Flip-flops do not alter the neuromuscular function of the gastrocnemius muscle and tendon during walking in children.

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION/AIM:Flip-flops are a popular choice of footwear for children. However, their inherent design provides minimal support to the foot and ankle and has been suggested to increase the work performed by muscle and tendon structures, potentially predisposing them to injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the length change behaviour of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle fascicles and muscle tendon unit (MTU) and their mechanical function at the ankle and subtalar joints in children during walking with and without flip-flop. METHODS:Eight healthy children walked barefoot and with flip-flops whilst 3D gait analysis and simultaneous B-mode ultrasound images of the MG fascicles during level walking were collected. Joint kinematics, kinetics and MTU lengths were analysed using musculoskeletal modelling and fascicle lengths using a semi-automated tracking algorithm. RESULTS:The muscles and tendons across the ankle absorbed greater amounts of power during barefoot walking compared to flip-flop walking. The muscle activations of the lateral gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior remained invariant across the conditions as did the activation, and fascicle length change behaviour of the medial gastrocnemius. In the barefoot condition, there was a trend of greater MTU lengthening, to potentially absorb greater amounts of power, although no differences in shortening was observed during late stance. CONCLUSION:Walking with flip-flops does not increase the mechanical work performed by the MG muscle at the ankle and subtalar joints, suggesting that flip-flops do not increase the stresses and strains of the Achilles tendon and hence its predisposition to strain induced injury. Instead, our results suggest that flip-flops, act as a compliant surface and absorb energy during contact and hence the strain experienced by the Achilles tendon.

journal_name

Gait Posture

journal_title

Gait & posture

authors

Maharaj JN,Barber L,Walsh HPJ,Carty CP

doi

10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.12.032

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2020-03-01 00:00:00

pages

83-88

eissn

0966-6362

issn

1879-2219

pii

S0966-6362(19)31802-8

journal_volume

77

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Foot-floor contact pattern in children and adults with Dravet Syndrome.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Dravet Syndrome (DS) is a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy characterized by severe drug-resistant seizures and associated with cognitive and motor impairments. Walking problems are frequently observed. As the foot plays a key role during walking, compromised foot function can be a feature of devian...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.12.030

    authors: Wyers L,Di Marco R,Zambelli S,Masiero S,Hallemans A,Van de Walle P,Desloovere K,Del Felice A

    更新日期:2021-01-06 00:00:00

  • Differentiation of young and older adult stair climbing gait using principal component analysis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to reduce the volume of gait data and can also be used to identify the differences between populations. This approach has not been used on stair climbing gait data. Our objective was to use PCA to compare the gait patterns between young and older adults duri...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.10.005

    authors: Reid SM,Graham RB,Costigan PA

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of compensatory mechanisms in the pelvis and lower extremities in patients with pelvic incidence and lumbar lordosis mismatch.

    abstract::The objective was to analyze the compensatory effect of the pelvis and lower extremities on sagittal spinal malalignment in patients with pelvic incidence (PI) and lumbar lordosis (LL) mismatch. A series of parameters including PI, LL, PI-LL, thoracic kyphosis (TK), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), knee flexion an...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.04.041

    authors: Cheng X,Zhang K,Sun X,Zhao C,Li H,Zhao J

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in temporal parameters during performance of the Step Test in older adults.

    abstract::The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the changes in the temporal parameters measured during the performance of the Step Test, to evaluate the relationship between age and these measurements and to determine their relationships to aerobic endurance, muscular strength and mobility in a sample of olde...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.10.006

    authors: Brustio PR,Magistro D,Liubicich ME

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Postural control and perceptive configuration: influence of expertise in gymnastics.

    abstract::The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate how postural adaptations to the perceptive configuration are modified by specific gymnastics experience. Two groups, one expert in gymnastics and the other non-expert, had to maintain the erected posture while optical flow was imposed as follows: 20s motionless,...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2007.09.007

    authors: Gautier G,Thouvarecq R,Vuillerme N

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Age-independent and age-dependent sex differences in gait pattern determined by principal component analysis.

    abstract::Although various studies have reported significant sex differences in pelvic and/or hip-joint motion during normal walking in healthy adults, it is still unclear whether such differences are among the most dominant age-independent sex differences. This study was conducted to analyze the whole waveform of lower-extremi...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.01.021

    authors: Kobayashi Y,Hobara H,Heldoorn TA,Kouchi M,Mochimaru M

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • The role of the human cerebellum in short- and long-term habituation of postural responses.

