Braking and propulsive impulses increase with speed during accelerated and decelerated walking.


:The ability to accelerate and decelerate is important for daily activities and likely more demanding than maintaining a steady-state walking speed. Walking speed is modulated by anterior-posterior (AP) ground reaction force (GRF) impulses. The purpose of this study was to investigate AP impulses across a wide range of speeds during accelerated and decelerated walking. Kinematic and GRF data were collected from 10 healthy subjects walking on an instrumented treadmill. Subjects completed trials at steady-state speeds and at four rates of acceleration and deceleration across a speed range of 0-1.8 m/s. Mixed regression models were generated to predict AP impulses, step length and frequency from speed, and joint moment impulses from AP impulses during non-steady-state walking. Braking and propulsive impulses were positively related to speed. The braking impulse had a greater relationship with speed than the propulsive impulse, suggesting that subjects modulate the braking impulse more than the propulsive impulse to change speed. Hip and knee extensor, and ankle plantarflexor moment impulses were positively related to the braking impulse, and knee flexor and ankle plantarflexor moment impulses were positively related to the propulsive impulse. Step length and frequency increased with speed and were near the subjects' preferred combination at steady-state speeds, at which metabolic cost is minimized in nondisabled walking. Thus, these variables may be modulated to minimize metabolic cost while accelerating and decelerating. The outcomes of this work provide the foundation to investigate motor coordination in pathological subjects in response to the increased task demands of non-steady-state walking.


Gait Posture


Gait & posture


Peterson CL,Kautz SA,Neptune RR




Has Abstract


2011-04-01 00:00:00














  • Flip-flops do not alter the neuromuscular function of the gastrocnemius muscle and tendon during walking in children.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION/AIM:Flip-flops are a popular choice of footwear for children. However, their inherent design provides minimal support to the foot and ankle and has been suggested to increase the work performed by muscle and tendon structures, potentially predisposing them to injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maharaj JN,Barber L,Walsh HPJ,Carty CP

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of increased passive stiffness of the trunk and hips on balance control during reactive stepping.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Age-related changes, which include increased trunk and hip stiffness, negatively influence postural balance. While previous studies suggest no net-effect of trunk and hip stiffness on initial trip-recovery responses, no study to date has examined potential effects during the dynamic restabilisation phase fol...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pretty SP,Armstrong DP,Weaver TB,Laing AC

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Reliability of scapular kinematics estimated with three-dimensional motion analysis during shoulder elevation and flexion.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Knowing the reliability of three-dimensional motion analysis to evaluate scapular kinematics during upper limb movements is essential to plan further research dedicated to understanding scapulothoracic joint movements relative to the global shoulder motion. RESEARCH QUESTION:The aim of this study was to ass...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alexander N,Wegener R,Zdravkovic V,North D,Gawliczek T,Jost B

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Gait patterns of patients with inclusion body myositis.

    abstract::Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is a progressive, inflammatory muscle disease that is known to cause quadriceps weakness and knee buckling during gait. This is the first known report of gait characteristics in patients with IBM. Nine subjects with IBM and quadriceps weakness underwent gait analysis and quantitative stre...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bernhardt KA,Oh TH,Kaufman KR

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship between supination resistance and the kinetics and kinematics of the foot and ankle during gait.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Clinical tests of foot posture and mobility are not strongly related to the dynamic kinematics of the foot during gait. These measures may be more directly related to foot and ankle kinetics. The supination resistance test (SRT) is a clinical test that may more directly measure forces acting on the weightbea...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McBride S,Dixon P,Mokha M,Samuel Cheng M

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Independent influence of gait speed and step length on stability and fall risk.

    abstract::With aging, individuals' gaits become slower and their steps shorter; both are thought to improve stability against balance threats. Recent studies have shown that shorter step lengths, which bring the center of mass (COM) closer to the leading foot, improve stability against slip-related falls. However, a slower gait...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Espy DD,Yang F,Bhatt T,Pai YC

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Out of balance - Postural control in cancer patients before and after neurotoxic chemotherapy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a serious side effect deriving from neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. The underlying nerve injury can affect proprioception causing impaired postural control, gait difficulties and a higher risk of falling. Overall, the symptoms and functional limitation...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Müller J,Ringhof S,Vollmer M,Jäger LB,Stein T,Weiler M,Wiskemann J

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cluster analysis for the extraction of sagittal gait patterns in children with cerebral palsy.

    abstract::Classification of gait disorders would facilitate standardisation of gait management and communication across professional boundaries. In the past, such classification was undertaken using a variety of approaches with often unclear methodology and validation procedures. This study describes the application of hierarch...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Toro B,Nester CJ,Farren PC

