Scarless fetal wounds are associated with an increased matrix metalloproteinase-to-tissue-derived inhibitor of metalloproteinase ratio.


:In contrast to adult cutaneous wounds, early fetal wounds heal scarlessly. Fetal rat skin transitions from scarless repair to healing, with scar formation between days 16.5 (E16) and 18.5 (E18) of gestation. Term gestation is 21.5 days. The composition of the extracellular matrix in fetal skin and wounds differs from that of the adult. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue-derived inhibitors (TIMPs) determine the architecture of the extracellular matrix. The authors hypothesized that differential expression of MMPs and TIMPs occurs during the ontogenetic transition to scar-forming repair in fetal skin and wounds. Full-thickness, excisional wounds (2 mm) were created on the dorsum of E16 (n = 42 fetuses) and E19 fetal rats (n = 42 fetuses). Wounds were harvested at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Nonwounded skin from littermates was also harvested as controls. Six E16 and E19 wounds were fixed 72 hours after injury, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined by light microscopy. RNA was isolated from the remaining wounds and skin, and a reduced-cycle, primer-specific, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed to semiquantitatively determine relative gene expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, and MMP-14 and of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-3. Significance was determined by unpaired two-tailed t test (p < 0.05) and analysis of variance. In both E16 and E19 wounds, reepithelialization was complete by 72 hours. E16 wounds healed scarlessly, whereas E19 wounds healed with scar. During late gestation, skin expression of MMP-1 and MMP-14 (membrane type-1 MMP) doubled, whereas MMP-2 expression increased nearly 50-fold. Levels of MMP-7 and MMP-9 were unchanged in developing skin. As for the TIMPs, skin expression of TIMP-2 increased more than four-fold, whereas TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 expression was unchanged. In both scarless and scarring wounds, up-regulation of MMP-1 and MMP-9 occurred. However, the maximal increase in MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression occurred much more rapidly and was much greater in the scarless E16 wounds (28-fold versus 23-fold for MMP-1 and 18-fold versus nine-fold for MMP-9). Unchanged in scarless wounds, MMP-2 levels decreased more than three-fold in scarring wounds. MMP-14 (membrane type-1 MMP) expression increased three-fold in scarless wounds but was unchanged in scarring wounds. In contrast, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 expression in E19 scarring wounds increased six-fold and four-fold, respectively. MMP-7 and TIMP-2 expression did not change in response to injury. E16 scarless wounds have greater MMP relative to TIMP expression than E19 scarring wounds. This favors extracellular matrix turnover, facilitates migration of fetal cells, and promotes scarless repair.


Plast Reconstr Surg


Dang CM,Beanes SR,Lee H,Zhang X,Soo C,Ting K




Has Abstract


2003-06-01 00:00:00












  • Nitrite attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced microcirculatory alterations and mitochondrial dysfunction in the microvasculature of skeletal muscle.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recently, nitrite has been rediscovered as a physiologically relevant storage reservoir of nitric oxide in blood and it can readily be converted to nitric oxide under hypoxic and acidic conditions. In this study, the authors evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of nitrite on reperfusion-induced microcirculator...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang WZ,Fang XH,Stephenson LL,Zhang X,Williams SJ,Baynosa RC,Khiabani KT,Zamboni WA

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Primary closure of trochanteric decubitus ulcers: the bipedicle tensor fascia lata musculocutaneous flap.

    abstract::A surgical procedure is described for the definitive treatment of trochanteric decubitus ulcers. It combines the advantages of the bipedicle skin flap and the musculocutaneous flap; that is, a large area of skin is provided with a thick protective padding consisting of fat, fascia, and muscle richly vascularized by th...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schulman NH

    更新日期:1980-11-01 00:00:00

  • Paranasal implants for correction of midface concavity.

    abstract::Central midface concavity was corrected with the placement of porous polyethylene implants in the paranasal area. This simulated the effect of skeletal osteotomies and advancement without altering dental occlusion. Implants were placed to correct congenital, posttraumatic, and cleft-related skeletal midface retrusion ...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yaremchuk MJ,Israeli D

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Distraction osteogenesis in adolescents with maxillary arch deficiency and dental crowding: a 3-year follow-up.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In this study, the authors evaluated the long-term results after using anterior segmental osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis for the correction of sagittal maxillary deficiency associated with dental crowding. METHODS:Six young adolescents (four boys and two girls) underwent surgery and distraction at a...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ho CT,Heller F,Lo LJ,Liou EJ,Huang CS,Chen YR

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Fetal fracture healing in a lamb model.

    abstract::A large animal model to assess fetal fracture repair and the ability to close excisional bony defects is presented. Incisional and excisional ulnar fractures were made in 14 midgestation fetal lambs, harvested at serial time points, and subjected to high-resolution low-kilovolt magnification radiographs, magnetic reso...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Longaker MT,Moelleken BR,Cheng JC,Jennings RW,Adzick NS,Mintorovich J,Levinsohn DG,Gordon L,Harrison MR,Simmons DJ

