Racial disparities in COVID-19 hospitalizations do not lead to disparities in outcomes.


OBJECTIVES:The objective of the study is the identification of racial differences in characteristics and comorbidities in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and the impact on outcomes. STUDY DESIGN:The study design is a retrospective observational study. METHODS:Data for all patients admitted to seven community hospitals in Michigan, United States, with polymerase chain reaction confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 from March 10 to April 15, 2020 were analyzed. The primary outcomes of racial disparity in inpatient mortality and intubation were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate regression models. RESULTS:The study included 336 Black and 408 White patients. Black patients were younger (62.9 ± 15.0 years vs 71.8 ± 16.4, P < .001), had a higher mean body mass index (32.4 ± 8.6 kg/m2 vs 28.8 ± 7.5, P < .001), had higher prevalence of diabetes (136/336 vs 130/408, P = .02), and presented later (6.6 ± 5.3 days after symptom onset vs. 5.4 ± 5.4, P = .006) compared with White patients. Younger Black patients had a higher prevalence of obesity (age <65 years, 69.9%) than older Black patients (age >65 years, 39.2%) and younger White patients (age < 65, 55.1%). Intubation did not reach statistical significance for racial difference (Black patients 61/335 vs. 54/406, P = .08). Mortality was not higher in Black patients (65/335 vs. 142/406 in White patients, odds ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.37 to 0.99, 2-sided P = .05) in multivariate analysis, accounting for other risk factors associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes in young Black populations may be the critical factor driving disproportionate COVID-19 hospitalizations in Black populations. Hospitalized Black patients do not have worse outcomes compared with White patients.


Public Health


Public health


Krishnamoorthy G,Arsene C,Jena N,Mogulla SM,Coakley R,Khine J,Khosrodad N,Klein A,Sule AA




Has Abstract


2021-01-01 00:00:00












  • Healthy immigrant effect in non-European Union immigrants in Portugal: after a decade of (non-)integration!

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The aim of the study was to characterise the existence of the healthy immigrant effect (HIE; better health initially, worsening with an increase in the length of residence) in a big city from a Western European country, particularly in a non-European Union immigrant population. STUDY DESIGN:This is a cross-...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moniz M,Abrantes A,Nunes C

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Public toilets down the drain? Why privies are a public health concern.

    abstract::Whether you call it the loo, john, privy, lavatory or toilet, this facility is essential wherever humans gather or live: toilet provision has even been called the barometer of civilization. The modern development of public toilets dates from the late 19th century when sewer systems and water supplies provided hygienic...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Stanwell-Smith R

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiology and recent trends of geriatric fractures presenting to the emergency department for United States population from year 2004-2014.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Fractures in geriatric age group (over 65 years of age) are an important public health issue and frequent causes of emergency room visits. The purpose of this descriptive epidemiological study was to present the epidemiology of geriatric fractures and their trends in the USA using National Electronic Injury ...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baidwan NK,Naranje SM

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Small area variation in hospital admission: random or systematic?

    abstract::For some conditions hospital admission is mandatory. This should lead to low variability in admission rates and no effect on admission rate of distance from hospital. If admission is discretionary, we would expect high variability in small area admission rates, and a decline in admission rate as travel time to hospita...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Twigger JP,Jessop EG

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • The response to the trench diseases in World War I: a triumph of public health science.

    abstract::The recent 90-year anniversary of the Battle of the Somme presents an opportunity to examine the public health response to the trench diseases, new conditions which arose in the trenches of World War I. Throughout history, there have been two views of epidemic disease: the configurationist and contagionist perspective...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Atenstaedt RL

    更新日期:2007-08-01 00:00:00

  • The power of detention in the management of non-compliance with tuberculosis treatment: a survey of Irish practitioners and analysis of potential legal liability.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The detention of patients infected with tuberculosis has recently been the subject of significant professional and public interest. In Ireland, the power to detain and isolate probable sources of infectious disease is found in the Health Act 1947. The objective of this study was to describe the use of the po...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Duffy ST

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Anthropometric indications and nutritional intake of women in the Vaal Triangle, South Africa.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The main purpose of this study was to determine the anthropometric indications and nutritional intake of pregnant and lactating women in the Vaal Triangle (n = 431). DESIGN AND METHODS:A validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used in this study. Trained fieldworkers conducted interviews wit...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kesa H,Oldewage-Theron W

