Effects on inequality in life expectancy from a social ecology perspective.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:Inequality in life expectancy (ILE) is defined as inequality in the distribution of expected span of life-based on data from survival tables estimated using the Atkinson inequality index. ILE can be influenced by socio-ecological indicators including the Gini coefficient, secondary education, output per worker, and old age pension. This study examined the effects on ILE from a social ecology perspective. METHODS:This analysis is based on ILE data from 108 countries obtained from the United Nations Development Programme. Data on socio-ecological indicators were obtained from the United Nations database. The associations between socio-ecological indicators and ILE were assessed using correlation coefficients and multiple regression models. RESULTS:Significant correlations were evident between ILE and the following indicators from a socio-ecological perspective: Gini coefficient (GC: r = 0.335, p = 0.001) as an indicator of income inequality, female population with at least some secondary education (FSE: r = - 0.757, p = 0.001), male population with at least some secondary education (MSE: r = - 0.741, p = 0.001), output per worker as a measure of labor productivity (OPW: r = - 0.714, p = 0.001), and number of old age pension recipients (OPR: r = - 0.641, p = 0.001). In multivariate regression, the ILE predictors were higher GC and lower levels of FSE, MSE, OPW, and OPR (R2 = 0.648, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Socio-ecological factors have an important effect on ILE. Policies that address ILE should consider targeted socio-ecological factors, such as the Gini coefficient of income inequality, that give a personal perspective of economic deprivation, attainment of at least a secondary education by both females and males that gives a social environment perspective, output per worker that indicates labor productivity, and the number of old age pension recipients that indicates social security from a public policy perspective.

journal_name

BMC Public Health

journal_title

BMC public health

authors

Kim JI,Kim G

doi

10.1186/s12889-018-5134-1

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2018-02-13 00:00:00

pages

243

issue

1

issn

1471-2458

pii

10.1186/s12889-018-5134-1

journal_volume

18

pub_type

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