Biodegradation of plasticizers by Rhodotorula rubra.


:The degradation of plasticizers by the yeast Rhodotorula rubra J-96-1 (American Type Culture Collection 9449) in the presence of glucose was studied. The plasticizers included the commonly used bis-2-ethylhexyl adipate (B(EH)A), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), and dioctyl terephthalate (DOTP), and the less commonly used dipropylene glycol dibenzoate (D(PG)DB) and diethylene glycol dibenzoate (D(EG)DB). The proposal had been made that the latter two plasticizers be used as alternatives to the first three, which have been associated with negative environmental impacts. The degradation of D(PG)DB or D(EG)DB led to a significant increase in solution toxicity, which was associated with the production of metabolites resulting from the incomplete breakdown of the plasticizers. The toxic metabolites in the D(PG)DB system were identified as isomers of dipropylene glycol monobenzoate. A pathway for the formation of this metabolite was proposed. The metabolite observed when D(EG)DB was being degraded was tentatively identified as diethylene glycol monobenzoate by analogy to the D(PG)DB system. In contrast, no metabolites were observable and toxicity did not increase in the media during the degradation of B(EH)A, DOP, or DOTP by R. rubra. Collectively, these results do not support the use of D(PG)DB and D(EG)DB as environmentally safe alternatives to B(EH)A, DOP, or DOTP.


Environ Toxicol Chem


Gartshore J,Cooper DG,Nicell JA


Has Abstract


2003-06-01 00:00:00












  • The characterization of iron (III) in seawater and related toxicity to early life stages of scleractinian corals.

    abstract::Currently toxicity data for iron (Fe) in seawater are limited; furthermore, these data are of poor quality as a result of the importance of Fe solubility in test solutions being overlooked. The present study characterized the solubility and lability of Fe(III) in seawater and then examined the effects of Fe(III) on th...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leigh-Smith J,Reichelt-Brushett A,Rose AL

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Selenium bioaccumulation and body condition in shorebirds and terns breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    abstract::The present study evaluated Se bioaccumulation in four waterbird species (n=206 birds) that breed within San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A.: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). Selenium con...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ackerman JT,Eagles-Smith CA

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • An evaluation of the influence of substrate on the response of juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) in acute water exposures to ammonia.

    abstract::Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity to three-month-old juvenile mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was evaluated in four treatments (water-only, water-only with feeding, water and soil, and water and sand) using an exposure unit designed to maintain consistent pH and ammonia concentrations in overlying water and in pore water su...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miao J,Barnhart MC,Brunson EL,Hardesty DK,Ingersoll CG,Wang N

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicity versus accumulation for barley plants exposed to copper in the presence of metal buffers: progress towards development of a terrestrial biotic ligand model.

    abstract::Development of a terrestrial biotic ligand model (TBLM) for higher plants requires a root-Cu accumulation value that corresponds to the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). However, it is not yet known which of the two previously reported Cu-binding ligands on the root is associated with Cu toxicity. The aim of the pr...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Antunes PM,Hale BA,Ryan AC

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects on growth and physiological parameters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soil and irrigated with cyanobacterial toxin contaminated water.

    abstract::The present study investigates the germination and growth of Triticum aestivum exposed to two different microcystins (microcystin-LR [where the two variable places in the toxin molecule are leucine (L) and arginine (R) (MC-LR)] and microcystin-RR) and to cell-free cyanobacterial crude extract containing MC-LR. The con...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pflugmacher S,Hofmann J,Hübner B

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Estimation of polychlorinated biphenyl fugacity ratios.

    abstract::On the quantitative comparison of solubilities or vapor pressures of homologous series, the variation in the effect of crystal structure on solid properties may substantially influence the outcome of the comparison. Usually, the effect of this variation is eliminated by comparing values of the liquid state. The ratio ...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van Noort PC

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Using biofilms for monitoring metal contamination in lotic ecosystems: The protective effects of hardness and pH on metal bioaccumulation.

    abstract::Biofilms can make good bioindicators and biomarkers, offering a convenient tool to monitor metal contamination in streams that results from mine tailing sites. Biofilm metal content (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) as well as diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies (diatom abnormalities) were determined for biofilms from ri...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leguay S,Lavoie I,Levy JL,Fortin C

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Screening-level risk assessment of methylmercury for non-anadromous Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus).

    abstract::Non-anadromous forms of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), those that are restricted to lakes and rivers, typically have higher mercury (Hg) concentrations than anadromous forms, which migrate to and from the sea. Using tissue burden data from the literature and our own analyses, we performed a screening-level risk ass...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barst BD,Drevnick PE,Muir DCG,Gantner N,Power M,Köck G,Chéhab N,Swanson H,Rigét F,Basu N

