Step frequency and lower extremity loading during running.


:The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether increase in step frequency at a given velocity during running reduces the lower extremity loading variables, which is associated with tibial stress fracture in runner. We hypothesized that the lower extremity loading variables at a given speed would be minimized at around +15% f step. 10 male subjects were asked to run at 2.5 m/s on a treadmill-mounted force platform. 5 step frequencies were controlled using a metronome: the preferred, below preferred (-15 and -30%) and above preferred (+15 and +30%). From the vertical ground reaction force, we measured following lower extremity loading variables; vertical impact peak (VIP), vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) and vertical average loading rate (VALR). We found that there were significant differences in lower extremity loading variables among 5 step frequency conditions. Furthermore, quadratic regression analyses revealed that the minimum loading variable frequencies were 17.25, 17.55, and 18.07% of preferred step frequency for VIP, VILR and VIAR, respectively. Thus, adopting a step frequency greater than one's preferred may be practical in reducing the risk of developing a tibial stress fracture by decreasing lower extremity loading variables.


Int J Sports Med


Hobara H,Sato T,Sakaguchi M,Sato T,Nakazawa K




Has Abstract


2012-04-01 00:00:00












  • EMG changes in thigh and calf muscles in fin swimming exercise.

    abstract::Because previous researchers have reported a reduced lactic acid production that accompanies a delayed or an absent ventilatory threshold (VTh) in water-based exercise, we hypothesized that the metaboreflex, activated by muscle acidosis, might be absent in fin swimming. This motor response, delaying the occurrence of ...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jammes Y,Delliaux S,Coulange M,Jammes C,Kipson N,Brerro-Saby C,Bregeon F

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of a Home-based Balance Training Protocol on Dynamic Postural Control in Subjects with Chronic Ankle Instability.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to establish the presence of postural deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and to assess the effect of an 8-week balance training program on dynamic postural control. A total of 43 subjects with CAI and 31 controls participated in this case-control study. Participants wit...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Ridder R,Willems TM,Vanrenterghem J,Roosen P

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • What is the best method for assessing lower limb force-velocity relationship?

    abstract::This study determined the concurrent validity and reliability of force, velocity and power measurements provided by accelerometry, linear position transducer and Samozino's methods, during loaded squat jumps. 17 subjects performed squat jumps on 2 separate occasions in 7 loading conditions (0-60% of the maximal concen...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Giroux C,Rabita G,Chollet D,Guilhem G

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Physiological responses at the fatigue threshold.

    abstract::The purpose of this investigation was to determine the oxygen consumption, heart rate and plasma lactate responses at the fatigue threshold (FT) and estimate the length of time the FT could be maintained. Ten adult males (mean age +/- SD = 21.1 +/- 1.3 yrs) volunteered to perform a maximal treadmill test and FT test. ...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Housh TJ,Johnson GO,McDowell SL,Housh DJ,Pepper M

    更新日期:1991-06-01 00:00:00

  • Carbohydrate supplementation and the lymphocyte proliferative response to long endurance running.

    abstract::This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the influence of 6% carbohydrate ingestion on hormonal and lymphocyte proliferative responses (5 total samples over 9 hours) to 2.5 h of high-intensity running by 30 experienced marathon runners. The T-cell response differed between groups, with the plac...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Henson DA,Nieman DC,Parker JC,Rainwater MK,Butterworth DE,Warren BJ,Utter A,Davis JM,Fagoaga OR,Nehlsen-Cannarella SL

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00

  • Oral Contraceptive Use does not Negatively Affect Body Composition and Strength Adaptations in Trained Women.

    abstract::The purpose was to analyze the influence of oral contraceptive use on body composition and strength levels in trained women. Twenty-three resistance-trained women participated in this study (age=27.4±3.4 years; fat mass=28.0±5.0%; BMI=22.9±2.7 kg∙m-2). Subjects performed an 8-week non-linear resistance-training progra...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Romance R,Vargas S,Espinar S,Petro JL,Bonilla DA,Schöenfeld BJ,Kreider RB,Benítez-Porres J

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Softening of the lateral condyle articular cartilage in the canine knee joint after long distance (up to 40 km/day) running training lasting one year.

    abstract::The effects of long distance running training (up to 40km/day) on the biomechanical properties of young canine articular cartilage were investigated using in situ indentation creep technique. The stiffness of articular cartilage was determined in the form of instantaneous and equilibrium shear moduli. The rate of cart...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arokoski J,Jurvelin J,Kiviranta I,Tammi M,Helminen HJ

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiology of Overuse Injuries in Youth Team Sports: A 3-year Prospective Study.

