Adaptive variation in vein placement underpins diversity in a major Neotropical plant radiation.


:Vein placement has been hypothesised to control leaf hydraulic properties, but the ecophysiological significance of variation in vein placement in the angiosperms has remained poorly understood. The highly diverse Neotropical Bromeliaceae offers an excellent system for exploring understudied relationships between leaf vein placement, physiological functions, and species ecology. To test key hypotheses regarding the links between vein placement, functional type divergences, and ecological diversity in the Bromeliaceae, I characterised the ratio of interveinal distance (IVD) to vein-epidermis distance (VED) in 376 species, representing all major functional types and 10% of the species diversity in the family, as well as bioclimatic properties and key leaf traits for subsets of species. There were significant differences in vein placement parameters in species of contrasting functional type, habitat association, and bioclimatic distribution. In many C3 tank-epiphytes, a greater ratio between interveinal distance and the depth of veins within the mesophyll reflects optimisation for resource foraging in shady, humid habitats. In succulent terrestrials, overinvestment in veins probably facilitates rapid recharge of water storage tissue, as well as restricting water loss. These results highlight how divergences in vein placement relate to distinctive ecophysiological strategies between and within bromeliad functional types, and provide timely insights into how structural-functional innovation has impacted the evolution of ecological diversity in a major radiation of tropical herbaceous angiosperms.






Males J




Has Abstract


2017-11-01 00:00:00














  • Intraguild predation and interference competition on the endangered dragonfly Aeshna viridis.

    abstract::We examined the effects of intraguild predation (IGP) and interference competition on an endangered dragonfly, Aeshna viridis Eversm. (Odonata: Anisoptera). A. viridis is rare in Europe due to the decrease in suitable habitats harboring the macrophyte Stratiotes aloides L. Stratiotes plants are the principal ovipositi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suutari E,Rantala MJ,Salmela J,Suhonen J

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of varying environments on photosynthetic parameters of C3, C3-C4 and C4 species of Panicum.

    abstract::CO2 exchange characteristics and the activity of the carboxylating enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-C, E.C. and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBP-C, E.C. during one year in the greenhouse and at two levels of light and temperature in growth chambers were determined in the C3-C...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fladung M,Hesselbach J

    更新日期:1989-05-01 00:00:00

  • Young clonal and non-clonal herbs differ in growth strategy but not in aboveground biomass compensation after disturbance.

    abstract::Clonal plants have more traits enabling individual persistence (larger belowground storage of buds and assimilates), whereas non-clonal plants have more traits enabling population persistence (a higher reliance on regeneration from seeds). This difference presumably makes those groups respond differently to disturbanc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martínková J,Klimeš A,Klimešová J

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Colonization by nitrogen-fixing Frankia bacteria causes short-term increases in herbivore susceptibility in red alder (Alnus rubra) seedlings.

    abstract::Carbon allocation demands from root-nodulating nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) can modulate the host plant's chemical phenotype, with strong bottom-up effects on herbivores. In contrast to well-studied rhizobia, the effects of other important NFB on plant chemistry and herbivory are much less understood. Here, combinin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ballhorn DJ,Elias JD,Balkan MA,Fordyce RF,Kennedy PG

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Compensatory feeding response of the slug Sarasinula plebeia to dietary dilution.

    abstract::Like many polyphagous herbivores, individuals of Sarasinula plebeia (Fischer) (Soleolifera: Veronicellidae) consume a variety of plant species that may differ in nutritional content. In this study we determined the ability of these slugs to compensate for such variation in diet composition. Dilution with water of an a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rueda AA,Slansky F Jr,Wheeler GS

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • Nitrification and nitrogen mineralization in a lowland rainforest succession in Costa Rica, Central America.

    abstract::Nitrogen availability is a critical component of productivity in successional lowland rainforests, and nitrogen losses from a given system may largely depend on rates of nitrification in soils of the system. Two hypotheses were tested in a study of a 6-point secondary rainforest sere in the coastal lowlands of Costa R...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Philip Robertson G

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Habitat architecture and trophic interaction strength in a river: riffle-scale effects.

    abstract::Invertebrate algal grazer densities were manipulated in a temperate river to discover the impact of differences in riffle-scale architectural complexity on the strength of the trophic interaction between grazers and epilithic algae. Animal densities were manipulated by manual removal in architecturally complex boulder...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Robson BJ

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Growing and shrinking in the smallest tortoise, Homopus signatus signatus: the importance of rain.

