Antibiotics for trachoma.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:Trachoma is the world's leading cause of preventable blindness. In 1997 the World Health Organization launched an initiative on trachoma control based on the 'SAFE' strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement). OBJECTIVES:The aim of this review is to assess the evidence supporting the antibiotic arm of the SAFE strategy by assessing the effects of antibiotics on both active trachoma (primary objective) and on Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the conjunctiva (secondary objective). SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register - CENTRAL/CCTR, which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group specialised register (Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2001), MEDLINE (1966 to August 2001), and EMBASE (1980 to September 2001). We used the Science Citation Index to look for articles that cited the included studies. We searched the reference lists of identified articles and we contacted authors and experts for details of further relevant studies. SELECTION CRITERIA:We included only randomised trials that satisfied either of two criteria: (a) trials in which topical or oral administration of an antibiotic was compared to placebo or no treatment in people with trachoma, (b) trials in which a topical antibiotic was compared with an oral antibiotic in people with trachoma. A subdivision of particular interest was of trials in which topical tetracycline/chlortetracycline was compared with oral azithromycin, as these are the two World Health Organization recommended treatments. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted investigators for missing data. MAIN RESULTS:We found 15 studies that randomised a total of 8678 participants. For both outcomes (active trachoma and laboratory evidence of infection) the results of the chi-square tests suggested that there was significant statistical heterogeneity among the trials. There was also marked clinical heterogeneity. No summary statistics were calculated and we therefore present a narrative summary of the results. For the comparisons of oral or topical antibiotic against placebo/no treatment, the data are consistent with there being no effect of antibiotics but are suggestive of a lowering of the point prevalence of relative risk of both active disease and laboratory evidence of infection at three and 12 months after treatment. For the comparison of oral against topical antibiotics the results suggest that oral treatment is neither more nor less effective than topical treatment. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS:There is some evidence that antibiotics reduce active trachoma but results are not consistent and cannot be pooled.

authors

Mabey D,Fraser-Hurt N

doi

10.1002/14651858.CD001860

keywords:

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2002-01-01 00:00:00

pages

CD001860

issue

1

issn

1469-493X

pii

CD001860

pub_type

杂志文章,评审
  • Aripiprazole versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In most western industrialised countries, second generation (atypical) antipsychotics are recommended as first line drug treatments for people with schizophrenia. In this review we specifically examine how the efficacy and tolerability of one such agent - aripiprazole - differs from that of other comparable ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006569.pub4

    authors: Khanna P,Komossa K,Rummel-Kluge C,Hunger H,Schwarz S,El-Sayeh HG,Leucht S

    更新日期:2013-02-28 00:00:00

  • Physician advice for smoking cessation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Healthcare professionals frequently advise patients to improve their health by stopping smoking. Such advice may be brief, or part of more intensive interventions. OBJECTIVES:The aims of this review were to assess the effectiveness of advice from physicians in promoting smoking cessation; to compare minimal...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000165.pub3

    authors: Stead LF,Bergson G,Lancaster T

    更新日期:2008-04-16 00:00:00

  • Artesunate versus quinine for treating severe malaria.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Severe malaria kills over a million people every year. We sought evidence of superiority of artesunate compared with the standard treatment quinine. OBJECTIVES:To compare artesunate with quinine for treating severe malaria. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Regi...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005967.pub2

    authors: Jones KL,Donegan S,Lalloo DG

    更新日期:2007-10-17 00:00:00

  • Vitamin A supplementation for postpartum women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In areas where vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a public health concern, the maternal dietary intake of vitamin A may be not sufficient to meet either the maternal nutritional requirements, or those of the breastfed infant, due the low retinol concentrations in breast milk. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effects o...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005944.pub3

    authors: Oliveira JM,Allert R,East CE

    更新日期:2016-03-25 00:00:00

  • Fish oil for kidney transplant recipients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Calcineurin inhibitors used in kidney transplantation for immunosuppression have adverse effects that may contribute to nephrotoxicity and increased cardiovascular risk profile. Fish oils are rich in very long chain omega-3 fatty acids, which may reduce nephrotoxicity by improving endothelial function and re...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005282.pub2

    authors: Lim AK,Manley KJ,Roberts MA,Fraenkel MB

    更新日期:2007-04-18 00:00:00

  • Arginine supplementation for prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Decreased concentration of nitric oxide has been proposed as one of the possible cellular mechanisms of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Arginine can act as a substrate for production of nitric oxide in the tissues, and arginine supplementation may help to prevent NEC. OBJECTIVES:To examine the effect of ar...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004339.pub4

