Braking and propulsive impulses increase with speed during accelerated and decelerated walking.


:The ability to accelerate and decelerate is important for daily activities and likely more demanding than maintaining a steady-state walking speed. Walking speed is modulated by anterior-posterior (AP) ground reaction force (GRF) impulses. The purpose of this study was to investigate AP impulses across a wide range of speeds during accelerated and decelerated walking. Kinematic and GRF data were collected from 10 healthy subjects walking on an instrumented treadmill. Subjects completed trials at steady-state speeds and at four rates of acceleration and deceleration across a speed range of 0-1.8 m/s. Mixed regression models were generated to predict AP impulses, step length and frequency from speed, and joint moment impulses from AP impulses during non-steady-state walking. Braking and propulsive impulses were positively related to speed. The braking impulse had a greater relationship with speed than the propulsive impulse, suggesting that subjects modulate the braking impulse more than the propulsive impulse to change speed. Hip and knee extensor, and ankle plantarflexor moment impulses were positively related to the braking impulse, and knee flexor and ankle plantarflexor moment impulses were positively related to the propulsive impulse. Step length and frequency increased with speed and were near the subjects' preferred combination at steady-state speeds, at which metabolic cost is minimized in nondisabled walking. Thus, these variables may be modulated to minimize metabolic cost while accelerating and decelerating. The outcomes of this work provide the foundation to investigate motor coordination in pathological subjects in response to the increased task demands of non-steady-state walking.


Gait Posture


Gait & posture


Peterson CL,Kautz SA,Neptune RR




Has Abstract


2011-04-01 00:00:00














  • An exploratory study examining factors underpinning postural instability in older adults with idiopathic neck pain.

    abstract::There is limited understanding of potential mechanisms underpinning postural control deficits in people with neck pain. This study examined several characteristics that might explain impaired postural stability in a group of older adults with neck pain, and compared the results in this cohort with that of asymptomatic...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Quek J,Treleaven J,Clark RA,Brauer SG

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of age on anticipatory postural adjustments in unilateral arm movement.

    abstract::Aging is frequently accompanied by a deterioration in postural control. Accordingly, the elderly adopt postural strategies in order to maintain balance. The purpose of this study was to compare anticipatory postural adjustments in (healthy) 10 young and 10 elderly subjects using electromyography (EMG) and biomechanica...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bleuse S,Cassim F,Blatt JL,Labyt E,Derambure P,Guieu JD,Defebvre L

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Frontal plane margin of stability is increased during texting while walking.

    abstract::Injurious falls associated with cell phone use during ambulation are increasingly common. Studies examining texting while walking suggest this task alters the attentional component of walking to the extent that safety may be compromised. Here, we quantified the extent to which frontal plane dynamic stability while wal...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Marone JR,Patel PB,Hurt CP,Grabiner MD

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Which functional impairments are the main contributors to pelvic anterior tilt during gait in individuals with cerebral palsy?

    abstract::While past investigations focused on describing pelvic motion patterns in the frontal and transversal plane, the sagittal plane "double bump" pattern commonly found in children with cerebral palsy was only rarely investigated, especially concerning the underlying pathology. 375 ambulatory (GMFCS I-III) patients with b...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wolf SI,Mikut R,Kranzl A,Dreher T

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Quantifying individual muscle contribution to three-dimensional reaching tasks.

    abstract::We investigated the individual muscle contribution to arm motion to better understand the complex muscular coordination underlying three-dimensional (3D) reaching tasks of the upper limb (UL). The individual contributions of biceps, triceps, deltoid anterior, medius, posterior and pectoralis major to the control of sp...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vandenberghe A,Bosmans L,De Schutter J,Swinnen S,Jonkers I

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Plantar pressures determinants in mild Hallux Valgus.

    abstract::While podobarometric techniques have been applied to the study of pressures in Hallux Valgus (HV), little is known about its clinical and radiological determinants. So, the aim of the present study was to determine the plantar pressure pattern in participants with mild HV, comparing to a control group, and their clini...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martínez-Nova A,Sánchez-Rodríguez R,Pérez-Soriano P,Llana-Belloch S,Leal-Muro A,Pedrera-Zamorano JD

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Interlimb asymmetry during walking following unilateral total knee arthroplasty.

    abstract::Osteoarthritis is the most common disease of the joints, and joint replacement surgery is often performed on the major lower extremity joints to relieve pain and improve function. While total knee arthroplasty is successful in restoring some degree of function, there are concerns in relation to the progression of oste...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Milner CE

