Identification of a probable pore-forming domain in the multimeric vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9.


:Aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) form an important family of anion channels involved in fundamental physiological processes in plants. Because of their importance, the role of ALMTs in plant physiology is studied extensively. In contrast, the structural basis of their functional properties is largely unknown. This lack of information limits the understanding of the functional and physiological differences between ALMTs and their impact on anion transport in plants. This study aimed at investigating the structural organization of the transmembrane domain of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) vacuolar channel AtALMT9. For that purpose, we performed a large-scale mutagenesis analysis and found two residues that form a salt bridge between the first and second putative transmembrane α-helices (TMα1 and TMα2). Furthermore, using a combination of pharmacological and mutagenesis approaches, we identified citrate as an "open channel blocker" of AtALMT9 and used this tool to examine the inhibition sensitivity of different point mutants of highly conserved amino acid residues. By this means, we found a stretch within the cytosolic moiety of the TMα5 that is a probable pore-forming domain. Moreover, using a citrate-insensitive AtALMT9 mutant and biochemical approaches, we could demonstrate that AtALMT9 forms a multimeric complex that is supposedly composed of four subunits. In summary, our data provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence about the structural organization of an ion channel of the ALMT family. We suggest that AtALMT9 is a tetramer and that the TMα5 domains of the subunits contribute to form the pore of this anion channel.


Plant Physiol


Plant physiology


Zhang J,Baetz U,Krügel U,Martinoia E,De Angeli A




Has Abstract


2013-10-01 00:00:00














  • Growth, Water Relations, and Accumulation of Organic and Inorganic Solutes in Roots of Maize Seedlings during Salt Stress.

    abstract::Seedlings of maize (Zea mays L. cv Pioneer 3906), hydroponically grown in the dark, were exposed to NaCl either gradually (salt acclimation) or in one step (salt shock). In the salt-acclimation treatment, root extension was indistinguishable from that of unsalinized controls for at least 6 d at concentrations up to 10...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodriguez HG,Roberts J,Jordan WR,Drew MC

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • The plant-like C2 glycolate cycle and the bacterial-like glycerate pathway cooperate in phosphoglycolate metabolism in cyanobacteria.

    abstract::The occurrence of a photorespiratory 2-phosphoglycolate metabolism in cyanobacteria is not clear. In the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, we have identified open reading frames encoding enzymes homologous to those forming the plant-like C2 cycle and the bacterial-type glycerate pathway. ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eisenhut M,Kahlon S,Hasse D,Ewald R,Lieman-Hurwitz J,Ogawa T,Ruth W,Bauwe H,Kaplan A,Hagemann M

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Sugar-regulated expression of a putative hexose transport gene in grape.

    abstract::Different lengths of the promoter of grape (Vitis vinifera) VvHT1 (Hexose Transporter 1) gene, which encodes a putative hexose transporter expressed during the ripening of grape, have been transcriptionally fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. In transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) transformed with these ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Atanassova R,Leterrier M,Gaillard C,Agasse A,Sagot E,Coutos-Thévenot P,Delrot S

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of soil water stress on evaporation, root absorption, and internal water status of cotton.

    abstract::Diurnal variations in leaf water potential, diffusion resistance, relative water content, stem diameter, leaf temperature, and energy balance components were measured in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. var. Lankart 57) during drought stress under field conditions. A plot of leaf water potential against either relative w...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jordan WR,Ritchie JT

    更新日期:1971-12-01 00:00:00

  • The highly abundant chlorophyll-protein complex of iron-deficient Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 (CP43') is encoded by the isiA gene.

    abstract::A chlorophyll (Chl)-protein complex designated CPVI-4 becomes the major pigment-protein complex in Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 cells grown under conditions of iron limitation. Work by Laudenbach et al. (J Bacteriol [1988] 170: 5018-5026) has identified an iron-repressible operon, designated isiAB, containing the flavodo...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burnap RL,Troyan T,Sherman LA

    更新日期:1993-11-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of the branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase enzyme family in tomato.

    abstract::Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are synthesized in plants from branched-chain keto acids, but their metabolism is not completely understood. The interface of BCAA metabolism lies with branched-chain aminotransferases (BCAT) that catalyze both the last anabolic step and the first catabolic step. In this study, six B...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maloney GS,Kochevenko A,Tieman DM,Tohge T,Krieger U,Zamir D,Taylor MG,Fernie AR,Klee HJ

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • A new C-type cyclin-dependent kinase from tomato expressed in dividing tissues does not interact with mitotic and G1 cyclins.

    abstract::Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) form a conserved superfamily of eukaryotic serine-threonine protein kinases whose activity requires the binding of a cyclin protein. CDKs are involved in many aspects of cell biology and notably in the regulation of the cell cycle. Three cDNAs encoding a C-type CDK, and a member of each...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Joubès J,Lemaire-Chamley M,Delmas F,Walter J,Hernould M,Mouras A,Raymond P,Chevalier C

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of Carbon Partitioning to Respiration during Dark Ammonium Assimilation by the Green Alga Selenastrum minutum.