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Restoring tactile and erogenous penile sensation in low-spinal-lesion patients: procedural and technical aspects following 43 TOMAX nerve transfer procedures.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The "TOMAX" (TO MAX-imize sensation, sexuality, and quality of life) procedure restores genital sensation in men with low spinal lesions, improving sexual health, as shown previously. It connects the dorsal nerve of the penis to the intact ipsilateral ilioinguinal nerve, unilaterally or bilaterally. This stu...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Overgoor MLE,de Jong TPVM,Kon M

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • Functional mandibular reconstruction: prevention of the oral invalid.

    abstract::Composite mandibulectomy for carcinoma can create an "oral invalid," with difficulty in mastication. Functional reconstruction has fallen short of ideal. Three patients were seen with significant anatomic deficits and functional debilitations resulting from large composite mandibulectomies for oral carcinoma. Each pat...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lukash FN,Sachs SA

    更新日期:1989-08-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of unilateral partial facial paralysis on nasofrontal sutural growth: an experimental study in the rabbit.

    abstract::In a previous study in the rabbit, it was demonstrated that paralysis of the midfacial musculature results in decreased anteroposterior growth of the snout. At the end of growth, these animals showed macroscopically striking similarities to animals with unilateral fusion of the nasofrontal suture. In this study, wheth...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sinsel NK,Guelinckx PJ,Opdebeeck H

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Migration studies and histology of injectable microspheres of different sizes in mice.

    abstract::Injectable dermal filler materials consist of either fluids, biological fragments, or suspensions of particles or microspheres. Particles and microspheres are said to "migrate," but migration can occur only when they are injected into blood vessels. To evaluate biocompatibility and transport, five nonresorbable polyme...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lemperle G,Morhenn VB,Pestonjamasp V,Gallo RL

    更新日期:2004-04-15 00:00:00

  • Macroscopic and microangiographic anatomy of the teres major muscle: a new free functional muscle flap?

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The teres major can be seen as an additional head of the latissimus dorsi muscle for three-dimensional movement of the arm. It gained importance in pedicled muscle transfers for the treatment of plexus palsies and shoulder instability. Its supplying vessels belong to the subscapular system. According to the ...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Giessler GA,Doll S,Germann G

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Long-lasting results with hydroxylapatite (Radiesse) facial filler.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This study examined the patient satisfaction and longevity of Radiesse, a calcium hydroxylapatite compound, as a facial soft-tissue filler for the glabellar lines, the lips, the nose, the face, and the infraorbital region. METHODS:Radiesse, 0.5 to 2.0 ml, was injected into the designated area in each of the...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Jacovella PF,Peiretti CB,Cunille D,Salzamendi M,Schechtel SA

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Autologous fat graft in nipple reconstruction.

    abstract::Reconstruction of the nipple is the penultimate step in breast reconstruction after mastectomy. A number of reconstructive techniques have been described for nipple reconstruction including skin grafts, composite grafts, and various local flaps. The authors' preferred reconstructive technique is the local C-V or modif...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bernard RW,Beran SJ

    更新日期:2003-09-15 00:00:00

  • Anatomic study of the vasculature of the submental artery flap.

    abstract::The submental artery island flap is a versatile option in head and neck reconstruction. This flap may be used for the coverage of perioral, intraoral, and other facial defects, leaving a relatively acceptable donor-site scar. In this study, the submental region of 13 formalin-fixed cadavers was dissected bilaterally. ...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Magden O,Edizer M,Tayfur V,Atabey A

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • Basal cell carcinoma in the groin of a black patient with femoral vessel invasion and a second primary malignancy.

    abstract::We have presented an unusual case of basal cell carcinoma that presented in a 76-year-old black woman. This is an atypical case in that it occurred in a black patient, and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is low in black people. The lesion was located in the groin, which is an uncommon location for basal cell car...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beckenstein MS,Windle BH

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • Porous polyethylene implants in orbital floor reconstruction.

    abstract::The purpose of this article is to present the authors' experience with the use of porous polyethylene ultrathin sheets for orbital floor reconstruction. Thirty-two patients with orbital floor fractures were treated with porous polyethylene ultrathin sheets. Sixteen cases corresponded to orbitozygomatic fractures, 11 c...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Villarreal PM,Monje F,Morillo AJ,Junquera LM,González C,Barbón JJ

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Expanded preauricular full-thickness free skin graft.

    abstract::A preauricular skin graft with expansion for repair of a facial defect is presented. This technique preserves a more natural appearance in color, texture, and thickness than is otherwise possible and provides a larger graft than the usual preauricular graft method. ...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iwahira Y,Maruyama Y

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Suture algorithm for the broad or bulbous nasal tip.

    abstract::The history and current status of suture techniques to correct a broad or bulbous nasal tip are reviewed. General principles for suture techniques to control tip shape are discussed; they include leaving an approximately 6-mm-wide lateral crus. The algorithm presented includes four sutures, all of which are not necess...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gruber RP,Friedman GD