    authors: Shah PS,Shah VS,Kelly LE

    更新日期:2017-04-11 00:00:00

  • Single dose oral indometacin for the treatment of acute postoperative pain.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Indometacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used most commonly for the treatment of inflammation and pain resulting from rheumatic disease (arthritis), and less commonly in postoperative pain management. When taken for chronic pain conditions, indometacin has been associated with a high inc...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004308.pub2

    authors: Mason L,Edwards J,Moore RA,McQuay HJ

    更新日期:2004-10-18 00:00:00

  • Interventions in the workplace to support breastfeeding for women in employment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In recent years there has been a rise in the participation rate of women in employment. Some may become pregnant while in employment and subsequently deliver their babies. Most may decide to return early to work after giving birth for various reasons. Unless these mothers get support from their employers and...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006177.pub2

    authors: Abdulwadud OA,Snow ME

    更新日期:2007-07-18 00:00:00

  • Zonisamide add-on therapy for focal epilepsy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The majority of people with epilepsy have a good prognosis, and their seizures can be well controlled with the use of a single antiepileptic agent, but up to 30% develop refractory epilepsy, especially those with focal seizures. In this review, we summarised the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RC...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001416.pub4

    authors: Brigo F,Lattanzi S,Igwe SC,Behzadifar M,Bragazzi NL

    更新日期:2018-10-18 00:00:00

  • Antibiotics versus control for toxoplasma retinochoroiditis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Acute toxoplasma retinochoroiditis causes transient symptoms of ocular discomfort and may lead to permanent visual loss. Antibiotic treatment primarily aims to reduce the risk of permanent visual loss, recurrent retinochoroiditis, and the severity and duration of acute symptoms. There is uncertainty about th...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002218

    authors: Gilbert RE,See SE,Jones LV,Stanford MS

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aim of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is temporarily to replace much of the nicotine from cigarettes to reduce motivation to smoke and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence. OBJECTIVES:The aims of this review were:To determine the effe...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub3

    authors: Stead LF,Perera R,Bullen C,Mant D,Lancaster T

    更新日期:2008-01-23 00:00:00

  • Second or third additional chemotherapy drug for non-small cell lung cancer in patients with advanced disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Randomized trials have demonstrated that adding a drug to a single-agent or to a two-agent regimen increased the tumor response rate in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), although its impact on survival remains controversial. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the clinical benefit of adding a dr...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004569.pub2

    authors: Delbaldo C,Michiels S,Rolland E,Syz N,Soria JC,Le Chevalier T,Pignon JP

    更新日期:2007-10-17 00:00:00

  • Effect of partogram use on outcomes for women in spontaneous labour at term.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The partogram (sometimes known as partograph) is usually a pre-printed paper form on which labour observations are recorded. The aim of the partogram is to provide a pictorial overview of labour, to alert midwives and obstetricians to deviations in maternal or fetal wellbeing and labour progress. Charts ofte...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005461.pub3

    authors: Lavender T,Hart A,Smyth RM

    更新日期:2012-08-15 00:00:00

  • Hormone replacement therapy for women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is conflicting information about the impact of the menopause on glycaemic control amongst women with type 1 diabetes. Some menopausal women with type 1 diabetes are treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) but the effects of this treatment have, to date, not been established. OBJECTIVES:To asses...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008613.pub2

    authors: Mackay L,Kilbride L,Adamson KA,Chisholm J

    更新日期:2013-06-06 00:00:00

  • Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Perineal trauma following vaginal birth can be associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity. Antenatal perineal massage has been proposed as one method of decreasing the incidence of perineal trauma. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effect of antenatal perineal massage on the incidence of perineal tra...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005123.pub2

    authors: Beckmann MM,Garrett AJ

    更新日期:2006-01-25 00:00:00

  • Chinese herbal medicines for induction of remission in advanced or late gastric cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Gastric cancer is difficult to cure once it progresses into an advanced or late stage. Although some chemotherapies or bio-therapies have made progress in the remission of this disease, mortality remains high. A variety of Chinese medicinal herbs have been used to treat gastric cancer. OBJECTIVES:To assess ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005096.pub2

    authors: Gan T,Wu Z,Tian L,Wang Y

    更新日期:2010-01-20 00:00:00

  • Fluoxetine for adults who are overweight or obese.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Fluoxetine is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor indicated for major depression. It is also thought to affect weight control: this seems to happen through appetite changes resulting in decreased food intake and normalisation of unusual eating behaviours. However, the benefit-risk ratio of this off-label medicati...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011688.pub2

    authors: Serralde-Zúñiga AE,Gonzalez Garay AG,Rodríguez-Carmona Y,Melendez G

    更新日期:2019-10-15 00:00:00

  • Interventions for preventing infectious complications in haemodialysis patients with central venous catheters.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Central venous catheters (CVC) continue to play a prominent role in haemodialysis vascular access with 46% to 70% of patients commencing haemodialysis via a CVC. CVC access is associated with catheter-related infections, increased patient hospitalisations and death due to infection. A variety of intervention...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006894.pub2