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the human cerebellum in short-term (STH) and long-term habituation (LTH) of postural responses to repeated platform perturbations. Ten cerebellar patients and ten age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated. Twenty backward platform translations were a...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1016/s0966-6362(03)00006-7

    authors: Schwabe A,Drepper J,Maschke M,Diener HC,Timmann D

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • The moveable handhold: a new paradigm to study visual contributions to the control of balance-recovery reactions.

    abstract::Balance-recovery reactions that involve rapid step or reach-to-grasp movements are prevalent and functionally important responses to instability. Successful use of these reactions to recover balance in daily life requires a capacity to modulate the reaction to deal with the continual variation in environmental constra...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.08.011

    authors: Cheng KC,McKay SM,King EC,Tung JY,Lee TA,Scovil CY,Maki BE

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Validity of the Microsoft Kinect for providing lateral trunk lean feedback during gait retraining.

    abstract::Gait retraining programs are prescribed to assist in the rehabilitation process of many clinical conditions. Using lateral trunk lean modification as the model, the aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of kinematic data recorded using a marker-based 3D motion analysis (3DMA) system and a low-cost al...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.03.029

    authors: Clark RA,Pua YH,Bryant AL,Hunt MA

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of motor recovery and decline.

    abstract::Assessment of motor disorders forms an important ingredient of neurology, rehabilitation medicine and orthopaedics. Until now, however, many of the employed assessment tools are derived from empirical knowledge. Almost no relation exists with modern theoretical notions about motor control. In the present article, moto...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/s0966-6362(01)00157-6

    authors: Mulder T,Zijlstra W,Geurts A

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Old adult fallers display reduced flexibility of arm and trunk movements when challenged with different walking speeds.

    abstract::Specific patterns of pelvic and thorax motions are required to maintain stability during walking. This cross-sectional study explored older-adults' gait kinematics and their kinematic adaptations to different walking speeds, with the purpose of identifying mechanisms that might be related to increased risk for falls. ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.12.004

    authors: Shishov N,Gimmon Y,Rashed H,Kurz I,Riemer R,Shapiro A,Debi R,Melzer I

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • How can push-off be preserved during use of an ankle foot orthosis in children with hemiplegia? A prospective controlled study.

    abstract::Several studies indicated that walking with an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) impaired third rocker. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two types of orthoses, with similar goal settings, on gait, in a homogeneous group of children, using both barefoot and shoe walking as control conditions. Fifteen ch...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.08.003

    authors: Desloovere K,Molenaers G,Van Gestel L,Huenaerts C,Van Campenhout A,Callewaert B,Van de Walle P,Seyler J

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Temporal and spatial gait parameters in patients dependent on walking assistance after stroke: reliability and agreement between simple and advanced methods of assessment.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability of temporal and spatial gait parameters in patients dependent on walking assistance after severe stroke, and to examine agreement between simple and advanced methods. Twenty-one patients, admitted for in-patient multidisciplinary rehabilitation, were assessed re...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.03.001

    authors: Høyer E,Opheim A,Strand LI,Moe-Nilssen R

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gaze stabilization and gait performance in vestibular dysfunction.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The gaze stability test (GST) quantifies the ability of a person to recognize a target projected on a personal computer monitor during active head movement. PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between clinical measures of walking performance and the GST in patients...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.08.002

    authors: Whitney SL,Marchetti GF,Pritcher M,Furman JM

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Kinematic analysis and dexterity evaluation of upper extremity in activities of daily living.

    abstract::The redundant kinematic structure of upper extremity (UE) provides it with increased dexterity in activities of daily living (ADL). Most functional tasks during ADL can be implemented in various positions; however, only some routine trajectories are employed in healthy humans. Exploring motion ability and analyzing de...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.07.005

    authors: Chen W,Xiong C,Huang X,Sun R,Xiong Y

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • The Bout Cadence Method Improves the Quantification of Stepping Cadence In Free-Living Conditions.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Existing analytical approaches used to measure free-living stepping cadence (steps per minute; spm) characterize stepping two-ways: 1) 60 s epochs without considering time spent stepping during the epoch (step accumulation; SA), or 2) a bout-based analysis that considers both number of steps and time spent s...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.04.014

    authors: Johns JA,Frayne RJ,Goreham JA,Kimmerly DS,O'Brien MW

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of backpack heaviness on trunk-lower extremity muscle activities and trunk posture.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study is to analyze trunk-lower extremity muscle activities and trunk postural changes during the carriage of different backpacks. Nineteen male university students (21+/-3 years) participated in the experiment's four standing modes: (1) unloaded standing, (2) 10% body weight (BW) load (in t...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.01.002

    authors: Al-Khabbaz YS,Shimada T,Hasegawa M

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between foot sensation and standing balance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    abstract::The aims of the present study were to investigate the relationship between the foot sensations and standing balance in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and find out the sensation, which best predicts balance. Twenty-seven patients with MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale 1-3.5) and 10 healthy volunteers were inc...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.05.015

    authors: Citaker S,Gunduz AG,Guclu MB,Nazliel B,Irkec C,Kaya D

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Lower limb biomechanics during gait do not return to normal following total hip arthroplasty.

    abstract::Although total hip arthroplasty (THA) is known to be a successful surgical procedure to alleviate hip pain and to improve health-related quality of life, these outcome measures in THA patients do not reach those of the general population. As a result, several investigators have assessed THA patients' gait mechanics, b...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.05.007

    authors: Beaulieu ML,Lamontagne M,Beaulé PE

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of cognitive loading on the lower extremity movement coordination variability in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The altered coordination variability was related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-injury after ACL reconstruction (ACL-R). As motor performance is affected by the cognitive loading, understanding the interaction of cognition and coordination variability is crucial for addressing secondary injury preven...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.10.028

    authors: Shi H,Ren S,Miao X,Zhang H,Yu Y,Hu X,Huang H,Ao Y

    更新日期:2020-11-28 00:00:00

  • Accuracy and repeatability of single-pose calibration of inertial measurement units for whole-body motion analysis.

