Long-term inducible resistance in birch foliage: triggering cues and efficacy on a defoliator.


:Heavy damage of the mountain birch foliage, as well as application of small amounts of insect frass to the soil beneath the trees, reduced growth of Epirrita autumnata larvae reared in these trees in the following year. Foliage damage in the previous year decreased larval survival, too. Both foliage damage and insect frass in the soil decreased a fecundity index which combined the effects of size and survival. Because application of small amounts of fertilizers had an effect indistinguishable from that of insect frass, the effect of the frass may base on responses of trees to an increase in soil nutrient concentration in mid-summer. In previously untreated control trees, all performance indices (growth, survival, and egg production) of Epirrita correlated positively with the distance of the birch from the closest birch defoliated in the previous year, indicating "communication" between adjacent trees. Epirrita egg production in trees that had been both defoliated and treated with frass in the previous summer was at least 70% lower than in previously unmanipulated control trees.






Haukioja E,Suomela J,Neuvonen S




Has Abstract


1985-02-01 00:00:00














  • Is nutrient availability related to plant nutrient use in humid tropical forests?

    abstract::Data on soil nutrient availability for humid tropical forests are often reported, but are rarely integrated in an ecologically meaningful way with other measures of nutrient cycling. In this paper, estimates of soil nutrient availability and the inverse of litterfall nutrient concentrations (as an index of plant nutri...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Silver WL

    更新日期:1994-08-01 00:00:00

  • Local and regional dynamics of a specialist herbivore: overexploitation of a patchily distributed host plant.

    abstract::This study reports a rare example where a native herbivorous insect frequently overexploits local populations of its perennial host. Local dynamics of a flightless weevil (Hadramphus spinipennis, Curculionidae) and its host plant (Aciphylla dieffenbachii, Apiaceae) were assessed for one discrete patch. In this main st...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schöps K

    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00

  • Respiration characteristics in temperate rainforest tree species differ along a long-term soil-development chronosequence.

    abstract::We measured the response of dark respiration (R(d)) to temperature and foliage characteristics in the upper canopies of tree species in temperate rainforest communities in New Zealand along a soil chronosequence (six sites from 6 years to 120,000 years). The chronosequence provided a vegetation gradient characterised ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Turnbull MH,Tissue DT,Griffin KL,Richardson SJ,Peltzer DA,Whitehead D

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Predators, environment and host characteristics influence the probability of infection by an invasive castrating parasite.

    abstract::Not all hosts, communities or environments are equally hospitable for parasites. Direct and indirect interactions between parasites and their predators, competitors and the environment can influence variability in host exposure, susceptibility and subsequent infection, and these influences may vary across spatial scal...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gehman AM,Grabowski JH,Hughes AR,Kimbro DL,Piehler MF,Byers JE

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Patch marking in the aphid hyperparasitoid, Dendrocerus carpenteri: the information contained in patch marks.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to test if females of the aphid hyperparasitoid Dendrocerus carpenteri (Curtis produce patch marks. We tested if these marks inform a foraging female of the identity of the producer of the mark (the female herself or a conspecific female) and on the producer's success or failure in finding ho...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Höller C,Hörmann R

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • Plant preference and plant succession : A consideration of evolution of plant preference in Schistocerca.

    abstract::The theory that early successional plants and annual plants will be less well defended against generalist herbivores than later successional plants and perennial plants, because they avoid herbivores by escaping in space and time, is evaluated. The theory is not supported in the ecosystem examined. The correlation bet...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Otte D

    更新日期:1975-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of marking and capture on recapture frequencies of butterflies.

    abstract::As a preliminary to a population study using markrelease-recapture techniques, specimens of the Satyrid buttfly Melanargia galathea (L.) were subjected to a number of marking and capture techniques. Although the adults are thought to display both aposematic and cryptic coloration, the use of marks of different sizes a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morton AC

    更新日期:1982-04-01 00:00:00

  • Field metabolic rates and water influxes of two sympatric Gerbillidae:Gerbillus allenbyi andG. pyramidum.

    abstract::Two primarily granivorous rodents of Old World deserts,Gerbillus allenbyi (mean adult body mass=26 g) andG. pyramidum (mean adult body mass=40 g), coexist in sandy habitats in the northwestern Negev desert. Both species are burrow dwellers and are nocturnal; however, in their overall distributions,G. pyramidum occurs ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Degen AA,Pinshow B,Kam M

    更新日期:1992-07-01 00:00:00

  • Compound-specific δ2H analysis highlights the relationship between direct assimilation and de novo synthesis of amino acids from food and water in a terrestrial mammalian omnivore.