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Contribution of previable live births to disparity in infant mortality of US-born Puerto Ricans compared with infants of other Hispanic origins.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Although US-born Hispanics experience infant mortality rates (IMRs) which are lower than the national rate, within the Hispanic population, infants of Puerto Rican origin experience higher IMRs than other Hispanics. We aimed to describe the contribution of deaths among previable live-born infants to disparit...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hall ES,Lee M,DeFranco EA

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Attendance for injury at accident and emergency departments in London: a cross-sectional study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:In order to set the foundation for the possible development of injury surveillance initiatives in north-west London, data on all presentations during 2002 at the nine accident and emergency departments (AEDs) in the relevant strategic health authority were examined. STUDY DESIGN:Descriptive, cross-sectional ...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jamrozik K,Samarasundera E,Miracle R,Blair M,Sethi D,Saxena S,Bowen S

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • Legal rights to safe abortion: knowledge and attitude of women in North-West Ethiopia toward the current Ethiopian abortion law.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess women's knowledge and attitude toward Ethiopian current abortion law. STUDY DESIGN:A quantitative, community-based cross-sectional survey. METHODS:Women of reproductive age in three selected lower districts in Bahir Dar, North-West Ethiopia, were included. Multi-stage simple random sampling and si...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muzeyen R,Ayichiluhm M,Manyazewal T

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Mental health in Kashmir: conflict to COVID-19.

    abstract::Owing to the enduring conflict in Kashmir, there has been an increase in psychological problems. On top of that, the COVID-19 pandemic has added an additional burden on the mental health system of Kashmir. There is an unmet and immediate need to escalate the mental health services in Kashmir consisted of community par...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 信件


    authors: Shoib S,Yasir Arafat SM

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatitis B infection in Eastern Indian families: need for screening of adult siblings and mothers of adult index cases.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:India, with its 43 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers and absence of any national immunization programme, adds a substantial number of HBV infections to the HBV carrier pool yearly. The aim of this study was to assess the spread of HBV infection in families with an infected member and to identify the f...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chakravarty R,Chowdhury A,Chaudhuri S,Santra A,Neogi M,Rajendran K,Panda CK,Chakravarty M

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Changing patterns of neurological mortality in the 10 major developed countries--1979-2010.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To examine whether there is a continued increase in neurological deaths in the major developed countries over the period 1979-2010. STUDY DESIGN:Analyzes changing patterns of neurological deaths and Total Mortality of people aged 55-74 years by sex. METHODS:Baseline WHO 3-year average mortality for 1979-81...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pritchard C,Mayers A,Baldwin D

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Social and health-related correlates of intergenerational and intragenerational social mobility among Swedish men and women.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To explore the pattern and determinants of inter- and intragenerational occupational mobility among Swedish men and women. STUDY DESIGN:A Swedish 14-year prospective longitudinal study (response rate 96.5%). METHODS:Detailed information on 546 men and 495 women regarding their occupation, health status, hea...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Novak M,Ahlgren C,Hammarstrom A

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Dental needs of pre-retirement and retired people in an inner-city area.

    abstract::Perceived and normative dental needs were assessed for people of pre-retirement (55-64 years) and retirement age (65-74 years) in Camberwell, London, using a postal questionnaire and dental examination. Of the pre-retirement group, 77% were dentate compared with 65% in the older cohort. The younger age-group were more...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taylor CM,Fiske J,Cooper D,Gelbier S

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Breast and cervical cancer survival: making sense of "league tables".

    abstract::During 1998, the Department of Health proposed to use survival rates of cervical and breast cancer in the 1989/90 incidence cohort as indicators of care. Valid interpretation was of concern within Trent and the Trent Cancer Registry responded by performing additional analyses. Trent Cancer Registry registrations for 1...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Botha JL,Silcocks PB,Bright N,Redgrave P

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. STUDY DESIGN:A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, ...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Shankleman M,Sykes C,Mandeville KL,Di Costa S,Yarrow K

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Economic burden of obesity and four obesity-related chronic diseases in rural Yunnan Province, China.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To analyze the economic burden of obesity and four obesity-related chronic diseases in rural Yunnan Province, China. STUDY DESIGN:A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among rural residents in Yunnan Province. A multistage stratified random sampling approach was applied to collect a sample o...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li Q,Cai L,Cui W,Wang G,He J,Golden AR

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Physical activity, adiposity and urbanization level in children: results for the Italian cohort of the IDEFICS study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:While there is extensive evidence about the influence of environmental factors on adult obesity, fewer studies have assessed how the environment influences body fat in children. This cross-sectional study investigated the distribution of adiposity indices according to urbanization level and patterns of physi...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Donatiello E,Dello Russo M,Formisano A,Lauria F,Nappo A,Reineke A,Sparano S,Barba G,Russo P,Siani A