    abstract::Climate change models predict that the range of the world's smallest tortoise, Homopus signatus signatus, will aridify and contract in the next decades. To evaluate the effects of annual variation in rainfall on the growth of H. s. signatus, we recorded annual growth rates of wild individuals from spring 2000 to sprin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loehr VJ,Hofmeyr MD,Henen BT

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion.

    abstract::In many mammals, early survival differs between the sexes, with males proving the more fragile sex ["Fragile male (FM) hypothesis"], especially in sexually dimorphic species where males are the larger sex. Male-biased allocation (MBA) by females may offset this difference. Here, we evaluate support for the FM and MBA ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kraus C,Mueller B,Meise K,Piedrahita P,Pörschmann U,Trillmich F

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Spatial aggregation across ephemeral resource patches in insect communities: an adaptive response to natural enemies?

    abstract::Although an increase in competition is a common cost associated with intraspecific crowding, spatial aggregation across food-limited resource patches is a widespread phenomenon in many insect communities. Because intraspecific aggregation of competing insect larvae across, $132#g. fruits, dung, mushrooms etc., ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rohlfs M,Hoffmeister TS

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • The metabolic performance predicts home range size of bank voles: a support for the behavioral-bioenergetics theory.

    abstract::The pace-of-life syndrome describes covariation between life-history, behavioral and physiological traits; while, the emerging behavioral-bioenergetics theory proposes mechanistic links between those traits in a spatial-ecological context. However, little is known about the association between the limits to metabolic ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boratyński Z,Szyrmer M,Koteja P

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Resurrection grasses in India.

    abstract::A search for desiccation tolerant grasses in India revealed nine grass species (in the genera Eragrostiella, Oropetium and Tripogon) whose ability to recover from airdryness had not previously been reported. Dry leaves of these species recover uninjured within 24 h of plants receiving water. Desiccation tolerance limi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gaff DF,Bole PV

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

  • Modelling the effect of directional spatial ecological processes at different scales.

    abstract::During the last 20 years, ecologists discovered the importance of including spatial relationships in models of species distributions. Among the latest developments in modelling how species are spatially structured are eigenfunction-based spatial filtering methods such as Moran's eigenvector maps (MEM) and principal co...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blanchet FG,Legendre P,Maranger R,Monti D,Pepin P

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • The natural abundance of (15)N in mat-forming lichens.

    abstract::Natural abundance of (15)N and [N] was studied in thalli of mat-forming lichens collected from tundra and heathland sites in the northern and southern hemispheres. The study includes samples of British Cladonia portentosa from sites in regions of high and low N-loading and in heathland growing both directly on peat an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ellis CJ,Crittenden PD,Scrimgeour CM,Ashcroft C

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Prey susceptibilities, prey utilization and variable attack efficiencies of Ural owls.

    abstract::To investigate the factors that influence prey utilization among predators with active prey, three series of experiments were performed in which Ural owls (Strix uralensis) searched for and attacked three prey species of wild mice, Microtus montebelli, Apodemus speciosus, and A. argenteus, in a large flight cage. Over...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nishimura K,Abe MT

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • Ecosystem-level evidence for top-down and bottom-up control of production in a grassland stream system.

    abstract::Ecosystem-wide effects of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and native river galaxias (Galaxiaseldoni McDowall) were studied by analysing ecosystem production budgets for two adjacent tributaries of a grassland stream-system in the South Island of New Zealand. One tributary was inhabited by brown trout, the oth...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huryn AD

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • Dryness increases predation risk in efts: support for an amphibian decline hypothesis.

    abstract::One hypothesis for amphibian declines is that increased dryness attributed to global climate change exposes amphibians to greater biotic threat and, consequently, greater mortality. But, little is known about behavioral responses of terrestrial amphibians to dry conditions alone or in combination with biotic threats. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rohr JR,Madison DM

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • A technique for determining individual fresh weights of live small animals, with special reference to Enchytraeidae.

    abstract::A technique is presented in which desiccation as a source of error in fresh weight determinations of soft-bodied microfauna is avoided by weighing the animal in a drop of silica fluid. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lundkvist H

    更新日期:1978-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interactions of root and leaf herbivores on purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria).

    abstract::Interspecific interactions of herbivores sharing a host plant may be important in structuring herbivore communities. We investigated host plant-mediated interactions of root (Hylobius transversovittatus) and leaf herbivores (Galerucella calmariensis), released to control purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hunt-Joshi TR,Blossey B

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Early outflying and late homeflying in the Indian pygmy bat under natural conditions.

