Chitosan, a Biopolymer With Triple Action on Postharvest Decay of Fruit and Vegetables: Eliciting, Antimicrobial and Film-Forming Properties.


:Chitosan is a natural biopolymer from crab shells that is known for its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactivity. In human medicine, chitosan is used as a stabilizer for active ingredients in tablets, and is popular in slimming diets. Due to its low toxicity, it was the first basic substance approved by the European Union for plant protection (Reg. EU 2014/563), for both organic agriculture and integrated pest management. When applied to plants, chitosan shows triple activity: (i) elicitation of host defenses; (ii) antimicrobial activity; and (iii) film formation on the treated surface. The eliciting activity of chitosan has been studied since the 1990's, which started with monitoring of enzyme activities linked to defense mechanisms (e.g., chitinase, β-1,3 glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) in different fruit (e.g., strawberry, other berries, citrus fruit, table grapes). This continued with investigations with qRT-PCR (Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction), and more recently, with RNA-Seq. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan against a wide range of plant pathogens has been confirmed through many in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Once applied to a plant surface (e.g., dipping, spraying), chitosan forms an edible coating, the properties of which (e.g., thickness, viscosity, gas and water permeability) depend on the acid in which it is dissolved. Based on data in literature, we propose that overall, the eliciting represents 30 to 40% of the chitosan activity, its antimicrobial activity 35 to 45%, and its film-forming activity 20 to 30%, in terms of its effectiveness in the control of postharvest decay of fresh fruit. As well as being used alone, chitosan can be applied together with many other alternatives to synthetic fungicides, to boost its eliciting, antimicrobial and film-forming properties, with additive, and at times synergistic, interactions. Several commercial chitosan formulations are available as biopesticides, with their effectiveness due to the integrated combination of these three mechanisms of action of chitosan.


Front Microbiol


Romanazzi G,Feliziani E,Sivakumar D




Has Abstract


2018-12-04 00:00:00








  • Identification, Functional Characterization, and Regulon Prediction of the Zinc Uptake Regulator (zur) of Bacillus anthracis - An Insight Into the Zinc Homeostasis of the Pathogen.

    abstract::Zinc has an abounding occurrence in the prokaryotes and plays paramount roles including catalytic, structural, and regulatory. Zinc uptake regulator (Zur), a Fur family transcriptional regulator, is connoted in maintaining zinc homeostasis in the pathogenic bacteria by binding to zinc and regulating the genes involved...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kandari D,Gopalani M,Gupta M,Joshi H,Bhatnagar S,Bhatnagar R

    更新日期:2019-01-11 00:00:00

  • NADH-Mediated Gene Expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Role of Rex as a Transcriptional Repressor of the Rex-Regulon.

    abstract::Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD(H)) play a vital role in various biological processes, including keeping the cellular redox balance. In this study, we investigate the regulatory responses of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 to NADH and characterize the role of the Rex protein as a transcriptional repressor of the ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Afzal M,Shafeeq S,Kuipers OP

    更新日期:2018-06-19 00:00:00

  • Development of a Sterne-Based Complement Fixation Test to Monitor the Humoral Response Induced by Anthrax Vaccines.

    abstract::Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis spore-forming bacterium. Since it is primarily a disease of animals, the control in animals, and humans depend on the prevention in livestock, principally cattle, sheep, and goats. Most veterinary vaccines utilize the toxigenic, uncapsulated (pXO1+/pXO2-) B. a...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adone R,Sali M,Francia M,Iatarola M,Donatiello A,Fasanella A

    更新日期:2016-01-28 00:00:00

  • Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Vesicles Protect the Pathogen From Reactive Oxygen Species of the Respiratory Burst.

    abstract::Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) play an important role in the persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter OMVs carry a plethora of virulence factors, including catalase (KatA), an antioxidant enzyme that counteracts the host respiratory burst. We found KatA to be enriched and surface-associated in OMVs c...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lekmeechai S,Su YC,Brant M,Alvarado-Kristensson M,Vallström A,Obi I,Arnqvist A,Riesbeck K

    更新日期:2018-09-07 00:00:00

  • Fungal and Bacterial Diversity Isolated from Aquilaria malaccensis Tree and Soil, Induces Agarospirol Formation within 3 Months after Artificial Infection.