    abstract::The assimilation of NH(4) (+) causes a rapid increase in respiration to provided carbon skeletons for amino acid synthesis. In this study we propose a model for the regulation of carbon partitioning from starch to respiration and N assimilation in the green alga Selenastrum minutum. We provide evidence for both a cyto...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Turpin DH,Botha FC,Smith RG,Feil R,Horsey AK,Vanlerberghe GC

    更新日期:1990-05-01 00:00:00

  • Double knockout mutants of Arabidopsis grown under normal conditions reveal that the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme participates in transitory starch metabolism.

    abstract::In leaves of two starch-related single-knockout lines lacking either the cytosolic transglucosidase (also designated as disproportionating enzyme 2, DPE2) or the maltose transporter (MEX1), the activity of the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme (PHS1) is increased. In both mutants, metabolism of starch-derived maltose i...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Malinova I,Mahlow S,Alseekh S,Orawetz T,Fernie AR,Baumann O,Steup M,Fettke J

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • beta-Conglycinins in Developing Soybean Seeds.

    abstract::The temporal sequence of development of the major proteins of seeds of soybean (Merr.) has been studied during development of cotyledons from flowering to maturity. A well-defined difference occurred in the times of appearance and the periods of maximum accumulation of alpha, alpha'-, and beta-subunits of betaconglyci...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gayler KR,Sykes GE

    更新日期:1981-05-01 00:00:00

  • Specificity of hydrolysis of phytic acid by alkaline phytase from lily pollen.

    abstract::Phytases are the primary enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of phytic acid, myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (I-1,2,3,4,5,6-P6). A number of phytases with varying specificities, properties, and localizations hydrolyze phytic acid present in cells. The specificity of hydrolysis of phytic acid by alkaline p...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barrientos L,Scott JJ,Murthy PP

    更新日期:1994-12-01 00:00:00

  • Differentiation between Several Types of Phosphohydrolases in Light Microsomes of Corn Roots.

    abstract::The phosphohydrolase activity of a light microsomal fraction isolated from corn roots (Zea mays L. cv LG 55) was investigated. The fraction, which appears to be enriched in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes, has ATPase and pyrophosphatase activities that hydrolyze ATP and pyrophosphate at an optimum pH of 7.0,...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vicente JA,Vale MG

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma membrane H+-ATPase is involved in auxin-mediated cell elongation during wheat embryo development.

    abstract::Previous investigations suggested that specific auxin spatial distribution due to auxin movements to particular embryonic regions was important for normal embryonic pattern formation. To gain information on the molecular mechanism(s) by which auxin acts to direct pattern formation in specific embryonic regions, the ro...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rober-Kleber N,Albrechtová JT,Fleig S,Huck N,Michalke W,Wagner E,Speth V,Neuhaus G,Fischer-Iglesias C

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • Purification and Developmental Analysis of an Extracellular Proteinase from Young Leaves of Soybean.

    abstract::A proteinase present in intercellular wash fluids from leaves of Glycine max has been purified 600-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity. The native protein is monomeric with a molecular mass of 60 kD, as estimated by denaturing gel electrophoresis, and has an isoelectric point of 7.7. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 9.5...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huangpu J,Graham JS

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Chlorophyll synthesis in dark-grown pine primary needles

    abstract::The pigment content of dark-grown primary needles of Pinus jeffreyi L. and Pinus sylvestris L. was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The state of protochlorophyllide a and of chlorophylls during dark growth were analyzed by in situ 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy. Both measurements unambiguously dem...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schoefs B,Franck F

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Comparing the in vivo function of α-carboxysomes and β-carboxysomes in two model cyanobacteria.

    abstract::The carbon dioxide (CO2)-concentrating mechanism of cyanobacteria is characterized by the occurrence of Rubisco-containing microcompartments called carboxysomes within cells. The encapsulation of Rubisco allows for high-CO2 concentrations at the site of fixation, providing an advantage in low-CO2 environments. Cyanoba...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Whitehead L,Long BM,Price GD,Badger MR

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Growth of transplastomic cells expressing D-amino acid oxidase in chloroplasts is tolerant to D-alanine and inhibited by D-valine.

    abstract::Dual-conditional positive/negative selection markers are versatile genetic tools for manipulating genomes. Plastid genomes are relatively small and conserved DNA molecules that can be manipulated precisely by homologous recombination. High-yield expression of recombinant products and maternal inheritance of plastid-en...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gisby MF,Mudd EA,Day A

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • Gain-of-Function Mutants of the Cytokinin Receptors AHK2 and AHK3 Regulate Plant Organ Size, Flowering Time and Plant Longevity.

    abstract::The phytohormone cytokinin is a regulator of numerous processes in plants. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the cytokinin signal is perceived by three membrane-located receptors named ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE2 (AHK2), AHK3, and AHK4/CRE1. How the signal is transmitted across the membrane is an entirely unkno...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bartrina I,Jensen H,Novák O,Strnad M,Werner T,Schmülling T

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Electrical evidence for turgor inhibition of proton extrusion in sugar beet taproot.