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Understanding the atmospheric measurement and behavior of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    abstract::The recently reported quantification of the atmospheric sampling artifact for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was applied to existing gas and particle concentration measurements. Specifically, gas phase concentrations were increased by a factor of 3.5 and particle-bound concentrations by a factor of 0.1. The correlation...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Webster EM,Ellis DA

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • mRNA Expression and activity of ion-transporting proteins in gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus: effects of waterborne copper.

    abstract::Waterborne Cu effects on the transcription of genes encoding ion-transporting proteins and the activities of these proteins were evaluated in gills of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus acclimated to diluted (2‰) and full (30‰) seawater. Crabs were exposed (96 h) to an environmentally relevant concentration of dissolve...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martins CM,Almeida DV,Marins LF,Bianchini A

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Species sensitivity distributions for use in environmental protection, assessment, and management of aquatic ecosystems for 12 386 chemicals.

    abstract::The present study considers the collection and use of ecotoxicity data for risk assessment with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) of chemical pollution in surface water, which are used to quantify the likelihood that critical effect levels are exceeded. This fits the European Water Framework Directive, which su...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Posthuma L,van Gils J,Zijp MC,van de Meent D,de Zwart D

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Metals affect soil bacterial and fungal functional diversity differently.

    abstract::Heavy metals can cause a decrease in the taxonomic diversity of soil communities. Because of functional redundancy, it remains unclear to what extent different functions performed by the soil microbial communities may be affected by pollution. We studied the impact of metal contamination on soil bacterial and fungal f...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stefanowicz AM,Niklińska M,Laskowski R

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Interactions of metal-based engineered nanoparticles with aquatic higher plants: A review of the state of current knowledge.

    abstract::The rising potential for the release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into aquatic environments requires evaluation of risks to protect ecological health. The present review examines knowledge pertaining to the interactions of metal-based ENPs with aquatic higher plants, identifies information gaps, and raises consi...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Thwala M,Klaine SJ,Musee N

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Intersex and liver alterations induced by long-term sublethal exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol in adult male Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to assess the responses of the gonopodium morphology and the gonadal and liver histology of adult male Cnesterodon decemmaculatus to sublethal long-term exposure concentrations of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Two experiments were conducted exposing the fish to waterborne concentrations ...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Young BJ,López GC,Cristos DS,Crespo DC,Somoza GM,Carriquiriborde P

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Validation of an amphibian sperm inhibition toxicological test method using zinc.

    abstract::Analysis of sperm has been investigated as a possible method to examine the toxicity of environmental contaminants. The amphibian sperm inhibition toxicological test (ASITT) method examines the effects of contaminants on Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) sperm motility and path trajectories. As part of a preliminar...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Christensen JR,Bishop CA,Richardson JS,Pauli B,Elliott J

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing the genotoxicity of chronic environmental irradiation by using mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) at Chornobyl, Ukraine.

    abstract::This study was designed to investigate whether or not chronic exposure to Chornobyl radiation poses a molecular genetic risk to mammals by examining a relatively rapidly evolving genetic system, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). More mtDNA mutations (approximately 19%) and an increase in mtDNA heteroplasmy (approximately 5%)...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wickliffe JK,Chesser RK,Rodgers BE,Baker RJ

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Infrared investigation of the sequestration of toluene vapor on clay minerals.

    abstract::The Ca-exchanged clays were used to investigate the sorption of toluene under both high and low relative humidity conditions. According to the observed rates of sorption and desorption and the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of sorbed toluene, the sorbate molecules on clays can be divided into three categori...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chang ML,Wu SC,Chen PJ,Cheng SC

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Phototoxic potential of undispersed and dispersed fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils to Gulf of Mexico Marine Organisms.

    abstract::Crude oils contain a mixture of hydrocarbons, including phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have the ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. Absorption of UV light by PAHs can substantially increase their toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of the present study was to examine the potentia...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Finch BE,Marzooghi S,Di Toro DM,Stubblefield WA

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicological Evaluation and Quantification of Ingested Metal-Core Nanoplastic by Daphnia magna Through Fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Methods.

    abstract::There are few studies on nanoplastic that propose quantification of the amount ingested combined with evaluation of the toxic effects on aquatic organisms. We propose 2 methods to quantify the amount of polystyrene nanoplastic (PSNP) ingested by Daphnia magna: fluorescence intensity, where a fluorescent monomer (F) is...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vicentini DS,Nogueira DJ,Melegari SP,Arl M,Köerich JS,Cruz L,Justino NM,Oscar BV,Puerari RC,da Silva MLN,Simioni C,Ouriques LC,Matias MS,de Castilhos Junior AB,Matias WG

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Phototoxicity of anthracene and pyrene to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Utterbackia imbecillis.