    abstract::The outflying and homeflying activity pattern of a colony of the Indian pygmy bat Pipistrellus mimus occupying a tunnel was studied under natural conditions. Before leaving the tunnel for foraging, the bats made circling flights outside to sample the environmental light conditions. The onset and end of activity was re...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Isaac SS,Marimuthu G

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Predation by the isopod Saduria entomon on the amphipods Monoporeia affinis and Pontoporeia femorata: experiments on prey vulnerability.

    abstract::Predation by Saduria entomon on the depositfeeding amphipods Monoporeia (=Pontoporeia) affinis and Pontoporeia femorata was studied in laboratory experiments. Prey vulnerabilities were compared in singleprey treatments and in mixed-prey treatments, where the proportions of the two species were varied at one total dens...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hill C,Elmgren R

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Levels of antioxidants in rural and urban birds and their consequences.

    abstract::Numerous animals have successfully invaded urban habitats, although the factors associated with invasion success remain poorly understood. Urban areas are characterized by warmer microclimates, higher levels of primary productivity, longer breeding seasons and higher levels of pollutants. All these factors should caus...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Møller AP,Erritzøe J,Karadas F

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of habitat characteristics and interspecific interactions on co-occurrence patterns of saproxylic beetles breeding in tree boles after forest fire: null model analyses.

    abstract::It is often suggested that habitat attributes and interspecific interactions can cause non-random species co-occurrence patterns, but quantifying their contributions can be difficult. Null models that systematically exclude and include habitat effects can give information on the contribution of these factors to commun...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Azeria ET,Ibarzabal J,Hébert C

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Characterising spatial and temporal variation in the finite rate of population increase across the northern range boundary of the annual grass Vulpia fasciculata.

    abstract::Understanding the factors that influence plant distributions is a considerable challenge for ecologists in the face of environmental change. Here, we quantify spatial and temporal variation in the finite rate of population increase of the annual grass Vulpia fasciculata. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that the n...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Norton LR,Firbank LG,Scott A,Watkinson AR

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Aridity promotes bet hedging via delayed hatching: a case study with two temporary pond crustaceans along a latitudinal gradient.

    abstract::Climate change does affect not only average rainfall and temperature but also their variation, which can reduce the predictability of suitable conditions for growth and reproduction. This situation is problematic for inhabitants of temporary waters whose reproductive success depends on rainfall and evaporation that de...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pinceel T,Vanschoenwinkel B,Hawinkel W,Tuytens K,Brendonck L

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Contrasting complexity of adjacent habitats influences the strength of cascading predatory effects.

    abstract::Although cascading effects of top predators can help structure communities, their influence may vary across habitats that differentially protect prey. Therefore, to understand how and to what degree habitat complexity can affect trophic interactions in adjacent habitats, we used a combination of a broad regional-scale...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Byers JE,Holmes ZC,Malek JC

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Linking limitation to species composition: importance of inter- and intra-specific variation in grazing resistance.

    abstract::Short-term responses of producers highlight that key nutrients (e.g., N, P)-or combinations of these nutrients-limit primary production in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These discoveries continue to provide highly valuable insights, but it remains important to ask whether nutrients always predominantly limit pro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Darcy-Hall TL,Hall SR

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of delayed mating and prolonged engorgement on the reproductive fitness of female Amblyomma limbatum (Acari: Ixodidae) in marginal population areas.

    abstract::Reptile ticks mate while females are attached to their host. Following mating, females engorge, detach and then lay their eggs. This study examines whether the time that females of the reptile tick Amblyomma limbatum spend on hosts prior to mating and the time they take to engorge on hosts after mating influence their...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chilton NB,Andrews RH,Bull CM

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • Tree species effects on ecosystem water-use efficiency in a high-elevation, subalpine forest.

    abstract::Ecosystem water-use efficiency (eWUE; the ratio of net ecosystem productivity to evapotranspiration rate) is a complex landscape-scale parameter controlled by both physical and biological processes occurring in soil and plants. Leaf WUE (lWUE; the ratio of leaf CO(2) assimilation rate to transpiration rate) is control...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Monson RK,Prater MR,Hu J,Burns SP,Sparks JP,Sparks KL,Scott-Denton LE

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Seasonal shift from bottom-up to top-down impact in phytophagous insect populations.

    abstract::Although many studies now examine how multiple factors influence the dynamics of herbivore populations, few studies explicitly attempt to document where and when each is important and how they vary and interact. In fact, how temporal variation in top-down (natural enemies) and bottom-up (host plant resources) factors ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gratton C,Denno RF

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00