    abstract::Aquilaria malaccensis Lam, commonly known as Agarwood, is a highly valuable species used in production of agar oil from its infected wood, which is utilized in pharmaceutical and perfumery industry. Agar oil formation in agarwood takes years through the natural process which is induced by natural or artificial injury ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chhipa H,Kaushik N

    更新日期:2017-07-11 00:00:00

  • Lactococcin B Is Inactivated by Intrinsic Proteinase PrtP Digestion in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis BGMN1-501.

    abstract::In our previous study we demonstrated that proteinase PrtP is able to impair bacteriocin LcnB activity, despite being produced by the same organism and encoded by the same plasmid. However, precise mechanism of this action, i.e., the exact cleavage site within LcnB bacteriocin, as well as its effect on antimicrobial a...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vukotic G,Polovic N,Mirkovic N,Jovcic B,Stanisavljevic N,Fira D,Kojic M

    更新日期:2019-04-24 00:00:00

  • Molecular Characteristics of ST1193 Clone among Phylogenetic Group B2 Non-ST131 Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli.

    abstract::Objectives: Sequence type 1193 is emerging as a new, virulent and resistant lineage among fluoroquinolone resistant Escherichia coli (FQrE. coli). In this study, we investigated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of this clone isolated from a Chinese university hospital. Methods: 73 phylogenetic group B2-FQr...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu J,Lan F,Lu Y,He Q,Li B

    更新日期:2017-11-21 00:00:00

  • Genetic Identification of a PilT Motor in Geobacter sulfurreducens Reveals a Role for Pilus Retraction in Extracellular Electron Transfer.

    abstract::The metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens requires the expression of conductive pili to reduce iron oxides and to wire electroactive biofilms, but the role of pilus retraction in these functions has remained elusive. Here we show that of the four PilT proteins encoded in the genome of G. sulfurreducens, Pi...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Speers AM,Schindler BD,Hwang J,Genc A,Reguera G

    更新日期:2016-10-17 00:00:00

  • Silencing of Anopheles stephensi Heme Peroxidase HPX15 Activates Diverse Immune Pathways to Regulate the Growth of Midgut Bacteria.

    abstract::Anopheles mosquito midgut harbors a diverse group of endogenous bacteria that grow extensively after the blood feeding and help in food digestion and nutrition in many ways. Although, the growth of endogenous bacteria is regulated by various factors, however, the robust antibacterial immune reactions are generally sup...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kajla M,Choudhury TP,Kakani P,Gupta K,Dhawan R,Gupta L,Kumar S

    更新日期:2016-08-31 00:00:00

  • Distribution of Beta-Lactamase Producing Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates in Isabela River of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

    abstract::Bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are naturally prevalent in lotic ecosystems such as rivers. Their ability to spread in anthropogenic waters could lead to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of clinical importance. For this study, three regions of the Isabela river, an important urban riv...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Calderón VV,Bonnelly R,Del Rosario C,Duarte A,Baraúna R,Ramos RT,Perdomo OP,Rodriguez de Francisco LE,Franco EF

    更新日期:2021-01-13 00:00:00

  • The Microbiome-Metabolome Response in the Colon of Piglets Under the Status of Weaning Stress.

    abstract::Weaning is stressful for piglets involving nutritional, physiological, and psychological challenges, leading to an increase in the secretion of cortisol, changes in gut microbiome and metabolites, whereas the underlying relationships remain unclear. To elucidate this, 14 Meishan female piglets were divided into the we...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jiang X,Lu N,Zhao H,Yuan H,Xia D,Lei H

    更新日期:2020-08-28 00:00:00

  • Dynamics Relationship of Phyllosphere and Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities During the Development of Bothriochloa ischaemum in Copper Tailings.

    abstract::Copper mining and the byproducts associated with the industry have led to serious pollution in the Loess Plateau of China. There is a potential in improving the ecological restoration efficiency of such degraded land through combining microbial and plant remediation approaches. However, the community structure and fun...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jia T,Yao Y,Wang R,Wu T,Chai B

    更新日期:2020-05-28 00:00:00

  • Engineered Bacteriophage T7 as a Potent Anticancer Agent in vivo.

    abstract::Oncolytic viruses (OVs) induce antitumor effect by both direct lysis of target cells and eliciting immunogenic response to the virus and ultimately to the target cells. These viruses are usually natural human pathogens. Bacteriophages are natural pathogens of bacteria that do not infect human and have greater advantag...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hwang YJ,Myung H