    abstract::Prospective studies on overuse injuries and their impact on athletic training among youth team sports are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, severity and player related risk factors of overuse injuries among young (12-20 years) basketball and floorball players. A total of 387 players p...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leppänen M,Pasanen K,Kannus P,Vasankari T,Kujala UM,Heinonen A,Parkkari J

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of exercise at various temperatures on salivary levels of immunoglobulin A.

    abstract::The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of ambient temperature on the salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) response to submaximal exercise. Nine adult males (x age +/- SD = 22 +/- 2 yrs) volunteered to perform an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion for the determination of VO2max and three 30-m...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Housh TJ,Johnson GO,Housh DJ,Evans SL,Tharp GD

    更新日期:1991-10-01 00:00:00

  • Exercise Training Plus Sildenafil Treatment: Role on Autonomic and Inflammatory Markers.

    abstract::The current study aimed to determine the effects of sildenafil-associated aerobic exercise training (ET) on the physical performance, hemodynamic, autonomic and inflammatory parameters of rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to: sedentary rats placebo-treated (SP); sedentary rats sildenafil-treated (SS); trai...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leoni LAB,Fukushima AR,Rocha LY,Feriani DJ,Júnior HJC,Gambassi BB,Mostarda CT,Maifrino LBM,Rodrigues B

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Aerial and Terrestrial Patterns: A Novel Approach to Analyzing Human Running.

    abstract::Biomechanical parameters are often analyzed independently, although running gait is a dynamic system wherein changes in one parameter are likely to affect another. Accordingly, the Volodalen® method provides a model for classifying running patterns into 2 categories, aerial and terrestrial, using a global subjective r...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gindre C,Lussiana T,Hebert-Losier K,Mourot L

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Muscle activation during lower body resistance training.

    abstract::This study evaluated the biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF), and vastus lateralis (VL) activation and activation ratios of a variety of resistance training exercises characterized by knee extension, and determined if subject strength or gender affects these variables. The exercises evaluated included the leg ext...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ebben WP,Feldmann CR,Dayne A,Mitsche D,Alexander P,Knetzger KJ

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sex-specific effects of surface instability on drop jump and landing biomechanics.

    abstract::This study investigated sex-specific effects of surface instability on kinetics and lower extremity kinematics during drop jumping and landing. Ground reaction forces as well as knee valgus and flexion angles were tested in 14 males (age: 23±2 years) and 14 females (age: 24±3 years) when jumping and landing on stable ...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Prieske O,Muehlbauer T,Krueger T,Kibele A,Behm D,Granacher U

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Specificity of aerobic and anaerobic work capacities and powers.

    abstract::Thirty-three untrained subjects of both sexes, 18-31 years of age, performed several tests on cycle ergometers. Maximal aerobic power (MAP) was obtained in a progressive work test. Maximal aerobic capacity (MAC) was measured in a 90-min maximal test and was computed as the total work output during that period. Two all...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boulay MR,Lortie G,Simoneau JA,Hamel P,Leblanc C,Bouchard C

    更新日期:1985-12-01 00:00:00

  • Replicate Measurements of Haemoglobin Mass during a Single Day are Feasible and Precise.

    abstract::Duplicate haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) measurements are recommended before and after altitude training sojourns to identify individual adaptations in athletes with a high level of certainty. Duplicate measurements reduce typical error (TE) and disclose measurement outliers, but are usually made on separate days, which is...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Naef N,Steiner T,Wehrlin JP

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of spatio-temporal, metabolic, and psychometric responses in recreational and highly trained swimmers during and after a 400-m freestyle swim.

    abstract::Spatio-temporal, metabolic and psychometric responses during and after a 400-m freestyle swim trial were investigated for gender and skill-level effects. Thirty-four men and women, 18 national and international competitors and 16 recreational swimmers, were compared. Mean speed, stroke rate (SR), and stroke length (SL...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schnitzler C,Ernwein V,Seifert L,Chollet D

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Skeletal muscle characteristics of sprint cyclists and nonathletes.

    abstract::Muscle fiber distribution and muscle enzyme activity (m. vastus lat.) were investigated in 10 elite sprint cyclists and 12 nonathletes. The ratio of fast to slow muscle fibers was 2:3 in cyclists and 3:2 in nonathletes. The mean diameter of each muscle fiber type was significantly higher in the athletes. The mean enzy...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Macková E,Melichna J,Havlícková L,Placheta Z,Blahová D,Semiginovský B

    更新日期:1986-10-01 00:00:00

  • Intramuscular Perfusion Response in Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS): A Quantitative Analysis with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS).