    abstract::Hydrogen isotope (δ2H) analysis has been routinely used as an ecological tracer for animal movement and migration, yet a biochemical understanding of how animals incorporate this element in the synthesis of tissues is poorly resolved. Here, we apply a new analytical tool, amino acid (AA) δ2H analysis, in a controlled ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Newsome SD,Nakamoto BJ,Curras MR,Fogel ML

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Autumnal leaf conductance and apparent photosynthesis by saplings and sprouts in a recently disturbed northern hardwood forest.

    abstract::Leaf surface conductance and apparent photosynthesis were measured during late summer and autumn on saplings and sprouts of pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) naturally revegetating a site in the northern hardwood...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amthor JS,Gill DS,Bormann FH

    更新日期:1990-08-01 00:00:00

  • Experimental evaluation and thermo-physical analysis of thermogenesis in male and female cycad cones.

    abstract::Thermogenically elevated cone temperatures were measured in two Macrozamia cycad species that differ in their daily heating time. Mathematical models of the cones' thermo-physics were tested for their accuracy in predicting these cone temperatures and for comparison of the energetics of both species and the sexes with...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roemer R,Terry I,Chockley C,Jacobsen J

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Estimation of stand-level leaf area for boreal bryophytes.

    abstract::Bryophytes dominate the carbon and nitrogen cycling of many poorly drained terrestrial ecosystems and are important in the vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon and water, yet few studies have estimated their leaf area at the stand scale. This study quantified the bryophyte-specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bond-Lamberty B,Gower ST

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Carabid fecundity as affected by extrinsic and intrinsic factors.

    abstract::Eight species of carabids (six of them represented by two subpopulations) were sampled. It appeared that the mean number of ripe eggs in the ovaries could be regressed on the specific body weight (ranging from 20 to 285 mg dry wt.): the mean decreased in heavier species, and was higher in the autumn breeders than in t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grüm L

    更新日期:1984-12-01 00:00:00

  • Thermoregulatory function of the parietal eye in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    abstract::Animals were acclimitized to a daily cycle of 15-25°C and a photoperiod of LD 12:12. Parietalectomized animals in an experimental thermal gradient (15°C-40°C, LD 12:12) selected significantly higher temperatures than controls at all hours of the day except from 0800-1200. These results suggest that the lizard parapine...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hutchison VH,Kosh RJ

    更新日期:1974-06-01 00:00:00

  • Direct and indirect effects of plant and frugivore diversity on structural and functional components of fruit removal by birds.

    abstract::Seed dispersal is an important ecosystem function, but it is contentious how structural and functional diversity of plant and bird communities are associated with seed-dispersal functions. We used structural equation models to test how structural (i.e., abundance, species richness) and functional diversity (i.e., func...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Quitián M,Santillán V,Espinosa CI,Homeier J,Böhning-Gaese K,Schleuning M,Neuschulz EL

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • The costs of crest induction for Daphnia carinata.

    abstract::The effects of notonectid-induced crests on growth and reproduction, and resource allocation to crest construction, moult losses and eggs of Daphnia carinata were measured. An attempt was made to elucidate the mechanisms of physiological costs of crest induction for this species. The crested morph of d. carinata reach...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barry MJ

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • Demographic mechanisms in the coexistence of two closely related perennials in a fluctuating environment.

    abstract::The demographic variability and life history differentiation of two closely related shrubs (Atriplex canescens and A. acanthocarpa) were investigated in the Chihuahuan Desert, and the results were interpreted in the context of theories of coexistence in fluctuating environments. Demographic information was recorded du...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verhulst J,Montaña C,Mandujano MC,Franco M

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Competition with stone crabs drives juvenile spiny lobster abundance and distribution.

    abstract::Interspecific competition is assumed to have a strong influence on the population dynamics of competing species, but is not easily demonstrated for mobile species in the wild. In the Florida Keys (USA), anecdotal observations have long pointed to an inverse relationship in abundance of two large decapod crustaceans fo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Behringer DC,Hart JE

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Stable isotope analysis of termite food habits in East African grasslands.

    abstract::Stable carbon isotope techniques were employed to study the food habits of the termite Macrotermes michaelseni (Isoptera: Termitidae) in a semiarid savanna habitat in Kenya. At Kajiado this species utilized approximately 70% herbaceous vegetation (mostly grass) and 30% woody vegetation, while at Ruiru approximately 64...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boutton TW,Arshad MA,Tieszen LL

    更新日期:1983-08-01 00:00:00

  • The spatial and temporal distribution pattern of the stoat (Mustela erminea L.).