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Are Quantitative Measures of Academic Productivity Correlated with Academic Rank in Plastic Surgery? A National Study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between quantitative measures of academic productivity and academic rank among full-time academic plastic surgeons. METHODS:Bibliometric indices were computed for all full-time academic plastic surgeons in the United States. The primary study vari...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Susarla SM,Lopez J,Swanson EW,Miller D,O'Brien-Coon D,Zins JE,Serletti JM,Yaremchuk MJ,Manson PN,Gordon CR

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Lymphedema and obesity: is there a link?

    abstract::Lymphedema is a chronic disorder that, in developed countries, occurs most commonly after lymph node dissection for cancer treatment. Although the pathophysiology of lymphedema is unknown, the disease is characterized histologically by fibrosis and abnormal adipose deposition. Clinical studies have provided evidence t...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mehrara BJ,Greene AK

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Endothelial Cells from Capillary Malformations Are Enriched for Somatic GNAQ Mutations.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A somatic mutation in GNAQ (c.548G>A; p.R183Q), encoding Gαq, has been found in syndromic and sporadic capillary malformation tissue. However, the specific cell type containing the mutation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine which cells in capillary malformations have the GNAQ mutation. ...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Couto JA,Huang L,Vivero MP,Kamitaki N,Maclellan RA,Mulliken JB,Bischoff J,Warman ML,Greene AK

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Limited value of preoperative cervical vascular imaging in patients with velocardiofacial syndrome.

    abstract::The purpose of this two-part study was to evaluate the safety of surgical management of speech production disorders in patients with velocardiofacial syndrome without preoperative cervical vascular imaging studies. Anomalous internal carotid arteries have been shown to be a frequent feature of velocardiofacial syndrom...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Witt PD,Miller DC,Marsh JL,Muntz HR,Grames LM

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence-Based Education in Plastic Surgery.

    abstract::Educational reforms in resident training have historically been driven by reports from medical societies and organizations. Although educational initiatives are well intended, they are rarely supported by robust evidence. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education recently introduced competency-based tra...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Johnson SP,Chung KC,Waljee JF

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • An Update on Cryopreservation of Adipose Tissue.

    abstract::Currently, fat transplantation occurs immediately after harvesting procedures. Because low rates of fat graft take are well reported in the literature, many patients require multiple surgical procedures for fat graft harvest. These subsequent procedures lead to increased cost, donor-site morbidity, and patient discomf...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gal S,Pu LLQ

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • APACHE II scoring for the prediction of immediate surgical complications in head and neck cancer patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Aggressive surgical treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancers may be compromised by significant surgical complications. Early identification of patients at risk for postoperative complications may assist in clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to assess the value of the Acute Physiolog...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grant CA,Dempsey GA,Lowe D,Brown JS,Vaughan ED,Rogers SN

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence-based medicine: Blepharoplasty.

    abstract:LEARNING OBJECTIVES:After studying this article, the participant should be able to: (1) Identify the essential preoperative considerations for patients undergoing blepharoplasty. (2) Describe upper and lower eyelid anatomy and the relevance to blepharoplasty techniques. (3) Discuss a standard approach to upper and lowe...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Drolet BC,Sullivan PK

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Scalp stretching with a tissue expander for closure of scalp defects.

    abstract::The authors show a way of reconstruction of scalp defects with excellent results using a tissue expander. This method creates "new" scalp tissue for coverage of defects with normal hair-bearing skin having a dense and even growth of hair. The hairs grow in the correct direction. The authors also show that almost all o...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nordström RE,Devine JW

    更新日期:1985-04-01 00:00:00

  • The Internet as a source of information on breast augmentation.

    abstract::The Internet was evaluated as a source of information for the layperson on the topic of breast augmentation. Three commonly used search engines (Excite, AOL, and Yahoo) were employed using the term "breast augmentation." These sites were then evaluated by each of three experienced plastic surgeons for their quality an...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gordon JB,Barot LR,Fahey AL,Matthews MS

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Promoting primary healing after ray amputations in the diabetic foot: the plantar dermo-fat pad flap.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Amputation of the toe at the level of the distal metatarsal head (ray amputation) is a common surgical procedure in diabetic foot ulcers. The aim of this study was to introduce a new technique promoting primary healing by minimizing the dead space with the plantar dermo-fat pad flap after central ray amputat...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Altindas M,Cinar C

    更新日期:2005-09-15 00:00:00

  • Microsurgical lymphaticovenous implantation for the treatment of chronic lymphedema.

    abstract::This article presents our experience with microsurgical lymphaticovenous implantation in the treatment of chronic lymphedema. Our attempt is to create a lymphaticovenous shunt with an implantation of the collecting lymphatics, including some lymphatic vessels and lymphatic capillaries, within external connective adven...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamamoto Y,Sugihara T

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Is reversed venous flow safe in free-flap transfer? A dilemma with the radial forearm flap.

    abstract::The distally based radial artery forearm flap has become our workhorse flap for hand and finger coverage, relying on reversed or retrograde venous outflow through the venae comitantes. Free-flap transfer, however, has been used by us only with antegrade venous anastomoses. This study was intended to determine if a sin...

    journal_title:Plastic and reconstructive surgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stewart DH,Puckett CL

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00