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to analyse intramuscular perfusion response in ultrastructural muscle lesions, by applying contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to a delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) model. Results of this analysis were compared to high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI T2-weighted sequences. 14 healthy participa...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kellermann M,Heiss R,Swoboda B,Gelse K,Freiwald J,Grim C,Nagel A,Uder M,Wildner D,Hotfiel T

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Vertical ground reaction force during water exercises performed at different intensities.

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    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Alberton CL,Tartaruga MP,Pinto SS,Cadore EL,Antunes AH,Finatto P,Kruel LF

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Preferred pedal rate: an index of cycling performance.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to determine whether preferred pedal rate (PPR) could be used as an index of cycling performance. Thirteen competitive cyclists cycled at PPR during a graded test and a supra-threshold constant power test (CPT). The results showed that PPR values reported in CPT were correlated to both pe...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Nesi X,Bosquet L,Pelayo P

    更新日期:2005-06-01 00:00:00

  • Unusual fracture of the humerus in a volleyball player: a case report.

    abstract::We describe a case of a female high school volleyball player who suffered a humeral shaft fracture while executing a floater serve. Based on the patient's history, a stress fracture was initially suspected. However, plain radiographs showed no periosteal reactions, callus formation or osteosclerosis, and thus we could...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hakozaki M,Iwabuchi M,Otani K,Konno S,Kikuchi S

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Physiological responses in Alpine skiers during on-snow training simulation in the cold.

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    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suzuki E,Ohya T,Ito R,Matsumoto T,Kitagawa K

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Muscle activity in the slalom turn of alpine skiing and in-line skating.

    abstract::The electromyographic (EMG) activity of seven muscles of the trunk and lower extremity in five male masters level ski racers during a slalom turn in both alpine skiing and in-line skating was recorded using a telemetry system. Measurements were made on separate testing days using slopes commonly used in each activity ...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zeglinksi CM,Swanson SC,Self BP,Greenwald RM

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::The present study was designed to investigate the neuronal control and biomechanical effects of stumbling reactions. To induce these perturbations, a specially prepared treadmill was used which allowed rapid and powerful changes of treadmill speed. EMG recordings of leg muscles were related to cinematic movement patte...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gollhofer A,Schmidtbleicher D,Quintern J,Dietz V

    更新日期:1986-12-01 00:00:00

  • Sports therapy for attention, cognitions and sociality.

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to understand if sport improves attention symptoms, social competency, and cognitive functions in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study was designed as a 6-week, prospective trial, including 12 sessions of education/sports therapy. 13 ADHD...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kang KD,Choi JW,Kang SG,Han DH

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of continuous and discontinuous training protocols on subcutaneous adipose tissue and plasma substrates.

    abstract::It has been shown that bouts of high-intensity exercise may reduce subcutaneous adipose tissue more than low-intensity exercise. The aim of the present study was to examine if a discontinuous training protocol is more successful in reducing adipose tissue than a continuous endurance training protocol. Fourteen untrain...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Mäder U,Roth P,Furrer R,Brêchet JP,Boutellier U

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of the Sport Stirrup, Malleoloc, and Swede-O ankle orthoses for the foot-ankle kinematics of a rapid lateral movement.

    abstract::Little information exists about the efficacy of various brace designs to restrict inversion during lateral movements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether semi-rigid stirrup (AirCast Sport Stirrup), semi-rigid modified stirrup (Malleoloc), or a soft, sleeve design (Swede-O) brace varied in their abilities...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simpson KJ,Cravens S,Higbie E,Theodorou C,DelRey P

    更新日期:1999-08-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of Drop-height and Surface Instability on Jump Performance and Knee Kinematics.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of drop-height and surface condition on drop jump (DJ) performance and knee joint kinematics. DJ performance, sagittal and frontal plane knee joint kinematics were measured in jump experienced young male and female adults during DJs on stable, unstable and ...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lesinski M,Prieske O,Beurskens R,Behm D,Granacher U

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Modelling atmospheric pollution during the games of the XXVIII Olympiad: effects on elite competitors.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:The present study investigated the specific atmospheric conditions expected in Athens during the summer of 2004 in relation to the performance of elite athletes. DESIGN:Atmospheric pollution and weather data for the period April 16th to September 30th covering the entire greater Athens area and collected fr...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Flouris AD

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • A synovial ganglion of the knee: two cases in athletes.

    abstract::The objective of the study is to describe two cases of proximal tibiofibular ganglion cysts in high level athletes. In May 2003 and March 2005 two athletes (one tennis player in the top eighty of the Italian national ranking and a gymnast belonging to the Italian rhythmic gymnastics national team) were referred to our...

    journal_title:International journal of sports medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dragoni S,Giombini A,Di Cesare A,Ripani M

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00