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of lower limb muscle fatigue on obstacle negotiation during walking in older adults.

    abstract::Tripping over obstacles is a common cause of falls in older adults, and muscle fatigue, which can alter walking patterns, may add to this risk. To date, no study has examined the effect of lower limb muscle fatigue on obstacle negotiation in older adults. 30 older adults (13 women, aged 78.3 [6.2] years) negotiated a ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Hatton AL,Menant JC,Lord SR,Lo JC,Sturnieks DL

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Behavioral outcomes following below-knee amputation in the coordination between balance and leg movement.

    abstract::Lateral leg movement is accompanied by opposite movements of the supporting leg and trunk segments. This kinematic synergy shifts the center of mass (CM) towards the supporting foot and stabilizes its final position, while the leg movement is being performed. The aim of the present study was to provide insight in the ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mouchnino L,Mille ML,Martin N,Baroni G,Cincera M,Bardot A,Delarque A,Massion J,Pedotti A

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • The role of the human cerebellum in short- and long-term habituation of postural responses.

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the human cerebellum in short-term (STH) and long-term habituation (LTH) of postural responses to repeated platform perturbations. Ten cerebellar patients and ten age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated. Twenty backward platform translations were a...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Schwabe A,Drepper J,Maschke M,Diener HC,Timmann D

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Dynamic evaluation of simulated leg length inequalities and their effects on the musculoskeletal apparatus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Leg length inequalities (LLI) are a common problem in medicine. So far, the diagnosis and treatment are performed under static conditions. Surface Topography (ST) is an optical, non-invasive technique that uses the principle of triangulation to measure spinal posture and pelvic position. This technique offer...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beeck A,Quack V,Rath B,Wild M,Michalik R,Schenker H,Betsch M

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Modulating active stiffness affects head stabilizing strategies in young and elderly adults during trunk rotations in the vertical plane.

    abstract::Healthy young and elderly adults were asked to actively modulate neck muscle stiffness during random rotations of the trunk in the vertical plane. Angular velocity of head with respect to trunk and myoelectric activity of semispinalis capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscles were recorded. A MANOVA was performed on gro...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Keshner EA

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Compensatory mechanisms during walking in response to muscle weakness in spinal muscular atrophy, type III.

    abstract::Our knowledge on altered neurological control of walking due to weakness of various muscle groups of the lower extremities is limited. The aim of this study was to assess kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic (EMG) walking patterns in a functionally homogeneous group of seven subjects with spinal muscular atrophy, ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matjacić Z,Olensek A,Krajnik J,Eymard B,Zupan A,Praznikar A

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Associations of self-report measures with gait, range of motion and proprioception in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Spinal stenosis is defined as neurogenic claudication due to narrowing of the spinal canal lumen diameter. As the disease progresses, ambulation and gait may be impaired. Self-report measures are routinely used in the clinical setting to capture data related to lumbar pain symptoms, function and perceived ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Conrad BP,Shokat MS,Abbasi AZ,Vincent HK,Seay A,Kennedy DJ

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of postural asymmetry in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease.

    abstract::Asymmetry of symptoms of Parkinson's disease is clinically most evident for appendicular impairments. For axial impairments such as freezing of gait, asymmetry is less obvious. To date, asymmetries in balance control in PD patients have seldom been studied. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether postural con...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Geurts AC,Boonstra TA,Voermans NC,Diender MG,Weerdesteyn V,Bloem BR

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Repeatability of stance phase kinematics from a multi-segment foot model in people aged 50 years and older.

    abstract::Confidence in 3D multi-segment foot models has been limited by a lack of repeatability data, particularly in older populations that may display unique functional foot characteristics. This study aimed to determine the intra and inter-observer repeatability of stance phase kinematic data from a multi-segment foot model...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arnold JB,Mackintosh S,Jones S,Thewlis D

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Determination of the optimal locations of surface-mounted markers on the tibial segment.

    abstract::This study aims to determine optimal locations on the lower limbs for skin-mounted markers representing the tibial segment in three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis. It was predicted that markers located on the anterior tibial crest and malleoli would be least susceptible to soft tissue movement. Ten retro-reflective ma...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peters A,Sangeux M,Morris ME,Baker R

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of age on medio-lateral stability during normal and narrow base walking.

    abstract::We examined age-related differences in frontal plane stability during performance of narrow base (NB) walking relative to usual gait. A cross-sectional analysis of participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was performed on data from the BLSA Motion Analysis Laboratory. Participants were 34 adu...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schrager MA,Kelly VE,Price R,Ferrucci L,Shumway-Cook A