    abstract::Portable inertial measurement units (IMUs) are suitable for motion analysis outside the laboratory. However, IMUs depend on the calibration of each body segment to measure human movement. Different calibration approaches have been developed for simplicity of use or similarity to laboratory motion analysis, but they ha...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.02.029

    authors: Robert-Lachaine X,Mecheri H,Larue C,Plamondon A

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Characterising the clinical and biomechanical features of severely deformed feet in rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract:PURPOSE:Foot deformity is a well-recognised impairment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which results in functional disability. Deformity can occur at the rearfoot, midfoot, forefoot or in combination and the impact that site-specific foot deformities has on functional disability is largely unknown. The aim o...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.04.004

    authors: Turner DE,Woodburn J

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence of knee extensor dysfunction during sit-to-stand following distal femoral extension osteotomy and patellar tendon advancement in young adults with cerebral palsy: A pilot study.

    abstract::A distal femoral extension osteotomy with patellar tendon advancement (DFEO+PTA) is a common treatment for individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) who walk in crouch. Musculoskeletal modeling suggests that the typical patella baja position post-DFEO+PTA may limit one's abilities to perform sit-to-stand (STS) tasks; howev...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.09.018

    authors: Boyer ER,Stout JL,Laine JC,Gutknecht SM,Oliveira LH,Munger ME,Schwartz MH,Novacheck TF

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Energy expenditure and biomechanical characteristics of lower limb amputee gait: the influence of prosthetic alignment and different prosthetic components.

    abstract::In this study, the influence of different prosthetic alignments and components on oxygen consumption and the important biomechanical characteristics of the normal gait pattern of leg amputees was investigated. With 15 transtibial and 12 transfemoral amputees, the oxygen consumption during walking on a treadmill was an...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验

    doi:10.1016/s0966-6362(02)00008-5

    authors: Schmalz T,Blumentritt S,Jarasch R

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Quantifying individual muscle contribution to three-dimensional reaching tasks.

    abstract::We investigated the individual muscle contribution to arm motion to better understand the complex muscular coordination underlying three-dimensional (3D) reaching tasks of the upper limb (UL). The individual contributions of biceps, triceps, deltoid anterior, medius, posterior and pectoralis major to the control of sp...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.11.028

    authors: Vandenberghe A,Bosmans L,De Schutter J,Swinnen S,Jonkers I

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Reliability and concurrent validity of spatiotemporal stride characteristics measured with an ankle-worn sensor among older individuals.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Wearable inertial sensors have been shown to provide valid mean gait characteristics assessments, however, assessment of variability is less convincingly established. RESEARCH QUESTION:What level of concurrent validity, and session-to-session reliability does an ankle-worn inertial measurement unit (IMU)-ba...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.08.006

    authors: Rantalainen T,Pirkola H,Karavirta L,Rantanen T,Linnamo V

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of total ankle replacement on gait disability: analysis of energetic and mechanical variables.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The goal was to evaluate the effect of total ankle replacement (TAR) on gait in terms of mechanical and energetic variables. METHODS:An observational, prospective study was undertaken in 20 patients before and approximately 7 months after unilateral mobile-bearing TAR. The clinical-functional level was assesse...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.09.009

    authors: Detrembleur C,Leemrijse T

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between trunk and foot accelerations during walking in healthy adults.

    abstract::Understanding upper body and lower body segment relationships may be an important step in assessing stability during gait. This study explored the relationship between acceleration patterns at the trunk and at the foot during treadmill walking at self-selected pace in healthy adults. Forty healthy subjects walked on a...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.06.001

    authors: Craig JJ,Bruetsch A,Huisinga JM

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • A prospective study of gait related risk factors for exercise-related lower leg pain.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to determine prospectively gait related risk factors for exercise-related lower leg pain (ERLLP) in 400 physical education students. Static lower leg alignment was determined, and 3D gait kinematics combined with plantar pressure profiles were collected. After this evaluation, all sports ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.12.004

    authors: Willems TM,De Clercq D,Delbaere K,Vanderstraeten G,De Cock A,Witvrouw E

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Calf muscle-tendon lengths before and after Tendo-Achilles lengthenings and gastrocnemius lengthenings for equinus in cerebral palsy and idiopathic toe walking.

    abstract::The calf muscle-tendon lengths in children exhibiting equinus gait in two clinical populations, cerebral palsy (CP) and idiopathic toe walking (ITW), were examined to compare the effects of diagnosis and two different surgical procedures, Tendo-Achilles lengthening (TAL) versus Vulpius procedure (VP) gastrocnemius rec...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.01.001

    authors: Jahn J,Vasavada AN,McMulkin ML

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00