    abstract::Sections of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproot were incubated in various concentrations of mannitol. At 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 molar, the membrane electrical potential difference (E(m)) averaged about -130 millivolts; at 0.2 molar, about -90 millivolts; and at 0 molar, between -60 and -80 millivolts. Additions of 10 mil...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kinraide TB,Wyse RE

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

  • Migration of the Fungal Protein Cryptogein within Tobacco Plants.

    abstract::Cryptogein (CRY), a protein secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea, causes necrosis on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants at the site of application (the stem or the roots) and also on distant leaves. Autoradiography of plantlets after root absorption of radioiodinated CRY demonstrated a rapid migration of the label to th...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Devergne JC,Bonnet P,Panabières F,Blein JP,Ricci P

    更新日期:1992-07-01 00:00:00

  • Rhythmicity in ethylene production in cotton seedlings.

    abstract::Cotyledons of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings grown under a photoperiod of 12 hour darkness and 12 hour light showed daily oscillations in ethylene evolution. The rate of ethylene evolution began to increase toward the end of the dark period and reached a maximum rate during the first third of the light perio...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rikin A,Chalutz E,Anderson JD

    更新日期:1984-06-01 00:00:00

  • The decisive step in betaxanthin biosynthesis is a spontaneous reaction1

    abstract::Experiments were performed to confirm that the aldimine bond formation is a spontaneous reaction, because attempts to find an enzyme catalyzing the last decisive step in betaxanthin biosynthesis, the aldimine formation, failed. Feeding different amino acids to betalain-forming hairy root cultures of yellow beet (Beta ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schliemann W,Kobayashi N,Strack D

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of plant hormones from cotton ovules.

    abstract::An extract from 8-day-old cotton ovules (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was partitioned into three fractions and each fraction was derivatized and analyzed separately. Gas-liquid chromatography and computer-controlled gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to separate, measure, and identify the naturally occurr...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shindy WW,Smith OE

    更新日期:1975-03-01 00:00:00

  • Starch Phosphorylation in Potato Tubers Proceeds Concurrently with de Novo Biosynthesis of Starch.

    abstract::The in vivo phosphorylation of starch was studied in Solanum tuberosum cv Dianella and Posmo. Small starch granules contain 25% more ester-bound phosphate per glucose residue than large starch granules. The degree of phosphorylation was found to be almost constant during tuber development. Isolated tuber discs synthes...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nielsen TH,Wischmann B,Enevoldsen K,Moller BL

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Oxaloacetate transport into plant mitochondria

    abstract::The properties of oxaloacetate (OA) transport into mitochondria from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber and pea (Pisum sativum) leaves were studied by measuring the uptake of 14C-labeled OA into liposomes with incorporated mitochondrial membrane proteins preloaded with various dicarboxylates or citrate. OA was found to ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hanning I I,Baumgarten K,Schott K,Heldt HW

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • A genome-wide and metabolic analysis determined the adaptive response of Arabidopsis cells to folate depletion induced by methotrexate.

    abstract::Control of folate homeostasis is essential to sustain the demand for one-carbon (C1) units that are necessary for major biological functions, including nucleotide synthesis and methylation reactions. In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide and metabolic adaptive response of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cells ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loizeau K,De Brouwer V,Gambonnet B,Yu A,Renou JP,Van Der Straeten D,Lambert WE,Rébeillé F,Ravanel S

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolism of tryptophan in petioles of coleus.

    abstract::Auxin precursors retard abscission when applied to debladed petioles of Coleus blumei Benth. The d and l forms of tryptophan are equally effective in retarding abscission. Tryptamine is more effective than is tryptophan. Both compounds apparently are converted to auxin through an aldehyde intermediate. The evidence pr...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Valdovinos JG,Perley JE

    更新日期:1966-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cold hardening in citrus stems.

    abstract::Stem cold hardening developed to different levels in citrus types tested in controlled environments. Exotherms indicated ice spread was more uniform and rapid in unhardened than in cold-hardened stems. All attempts to inhibit the functioning of citrus leaves resulted in less cold hardening in the stems. Citrus leaves ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yelenosky G

    更新日期:1975-10-01 00:00:00

  • The Association of d-Ribulose- 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase with Phosphoribulokinase.

    abstract::When Ribulose- 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was purified from spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea) using precipitation with polyethylene glycol and MgCl(2) followed by DEAE cellulose chromatography, 75% of phosphoribulokinase and 7% of phosphoriboisomerase activities copurified with ribulose- 1,5-bisphosphate ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sainis JK,Merriam K,Harris GC

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sodium absorption by barley roots: its mediation by mechanism 2 of alkali cation transport.

    abstract::When barley roots absorb Na(+) at concentrations ranging from 1 to 50 mm, in the presence of low concentrations of Ca(2+) and K(+), absorption of Na(+) is mediated by carrier mechanism 2 of alkali cation transport, mechanism 1 being unavailable for Na(+) transport under these conditions. The absorption isotherm depict...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rains DW,Epstein E

    更新日期:1967-03-01 00:00:00