    abstract::The distribution and movements of two stoat populations were studied by capture-recapture and tracking in the Swiss Jura Mountains. On the Brévine area in summer 1977 the population was at a high density phase and evenly distributed. A well established intrasexual territorial system was observed, with a high degree of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Debrot S,Mermod C

    更新日期:1983-08-01 00:00:00

  • Predator faunas past and present: quantifying the influence of waterborne cues in divergent ecotypes of the isopod Asellus aquaticus.

    abstract::Waterborne chemical cues are an important source of information for many aquatic organisms, in particular when assessing the current risk of predation. The ability to use chemical cues to detect and respond to potential predators before an actual encounter can improve prey chances of survival. We investigated predator...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harris S,Karlsson Green K,Pettersson LB

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Ecophysiological studies of Sonoran Desert plants. VII. Photosynthetic gas exchange of winter ephemerals from sun and shade environments.

    abstract::A comparison of photosynthetic adaptations of desert ephemerals from sun and shade environments has shown differences in the magnitude and timing of maximum CO2 assimilation. Photosynthetic rates of species from the sun environment were significantly higher, and maximum observed levels occurred both earlier in the day...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wallace CS,Szarek SR

    更新日期:1981-10-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison, by sweep sampling, of the insect fauna from corn and sweet potato monocultures and dicultures in Costa Rica.

    abstract::The insect fauna of 80 day-old plots of corn and sweet potato monocultures and dicultures in Costa Rica were compared using sweep sampling. Six hundred sweeps were taken in each of the three habitats. There were 15% more total species in the diculture than either monoculture but approximately the same total number of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Risch SJ

    更新日期:1979-09-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing tree ring δ15N of four temperate deciduous species as an indicator of N availability using independent long-term records at the Fernow Experimental Forest, WV.

    abstract::Nitrogen deposition in the northeastern US changed N availability in the latter part of the twentieth century, with potential legacy effects. However, long-term N cycle measurements are scarce. N isotopes in tree rings have been used as an indicator of N availability through time, but there is little verification of w...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burnham MB,Adams MB,Peterjohn WT

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Physiological control of water flux in conifers : A computer simulation model.

    abstract::A water flux model with daily resolution is described which permits one to assess how changes in the rooting volume, amount of sapwood, leaf area and conductance properties interact to affect water uptake, internal storage, and transpiration.A root zone water compartment is defined for a particular tree on the basis o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Running SW,Waring RH,Rydell RA

    更新日期:1975-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of available P and N:P ratios on non-symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tallgrass prairie soils.

    abstract::Prescribed burning is a major control over element cycles in Tallgrass prairie (Eastern Kansas, USA). In this paper we report potential effects of fire on nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation. Fire resulted in additions of available P in ash, which may stimulate nitrogen fixation by terrestrial cyanobacteria. Cyanobacterial...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eisele KA,Schimel DS,Kapustka LA,Parton WJ

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • Compensatory feeding response of the slug Sarasinula plebeia to dietary dilution.

    abstract::Like many polyphagous herbivores, individuals of Sarasinula plebeia (Fischer) (Soleolifera: Veronicellidae) consume a variety of plant species that may differ in nutritional content. In this study we determined the ability of these slugs to compensate for such variation in diet composition. Dilution with water of an a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rueda AA,Slansky F Jr,Wheeler GS

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • Warmest extreme year in U.S. history alters thermal requirements for tree phenology.

    abstract::The frequency of extreme warm years is increasing across the majority of the planet. Shifts in plant phenology in response to extreme years can influence plant survival, productivity, and synchrony with pollinators/herbivores. Despite extensive work on plant phenological responses to climate change, little is known ab...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carter JM,Orive ME,Gerhart LM,Stern JH,Marchin RM,Nagel J,Ward JK

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Photosynthetic capacity in relation to leaf position in desert versus old-field annuals.

    abstract::Desert annuals of Death Valley, California have higher average light-saturated photosynthetic capacities and leaf nitrogen contents than do early-successional annuals of Illinois. The leaves of annuals in the light-unlimited Death Valley environment change little in specific weight, nitrogen, or photosynthetic capacit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mooney HA,Field C,Gulmon SL,Bazzaz FA

    更新日期:1981-08-01 00:00:00

  • Constraints on body size distributions: an experimental approach using a small-scale system.

    abstract::Holling's (1992) proposition that discontinuities in biotic and abiotic processes generate structure in ecological systems is examined experimentally by imposing size-specific perturbations on marine sediment assemblages. Two kinds of perturbations were applied: organic enrichment and predation, each at two levels. Pe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Raffaelli D,Hall S,Emes C,Manly B

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00