    更新日期:2020-09-24 00:00:00

  • Single-Cell Growth Rates in Photoautotrophic Populations Measured by Stable Isotope Probing and Resonance Raman Microspectrometry.

    abstract::A new method to measure growth rates of individual photoautotrophic cells by combining stable isotope probing (SIP) and single-cell resonance Raman microspectrometry is introduced. This report explores optimal experimental design and the theoretical underpinnings for quantitative responses of Raman spectra to cellular...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taylor GT,Suter EA,Li ZQ,Chow S,Stinton D,Zaliznyak T,Beaupré SR

    更新日期:2017-08-03 00:00:00

  • NAuRA: Genomic Tool to Identify Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Responsible for FoodBorne Outbreaks.

    abstract::Food contamination by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) is responsible for many food poisoning outbreaks (FPOs) each year, and they represent the third leading cause of FPOs in Europe. SEs constitute a protein family with 27 proteins. However, enzyme immunoassays can only detect directly in food the five classical SEs...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Merda D,Felten A,Vingadassalon N,Denayer S,Titouche Y,Decastelli L,Hickey B,Kourtis C,Daskalov H,Mistou MY,Hennekinne JA

    更新日期:2020-06-30 00:00:00

  • Biphenyl Modulates the Expression and Function of Respiratory Oxidases in the Polychlorinated-Biphenyls Degrader Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707.

    abstract::Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 is a soil bacterium which is known for its capacity to aerobically degrade harmful organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using biphenyl as co-metabolite. Here we provide the first genetic and functional analysis of the KF707 respiratory terminal oxidases in cell...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sandri F,Fedi S,Cappelletti M,Calabrese FM,Turner RJ,Zannoni D

    更新日期:2017-06-30 00:00:00

  • Inactivation of Spoilage Yeasts by Mentha spicata L. and M. × villosa Huds. Essential Oils in Cashew, Guava, Mango, and Pineapple Juices.

    abstract::This study evaluated the efficacy of the essential oil from Mentha spicata L. (MSEO) and M. × villosa Huds. (MVEO) to inactivate Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, Pichia anomala and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Sabouraud dextrose broth and cashew, guava, mango, and pineapple juices during 72 h of refrigerated storage. T...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: da Cruz Almeida ET,de Medeiros Barbosa I,Tavares JF,Barbosa-Filho JM,Magnani M,de Souza EL

    更新日期:2018-05-25 00:00:00

  • Characterization of saltern based Streptomyces sp. and statistical media optimization for its improved antibacterial activity.

    abstract::A moderately halotolerant Streptomyces strain, designated JAJ13 was characterized and a culture medium was statistically optimized to improve its antibacterial activity. Based on the phenotypic and molecular characteristics, strain JAJ13 was identified as a moderately halotolerant Streptomyces sp. JAJ13. Novelty of th...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rajeswari P,Jose PA,Amiya R,Jebakumar SR

    更新日期:2015-01-21 00:00:00

  • A ten-year search for synchronous cells: obstacles, solutions, and practical applications.

    abstract::My effort to use synchronously dividing cultures to examine the Escherichia coli cell cycle involved a 10-year struggle with failure after failure punctuated by a few gratifying successes, especially at the end. In this essay, I recount my personal journey in this obsessive experimental pursuit. That narrative is foll...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Helmstetter CE

    更新日期:2015-03-25 00:00:00

  • Lipopolysaccharide Downregulates CD163 Expression to Inhibit PRRSV Infection via TLR4-NF-κB Pathway.

    abstract::Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been recognized to induce proinflammatory cytokine production and modulate the host interferon (IFN) system. Proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs contribute to the prevention of viral infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a specific agonist to Toll-li...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu Z,Zhang H,Zhang X,He S,Dong W,Wang X,Chen Y,Liu X,Guo C

    更新日期:2020-03-25 00:00:00

  • Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis by Improving Gut Microbial Dysbiosis in Mice Model.

    abstract::Several Bacillus strains exert beneficial effects on the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and host health. However, whether Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BA) can improve gut microbial dysbiosis and ameliorate colitis is unknown. Therefore, we conducted the present study to investigate the effects of BA administrati...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cao G,Wang K,Li Z,Tao F,Xu Y,Lan J,Chen G,Yang C

    更新日期:2019-01-08 00:00:00

  • Multiple Batches of Fermentation Promote the Formation of Functional Microbiota in Chinese Miscellaneous-Flavor Baijiu Fermentation.