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Examination of trial-independent characteristics of body kinematics in response to similar postural perturbations.

    abstract::This study investigated the variability of certain kinematic features describing body segmental movement in response to a series of consecutive, translational movements of the supporting base along the anterior-posterior direction of the subject. These kinematic features included the amplitude and timings of the angul...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu G

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

  • High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation enhanced treadmill training effects on gait performance in individuals with chronic stroke: A double-blinded randomized controlled pilot trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with treadmill training has been suggested to modulate corticomotor activity and improve gait performance in people with Parkinson's disease. RESEARCH QUESTION:It is unclear whether this combination therapy has a similar effect in people with stro...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Wang RY,Wang FY,Huang SF,Yang YR

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking.

    abstract::A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current study was therefore t...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Groot MH,van der Jagt-Willems HC,van Campen JP,Lems WF,Beijnen JH,Lamoth CJ

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Postural adjustments in adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis during walking.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common type of three-dimensional spinal deformity. Identifying the postural adjustments or changes for different phases and events is needed for developing programs to improve the AIS gait, but such information has been limited. The current study aimed to f...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu KW,Wang TM,Hu CC,Hong SW,Lee PA,Lu TW

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Postural sway parameters in seated balancing; their reliability and relationship with balancing performance.

    abstract::This study investigated a representative set of 39 parameters characterizing center of pressure movements (sway) in seated balancing, with the aims to determine test-retest reliability, to clarify the interrelations between these parameters, and to determine which parameters were related to balance loss in seated bala...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Dieën JH,Koppes LL,Twisk JW

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Dual-task interference during gait on irregular terrain in people with Parkinson's disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Gait impairments in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) are accentuated in dual-task conditions. Most PD studies on dual-task gait have measured only straight line walking and treadmill gait. Gait alterations on irregular terrain are poorly understood. RESEARCH QUESTION:To what extent does walking on irreg...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu H,Merryweather A,Foreman KB,Zhao J,Hunt M

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Centre of pressure displacements in trans-femoral amputees during gait.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to describe and quantify centre of pressure (CoP) displacement during walking in 12 unilateral trans-femoral amputees who had worn a prosthesis for at least 10 years. All subjects wore the same type of prosthesis and seven healthy subjects acted as controls. The CoP was acquired by an F-scan ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmid M,Beltrami G,Zambarbieri D,Verni G

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Input representations and classification strategies for automated human gait analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Quantitative gait analysis produces a vast amount of data, which can be difficult to analyze. Automated gait classification based on machine learning techniques bear the potential to support clinicians in comprehending these complex data. Even though these techniques are already frequently used in the scient...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Slijepcevic D,Zeppelzauer M,Schwab C,Raberger AM,Breiteneder C,Horsak B

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Test-retest reliability of spatial and temporal gait parameters in children with cerebral palsy as measured by an electronic walkway.

    abstract:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest reliability of seven selected temporal and spatial gait parameters and asymmetry measures in children with cerebral palsy. METHOD:Seventeen children with CP between 3 and 13 years of age walked at three different speeds across an electronic walkway of 5.2m. ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sorsdahl AB,Moe-Nilssen R,Strand LI

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of gait velocity on calcaneal balance at heel strike; Implications for orthotic prescription in injury prevention.

    abstract::Exercise related lower limb injuries (ERLLI), are common in the recreational and competitive sporting population. Although ERLLI are thought to be multi-factorial in aetiology, one of the critical predisposing factors is known to gait abnormality. There is little published evidence comparing walking and running gait i...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shanthikumar S,Low Z,Falvey E,McCrory P,Franklyn-Miller A

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Is passive metatarsophalangeal joint stiffness related to leg stiffness, vertical stiffness and running economy during sub-maximal running?

    abstract::This study examined whether passive metatarsophalangeal joints (MPJ) stiffness was associated with leg stiffness (Kleg) vertical stiffness (Kvert) and running economy (RE) during sub-maximal running. Nine male experienced runners underwent passive MPJ stiffness measurements in standing and sitting positions followed b...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Man HS,Lam WK,Lee J,Capio CM,Leung AKL

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Dynamic stability of superior vs. inferior segments during walking in young and older adults.

    abstract::Active control of trunk motion is believed to enable humans to maintain stability during walking, suggesting that stability of the trunk is prioritized over other segments by the nervous system. We investigated if superior segments are more stable than inferior segments during walking and if age-related differences ar...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Kang HG,Dingwell JB

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00