    更新日期:2013-08-01 00:00:00

  • Neighborhood food environment and consumption of fruit and leafy vegetables: Pro-Saude Study, Brazil.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To explore the relationship between availability of different types of retail food stores and consumption of fruit and leafy vegetables. STUDY DESIGN:This study is a cross-sectional study. METHODS:Data were derived from 2032 adults living in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, participating in the longitudi...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Curioni CC,Boclin KLS,Silveira IH,Canella DS,Castro IRR,Bezerra FF,Junger W,Faerstein E

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence in the development of health policy.

    abstract::For over a century and a half, reformers, researchers and politicians have complained that social and public health policy is not based on evidence. Linear models of knowledge transfer gaps are consistently shown to be poor predictors of research uptake. Public health research, in particular, involves more elements th...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Macintyre S

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Good practice for mental health programming for women in prison: reframing the parameters.

    abstract::Afflicting the majority of female offenders, mental illness is grossly over-represented among incarcerated women. It is a substantial contributor to the poor health status of this population. Of particular concern are the effects of trauma and substance use disorders, which are often a result of past victimization. Th...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moloney KP,Moller LF

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Association of swaddling, rickets onset and bone properties in children in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To examine the influence of duration of completely or partially wrapped swaddling on rickets onset and bone properties in children of school age. STUDY DESIGN:Case-control study. METHODS:Subjects were 73 children aged 7-10 years with a history of rickets (cases) and 70 children with no history of rickets (...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Urnaa V,Kizuki M,Nakamura K,Kaneko A,Inose T,Seino K,Takano T

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Standards of clinical waste management in hospitals--a second look.

    abstract:METHODS:The arrangements for bulk clinical waste handling were audited in 16 UK hospitals, one year after an earlier audit that revealed many deficiencies in performance. RESULTS:Storage of clinical waste carts in areas accessible to members of the public and failure to lock individual waste carts was common. Waste se...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blenkharn JI

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Gambling problems, risk factors, community knowledge, and impact in a US Lao immigrant and refugee community sample.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The objectives of this study were to examine gambling-related problems, risk factors, help-seeking attitudes, community perceptions, and correlates of problem gambling in a Lao sample of Southeast Asian refugees and immigrants and to discuss cultural implications for the treatment and prevention of gambling ...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: King SM,Wasberg SMH,Wollmuth AK

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of microbiological quality of sachet-packaged drinking water in Western Nigeria and its public health significance.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the microbiological quality of sachet-packaged drinking water in Western Nigeria and its impact on public health. STUDY DESIGN:Cross-sectional microbiological testing. METHODS:Ninety-two sachet-packaged water samples were analysed for microbiological and metal qualities. Total bacterial and colifo...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olaoye OA,Onilude AA

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of healthcare on mortality: trends in avoidable mortality in Australia and comparisons with Western Europe.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Using the concept of avoidable mortality, international studies suggest that healthcare has been effective in reducing mortality. This paper provides an analysis of avoidable mortality in Australia and compares trends with those of Western Europe. METHODS:Using unit-record mortality data, we calculated avoi...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Korda RJ,Butler JR

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity in northeastern China: a cross-sectional study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Information on multimorbidity in the general populations of developing countries is lacking. We examine the prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity in northeastern China. STUDY DESIGN:A cross-sectional study was conducted on adult residents in Jilin Province, northeastern China from June 2012 to August 20...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang SB,D'Arcy C,Yu YQ,Li B,Liu YW,Tao YC,Wu YH,Zhang QQ,Xu ZQ,Fu YL,Kou CG

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • Developmental trajectories of adolescent overweight/obesity in China: socio-economic status correlates and health consequences.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:During recent decades, China has experienced a rapid growth in economy and also in prevalence of childhood obesity. Given the great importance of adolescence overweight/obesity for future health and given the relative lack of longitudinal studies on adolescent obesity in developing countries, particularly in...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liang Y,Qi Y

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of hygiene practices in catering premises at large-scale events in the UK: identifying risks for the Olympics 2012.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To investigate hygiene practices of caterers at large events in order to: support the production of guidance on catering at such events; to compare hygiene standards at weekends with other times in the week; and to learn lessons in preparation for the London Olympics in 2012. STUDY DESIGN:UK-wide study of c...

    journal_title:Public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Willis C,Elviss N,Aird H,Fenelon D,McLauchlin J

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00