Transplantation in diabetic kidney failure patients: modalities, outcomes, and clinical management.

Abstract:

:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common and devastating disease, affecting up to 19.3 million Americans. It is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States. Diabetic patients with ESRD have a high incidence of cardiovascular disease and death. For those kidney transplant patients with no history of DM prior to transplantation, the development of new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) also poses a serious threat to both graft and patient survival. Kidney transplantation is the best renal replacement option for diabetic ESRD and has the potential to halt the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Early referral for transplant evaluation is essential for pre-emptive or early kidney transplantation in this cohort of patients. In type 1 DM patients with ESRD, simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) should be encouraged; and in patients facing prolonged waiting time for SPK transplantation but with an available living donor, living donor kidney transplantation followed by pancreas after kidney transplantation (PAK) is a suitable alternative. Islet transplantation in type 1 diabetics is deemed experimental by Medicare, and easy access to this modality remains restricted to qualified patients enrolled in clinical trials or with private insurance. The optimal management of kidney transplant patients with pre-existent DM or NODAT involves a multi-pronged approach consisting of pharmacological and nonpharmacological intervention to address all potential cardiovascular risk factors such as glycemic and lipid control, blood pressure control, weight loss, and smoking cessation. Finally, re-transplantation should be recommended in suitable kidney transplant patients when the kidney allograft demonstrates continuous and progressive decline in function.

journal_name

Semin Dial

journal_title

Seminars in dialysis

authors

Luan FL,Samaniego M

doi

10.1111/j.1525-139X.2010.00708.x

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2010-03-01 00:00:00

pages

198-205

issue

2

eissn

0894-0959

issn

1525-139X

pii

SDI708

journal_volume

23

pub_type

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