    abstract::Baiyunbian baijiu, the most popular miscellaneous-flavor baijiu in China, has been widely consumed for decades. Similar to many Chinese baijiu, Baiyunbian baijiu is fermented in five successive batches every year. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the raw baijiu obtained from the last two fermentation batches always ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu P,Miao L

    更新日期:2020-01-31 00:00:00

  • Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Amphiphilic Helix in Substrate Discrimination and Binding by an Escherichia coli S2P Peptidase RseP.

    abstract::Intramembrane proteases (IMPs) are a unique class of proteases that catalyze the proteolysis within the membrane and regulate diverse cellular processes in various organisms. RseP, an Escherichia coli site-2 protease (S2P) family IMP, is involved in the regulation of an extracytoplasmic stress response through the cle...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miyake T,Hizukuri Y,Akiyama Y

    更新日期:2020-11-27 00:00:00

  • Elevated CO2 and Warming Altered Grassland Microbial Communities in Soil Top-Layers.

    abstract::As two central issues of global climate change, the continuous increase of both atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global temperature has profound effects on various terrestrial ecosystems. Microbial communities play pivotal roles in these ecosystems by responding to environmental changes through regulation of soil bi...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu H,Deng Y,He Z,Van Nostrand JD,Wang S,Jin D,Wang A,Wu L,Wang D,Tai X,Zhou J

    更新日期:2018-08-14 00:00:00

  • Quantifying Limits on Replication, Death, and Quiescence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mice.

    abstract::When an individual is exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) three outcomes are possible: bacterial clearance, active disease, or latent infection. It is generally believed that most individuals exposed to Mtb become latently infected and carry the mycobacteria for life. How Mtb is maintained during this latent i...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McDaniel MM,Krishna N,Handagama WG,Eda S,Ganusov VV

    更新日期:2016-06-14 00:00:00

  • Bacterial Community Characteristics and Enzyme Activities in Bothriochloa ischaemum Litter Over Progressive Phytoremediation Years in a Copper Tailings Dam.

    abstract::Litter decomposition is the key link between material circulation and energy flow in ecosystems, resulting from the activity of resident microbes and various enzymes. This study investigated enzyme activity in litter and associated microbial community characteristics to help clarify the internal mechanisms associated ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jia T,Wang Y,Chai B

    更新日期:2020-12-21 00:00:00

  • Sediment Microbial Communities and Their Potential Role as Environmental Pollution Indicators in Xuande Atoll, South China Sea.

    abstract::In this study, 39 sediment samples were collected from Qilian Island, Iltis Bank, and Yongxing Island in Xuande Atoll in the South China Sea (SCS), and the microbial community structures and distribution were analyzed. The microbial community was influenced by both natural environmental factors and human activities. T...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang B,Li Y,Xiang SZ,Yan Y,Yang R,Lin MP,Wang XM,Xue YL,Guan XY

    更新日期:2020-05-25 00:00:00

  • Importance of Promyelocytic Leukema Protein (PML) for Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Replication.

    abstract::Many DNA virus replication-related proteins are associated with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), a component of nuclear domain 10 (ND10), which has been investigated for its potential involvement in viral replication. In the case of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic gene products, K8 (K-bZIP), ...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hossain MG,Ohsaki E,Honda T,Ueda K

    更新日期:2018-10-08 00:00:00

  • Unraveling the Complexity of Soil Microbiomes in a Large-Scale Study Subjected to Different Agricultural Management in Styria.

    abstract::Healthy soil microbiomes are crucial for achieving high productivity in combination with crop quality, but our understanding of microbial diversity is still limited. In a large-scale study including 116 composite samples from vineyards, orchards and other crops from all over Styria (south-east Austria), agricultural m...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Köberl M,Wagner P,Müller H,Matzer R,Unterfrauner H,Cernava T,Berg G

    更新日期:2020-05-25 00:00:00

  • No Assembly Required: Using BTyper3 to Assess the Congruency of a Proposed Taxonomic Framework for the Bacillus cereus Group With Historical Typing Methods.

    abstract::The Bacillus cereus group, also known as B. cereus sensu lato (s.l.), is a species complex comprising numerous closely related lineages, which vary in their ability to cause illness in humans and animals. The classification of B. cereus s.l. isolates into species-level taxonomic units is essential for facilitating com...

    journal_title:Frontiers in microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carroll LM,Cheng RA,Kovac J

    更新日期:2020-09-22 00:00:00