    abstract::The acute toxicity of photoactivated anthracene and pyrene to the glochidial larvae of the paper pondshell (Utterbackia imbecillis) was characterized in the laboratory using two sets of experiments. Acute toxicity tests designed to determine the overall sensitivity of glochidia to anthracene and pyrene were conducted ...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weinstein JE,Polk KD

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Different behavior of tetracyclines and sulfonamides in sandy soils after repeated fertilization with liquid manure.

    abstract::Recently we showed that tetracyclines tend to persist and may accumulate in sandy soils after repeated fertilizations with liquid manure. We continued these field investigations from 2001 to 2003 and observed no further accumulation of tetracyclines in soil, but found that the average tetracycline concentration remain...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hamscher G,Pawelzick HT,Höper H,Nau H

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicity of aqueous fullerene in adult and larval Fundulus heteroclitus.

    abstract::Aqueous suspensions of fullerene aggregates (aqua-nC60) were used to investigate the movement of carbon-based nanomaterials in a marine water column and to determine their effects on different life stages of a marine teleost. Fullerene aggregates formed precipitates as a result of mixing in natural seawater, and level...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blickley TM,McClellan-Green P

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Storm Event-Driven Occurrence and Transport of Dissolved and Sorbed Organic Micropollutants and Associated Effects in the Ammer River, Southwestern Germany.

    abstract::Storm events lead to agricultural and urban runoff, to mobilization of contaminated particulate matter, and to input from combined sewer overflows into rivers. We conducted time-resolved sampling during a storm event at the Ammer River, southwest Germany, which is representative of small river systems in densely popul...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Müller ME,Zwiener C,Escher BI

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Growth and survival of pacific coho salmon smolts exposed as juveniles to pesticides within urban streams in western Washington, USA.

    abstract::Pesticides are frequently detected in urban streams, with concentrations often exceeding those reported in surface waters within agricultural areas. The authors studied growth, survival, and return rates of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) smolts exposed to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") representative of the pest...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: King KA,Grue CE,Grassley JM,Fisk RJ,Conquest LL

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of extraction conditions on deposit feeder in trace element solubilization in only a digestive fluid.

    abstract::In vitro extraction of sediments using digestive fluid of deposit-feeding invertebrates has been advocated as a measure of in vivo bioavailability, but the standard procedure used for the extractions alters fluid properties relative to in vivo conditions. In vivo fluid properties (redox potential [Eh], pH, dissolved o...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weston DP,Judd JR,Mayer LM

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Phytotoxicity of trace metals in spiked and field-contaminated soils: Linking soil-extractable metals with toxicity.

    abstract::Soil tests have been widely developed to predict trace metal uptake by plants. The prediction of metal toxicity, however, has rarely been tested. The present study was set up to compare 8 established soil tests for diagnosing phytotoxicity in contaminated soils. Nine soils contaminated with Zn or Cu by metal mining, s...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hamels F,Malevé J,Sonnet P,Kleja DB,Smolders E

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Species extrapolation for the 21st century.

    abstract::Safety factors are used in ecological risk assessments to extrapolate from the toxic responses of laboratory test species to all species representing that group in the environment. More accurate extrapolation of species responses is important. Advances in understanding the mechanistic basis for toxicological responses...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Celander MC,Goldstone JV,Denslow ND,Iguchi T,Kille P,Meyerhoff RD,Smith BA,Hutchinson TH,Wheeler JR

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene in Pacific tree frog tadpoles (Hyla regilla) from the California Sierra Nevada, USA.

    abstract::Pacific tree frog (Hyla regilla) tadpoles were collected throughout the Sierra Nevada mountain range, California, USA, in 1996 and 1997 and analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene. Whole-tadpole sigma PCB levels ranged from 244 ng/g (wet wt) at lower elevations on the western slope ...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Angermann JE,Fellers GM,Matsumura F

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Mercury concentrations in fish from forest harvesting and fire-impacted Canadian Boreal lakes compared using stable isotopes of nitrogen.

    abstract::Total mercury (Hg) concentration was determined in several piscivorous and nonpiscivorous species of fish from 38 drainage lakes with clear-cut, burnt, or undisturbed catchments located in the Canadian Boreal Shield. Mercury concentrations increased with increasing fish trophic position as estimated using stable isoto...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garcia E,Carignan R

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicity evaluation of a commercial bioremediation agent mixed with crude oil.

    abstract::The toxicity and efficacy of a bacteria-based commercial bioremediation agent (CBA) was assessed through bioassays with juvenile inland silverside minnows, Menidia beryllina, and flask studies of oil degradation. Addition of the CBA to weathered Alaska, USA North Slope crude oil (ANS-521) prior to testing increased to...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bidwell JR,Cherry DS,Merski AT

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00