    authors: McCann M,Moore ZE

    更新日期:2010-01-20 00:00:00

  • Continuous positive airways pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea in adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Obstructive sleep apnoea is the periodic reduction (hypopnoea) or cessation (apnoea) of breathing due to narrowing or occlusion of the upper airway during sleep. The main symptom is daytime sleepiness and it has been suggested it is linked to premature death, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001106.pub3

    authors: Giles TL,Lasserson TJ,Smith BH,White J,Wright J,Cates CJ

    更新日期:2006-07-19 00:00:00

  • Laparoscopic versus open liver resection for benign and malignant hepatic lesions in adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Liver (hepatic) resection refers to removal of the whole liver, or one or more of its vascular segments. Elective liver resection is mainly performed for benign and malignant liver tumours. The operation can be performed as an open procedure or with a laparoscopic approach. With the advancement of laparoscop...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010162.pub2

    authors: Rao AM,Ahmed I

    更新日期:2013-05-31 00:00:00

  • Zinc supplementation for the treatment of measles in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally, despite increasing vaccine coverage. Zinc plays a significant role in the maintenance of normal immunological functions, therefore supplements given to zinc-deficient children will increase the availability of zinc and could reduce ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011177.pub3

    authors: Awotiwon AA,Oduwole O,Sinha A,Okwundu CI

    更新日期:2017-06-20 00:00:00

  • Interventions for preventing and treating incontinence-associated dermatitis in adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is one of the most common skin problems in adults who are incontinent for urine, stool, or both. In practice, products and procedures are the same for both prevention and treatment of IAD. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of var...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011627.pub2

    authors: Beeckman D,Van Damme N,Schoonhoven L,Van Lancker A,Kottner J,Beele H,Gray M,Woodward S,Fader M,Van den Bussche K,Van Hecke A,De Meyer D,Verhaeghe S

    更新日期:2016-11-10 00:00:00

  • Corticosteroids for acute ischaemic stroke.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Much of the brain swelling in ischaemic stroke is due to cytotoxic oedema, which is related to cell membrane dysfunction. Early treatment with corticosteroids may help reduce the swelling and improve the outcomes after a stroke. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the effect of corticoster...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000064

    authors: Qizilbash N,Lewington SL,Lopez-Arrieta JM

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Hormonal contraceptives for contraception in overweight or obese women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Obesity has reached epidemic proportions around the world. Metabolic changes in obesity and greater body mass may lead to reduced effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives, such as the skin patch, vaginal ring, implants, and injectables. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of hormonal...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008452.pub2

    authors: Lopez LM,Grimes DA,Chen-Mok M,Westhoff C,Edelman A,Helmerhorst FM

    更新日期:2010-07-07 00:00:00

  • Antioxidants for female subfertility.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007807.pub3

    authors: Showell MG,Mackenzie-Proctor R,Jordan V,Hart RJ

    更新日期:2017-07-28 00:00:00

  • WITHDRAWN: Interventions for treating hallux valgus (abductovalgus) and bunions.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hallux valgus is classified as an abnormal deviation of the great toe (hallux) towards the midline of the foot. OBJECTIVES:To identify and evaluate the evidence from randomised trials of interventions used to correct hallux valgus. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauama Gro...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000964.pub3

    authors: Ferrari J,Higgins JP,Prior TD

    更新日期:2009-04-15 00:00:00

  • Iron supplementation in pregnancy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Anaemia in pregnancy is a major health problem in many developing countries where nutritional deficiency, malaria and other parasitic infections contribute to increased maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the effects of iron supplementation o...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000117

    authors: Mahomed K

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Alginate dressings for healing diabetic foot ulcers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Foot ulcers in people with diabetes mellitus are a common and serious global health issue. Dressings form a key part of ulcer treatment, with clinicians and patients having many different types to choose from including alginate dressings. A clear and current overview of current evidence is required to facili...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009110.pub2

    authors: Dumville JC,O'Meara S,Deshpande S,Speak K

    更新日期:2012-02-15 00:00:00

  • Surgical interventions for the early management of Bell's palsy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Bell's palsy is an acute unilateral facial paralysis of unknown aetiology and should only be used as a diagnosis in the absence of any other pathology. As the proposed pathophysiology is swelling and entrapment of the nerve, some surgeons suggest surgical decompression of the nerve as a possible management o...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007468.pub4

    authors: Menchetti I,McAllister K,Walker D,Donnan PT

    更新日期:2021-01-26 00:00:00

  • Vaccines for preventing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To assess the effectiveness of vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis. SEARCH STRATEGY:The Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group specialist trials register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001399

    authors: Keogan MT,Johansen HK

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00