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of muscle activity and heart rate response during backward and forward walking on an underwater treadmill.

    abstract::This investigation compared muscle activities and heart rate (HR) responses while subjects walked backward or forward in water, with and without a water current. Ten healthy males (23.5+/-1.4 years) volunteered for the study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to evaluate muscle activities while the subjects walk...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Masumoto K,Takasugi S,Hotta N,Fujishima K,Iwamoto Y

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Compensatory mechanisms during walking in response to muscle weakness in spinal muscular atrophy, type III.

    abstract::Our knowledge on altered neurological control of walking due to weakness of various muscle groups of the lower extremities is limited. The aim of this study was to assess kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic (EMG) walking patterns in a functionally homogeneous group of seven subjects with spinal muscular atrophy, ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matjacić Z,Olensek A,Krajnik J,Eymard B,Zupan A,Praznikar A

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • The characteristics of gait in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease types I and II.

    abstract::Certain typical gait characteristics such as foot-drop and foot supination are well described in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. These are directly related to the primary disease and due to the weakness of ankle dorsiflexors and everters characteristic of this hereditary neuropathy. We analysed 16 subjects aged 8-52 year...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Newman CJ,Walsh M,O'Sullivan R,Jenkinson A,Bennett D,Lynch B,O'Brien T

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of lower limb muscle strength between diabetic neuropathic and healthy subjects using OpenSim.

    abstract::Diabetes neuropathy and vasculopathy are the two major complications of diabetes mellitus, leading to diabetic foot disease, of which the worst consequences are plantar ulcers and amputations. Motor impairments like joint stiffness and loss of balance are distinctive effects of diabetes and they have been extensively ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scarton A,Jonkers I,Guiotto A,Spolaor F,Guarneri G,Avogaro A,Cobelli C,Sawacha Z

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Reliability and minimal detectable change of gait kinematics in people who are hypermobile.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate intra- and inter-session reliability of gait data in hypermobile and normal adults, and from this, determine the minimum detectable change (MDC) through 3D gait analysis (GA) measurement. METHODS:Thirteen people with normal flexibility (Beighton score 0.82 ± 1.2) and 14 hypermobile people (Beight...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bates AV,McGregor AH,Alexander CM

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Differential diagnosis of parkinsonism with visual inspection of posture and gait in the early stage.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Parkinson's disease (PD) differs from atypical parkinsonism in many clinical aspects. Principally, posture and gait are distinct features in the early stages of the disease; thus, these differences can be helpful in differential diagnosis. METHODS:We analyzed videos of patients with PD or atypical parkinson...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee SM,Kim M,Lee HM,Kwon KY,Kim HT,Koh SB

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Domains and correlates of clinical balance impairment associated with Huntington's disease.

    abstract::This study sought to (a) determine the domains of clinical balance impairments associated with Huntington's disease (HD), and (b) evaluate associations between balance test scores and other disease-related impairments. Eighteen subjects with genetically definite HD and 17 age-matched control subjects were evaluated on...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jacobs JV,Boyd JT,Hogarth P,Horak FB

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of ankle kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters in MS population.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Many people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) experience walking impairments often including foot drop, evident as either reduced dorsiflexion at initial contact and/or at the swing phase of the gait cycle. To measure even subtle differences in ankle kinematics, 3D gait analysis is considered a 'gold' standard....

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Andreopoulou G,Mahad DJ,Mercer TH,van der Linden ML

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Sensory cueing effects on maximal speed gait initiation in persons with Parkinson's disease and healthy elders.

    abstract::Researchers have suggested that sensory cues can improve gait initiation in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD); however, there is little research that documents the effects of sensory cues on gait initiation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of auditory and cutaneous sensory cues on maximal spee...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Dibble LE,Nicholson DE,Shultz B,MacWilliams BA,Marcus RL,Moncur C

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Change in the natural head-neck orientation momentarily altered sensorimotor control during sensory transition.

    abstract::Achilles tendon vibration generates proprioceptive information that is incongruent with the actual body position; it alters the perception of body orientation leading to a vibration-induced postural response. When a person is standing freely, vibration of the Achilles tendon shifts the internal representation of the v...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Xu I,Laurendeau S,Teasdale N,Simoneau M

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking.

    abstract::A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current study was therefore t...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Groot MH,van der Jagt-Willems HC,van Campen JP,Lems WF,Beijnen JH,Lamoth CJ

