新日期:2020-04-08 00:00:00

  • Promoting advance planning for health care and research among older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Family members are often required to act as substitute decision-makers when health care or research participation decisions must be made for an incapacitated relative. Yet most families are unable to accurately predict older adult preferences regarding future health care and willingness to engage in research...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Bravo G,Arcand M,Blanchette D,Boire-Lavigne AM,Dubois MF,Guay M,Hottin P,Lane J,Lauzon J,Bellemare S

    更新日期:2012-01-05 00:00:00

  • Ethics review of studies during public health emergencies - the experience of the WHO ethics review committee during the Ebola virus disease epidemic.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Between 2013 and 2016, West Africa experienced the largest ever outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease. In the absence of registered treatments or vaccines to control this lethal disease, the World Health Organization coordinated and supported research to expedite identification of interventions that could control ...

    journal_title:BMC medical ethics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alirol E,Kuesel AC,Guraiib MM,de la Fuente-Núñez V,Saxena A,Gomes MF

    更新日期:2017-06-26 00:00:00