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effectiveness of prowling with proprioceptive training on knee hyperextension among stroke subjects using videographic observation- a randomised controlled trial.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Knee hyperextension is seen in 40-68% of ambulating hemiparetics. If left untreated it may lead to laxity of posterior structures of knee resulting in early degeneration of knee leading to pain, reduced independence in activities of daily living (ADL), deformities and instability. In this study we hypothes...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Dalal KK,Joshua AM,Nayak A,Mithra P,Misri Z,Unnikrishnan B

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Adaptive changes in spatiotemporal gait characteristics in women during pregnancy.

    abstract::Spatiotemporal gait cycle characteristics were assessed at early (P1), and late (P2) pregnancy, as well as at 2 months (PP1) and 6 months (PP2) postpartum. A substantial decrease in walking speed was observed throughout the pregnancy, with the slowest speed (1±0.2m/s) being during the third trimester. Walking at slowe...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Błaszczyk JW,Opala-Berdzik A,Plewa M

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • No evidence hip joint angle modulates intrinsically produced stretch reflex in human hopping.

    abstract::Motor output in activities such as walking and hopping is suggested to be mediated neurally by purported stretch reflex augmentation of muscle output. Reflex EMG activity during these tasks has been frequently investigated in the soleus muscle; with alterations in reflex amplitude being associated with changes in hip ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibson W,Campbell A,Allison G

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Lower limb biomechanics during gait do not return to normal following total hip arthroplasty.

    abstract::Although total hip arthroplasty (THA) is known to be a successful surgical procedure to alleviate hip pain and to improve health-related quality of life, these outcome measures in THA patients do not reach those of the general population. As a result, several investigators have assessed THA patients' gait mechanics, b...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beaulieu ML,Lamontagne M,Beaulé PE

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of constrained visual and somatic senses on controlling centre of mass during sit-to-stand.

    abstract::This study aimed to investigate the manner in which healthy individuals execute robust whole body movements despite unstable body structure from the perspective of perception-action coupling. Twelve healthy adults performed sit-to-stand (STS) movements under conditions of constrained visual and somatic senses. During ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuramatsu Y,Muraki T,Oouchida Y,Sekiguchi Y,Izumi S

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Biomechanical risk factors for tripping during obstacle--Crossing with the trailing limb in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::People with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) are at a high risk of falling especially during more challenging locomotor tasks such as obstacle-crossing. The current study aimed to identify the risk factors for tripping in these patients during trailing-limb obstacle-crossing. Fourteen patients with type II DM with or wi...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hsu WC,Liu MW,Lu TW

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00


    abstract:BACKGROUND:Evidence of neuroplasticity after joint injury has suggested that individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) may have degraded movement when facing cognitive demand. To date, research into these effects have been limited to static balance models, and typically only incorporate a single type of cognitiv...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Watson EL,Bearden AC,Doughton JH,Needle AR

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Control of lateral balance in walking. Experimental findings in normal subjects and above-knee amputees.

    abstract::In walking the human body is never in balance. Most of the time the trunk is supported by one leg and the centre of mass (CoM) 'falls' to the contralateral side. In dynamical situations the velocity of the CoM should be acknowledged as well in the 'extrapolated centre of mass' (XcoM). Centre of pressure (CoP) position...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hof AL,van Bockel RM,Schoppen T,Postema K

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Footscan pressure insoles: accuracy and reliability of force and pressure measurements in running.

    abstract::In the current investigation, the accuracy and reliability of two pairs of Footscan pressure insoles (500 Hz, RSscan, Belgium) was assessed, with four female (pair 1) and four male (pair 2) participants each performing 16 running trials (3.8m/s ± 5%). Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) revealed that the reliabi...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Low DC,Dixon SJ

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Validity and sensitivity of the longitudinal asymmetry index to detect gait asymmetry using Microsoft Kinect data.

    abstract::Gait asymmetry information is a key point in disease screening and follow-up. Constant Relative Phase (CRP) has been used to quantify within-stride asymmetry index, which requires noise-free and accurate motion capture, which is difficult to obtain in clinical settings. This study explores a new index, the Longitudina...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Auvinet E,Multon F,Manning V,Meunier J,Cobb JP

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • The relationships between compensatory stepping thresholds and measures of gait, standing postural control, strength, and balance confidence in older women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Compensatory stepping thresholds evaluate the response to postural disturbances. Although such fall-recovery measures are a promising indicator of fall risk, the relationships between stepping thresholds and other measures used to predict falls are not well established. RESEARCH QUESTION:We sought to quanti...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crenshaw JR,Bernhardt KA,Atkinson EJ,Khosla S,Kaufman KR,Amin S

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00