Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria.


:Bacteria have existed on Earth for three billion years or so and have become adept at protecting themselves against toxic chemicals. Antibiotics have been in clinical use for a little more than 6 decades. That antibiotic resistance is now a major clinical problem all over the world attests to the success and speed of bacterial adaptation. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria are varied and include target protection, target substitution, antibiotic detoxification and block of intracellular antibiotic accumulation. Acquisition of genes needed to elaborate the various mechanisms is greatly aided by a variety of promiscuous gene transfer systems, such as bacterial conjugative plasmids, transposable elements and integron systems, that move genes from one DNA system to another and from one bacterial cell to another, not necessarily one related to the gene donor. Bacterial plasmids serve as the scaffold on which are assembled arrays of antibiotic resistance genes, by transposition (transposable elements and ISCR mediated transposition) and site-specific recombination mechanisms (integron gene cassettes).The evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance genes in human bacterial pathogens originate from a multitude of bacterial sources, indicating that the genomes of all bacteria can be considered as a single global gene pool into which most, if not all, bacteria can dip for genes necessary for survival. In terms of antibiotic resistance, plasmids serve a central role, as the vehicles for resistance gene capture and their subsequent dissemination. These various aspects of bacterial resistance to antibiotics will be explored in this presentation.


Br J Pharmacol


Bennett PM




Has Abstract


2008-03-01 00:00:00










153 Suppl 1


  • Adenosine negatively regulates duodenal motility in mice: role of A(1) and A(2A) receptors.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Adenosine is considered to be an important modulator of intestinal motility. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of adenosine in the modulation of contractility in the mouse duodenum and to characterize the adenosine receptor subtypes involved. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:RT-PCR was used...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zizzo MG,Mastropaolo M,Lentini L,Mulè F,Serio R

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in human brain; adenosine inhibition of the response to histamine.

    abstract::1. Inositol phospholipid hydrolysis was examined in human cerebral cortex slices by a [3H]-inositol prelabelling assay. 2. Enhancement of [3H]-inositol phosphates accumulation was observed in the presence of carbachol, noradrenaline, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and depolarizing concentrations of KCl. 3. Desp...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kendall DA,Firth JL

    更新日期:1990-05-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition by simvastatin, but not pravastatin, of glucose-induced cytosolic Ca2+ signalling and insulin secretion due to blockade of L-type Ca2+ channels in rat islet beta-cells.

    abstract::1. Hypercholesterolaemia often occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes, who therefore encounter administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Alteration of pancreatic beta-cell function leading to an impaired insulin secretory response to glucose plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Therefore...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yada T,Nakata M,Shiraishi T,Kakei M

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Generation and characterization of a humanized PPARδ mouse model.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Humanized mice for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ), termed PPARδ knock-in (PPARδ KI) mice, were generated for the investigation of functional differences between mouse and human PPARδ and as tools for early drug efficacy assessment. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gross B,Hennuyer N,Bouchaert E,Rommens C,Grillot D,Mezdour H,Staels B

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • TRPV1 and SP: key elements for sepsis outcome?

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Sensory neurons play important roles in many disorders, including inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis. Sepsis is a potentially lethal systemic inflammatory reaction to a local bacterial infection, affecting thousands of patients annually. Although associated with a high mortality rate, sepsis outcome depen...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bodkin JV,Fernandes ES

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Delphinidin and cyanidin inhibit PDGF(AB)-induced VEGF release in vascular smooth muscle cells by preventing activation of p38 MAPK and JNK.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Red wine polyphenols (RWPs) inhibit the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major pro-angiogenic and pro-atherosclerotic factor, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The aim of this study was to identify which red wine polyphenols were inhibitory and to determine the me...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oak MH,Bedoui JE,Madeira SV,Chalupsky K,Schini-Kerth VB

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of aspirin and prostacyclin on arrhythmias resulting from coronary artery ligation and on infarct size.

    abstract::1 The effects of pretreatment with aspirin, and of prostacyclin (PGI(2)) infusions, on responses to myocardial ischaemia and infarction produced by ligation of a coronary artery were investigated in conscious rats.2 Surgical preparation, under halothane anaesthesia, consisted of implanting exteriorized aortic and jugu...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnston KM,MacLeod BA,Walker MJ

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • A truncated form of CKbeta8-1 is a potent agonist for human formyl peptide-receptor-like 1 receptor.

    abstract::1. Human formyl peptide-receptor-like-1 (FPRL-1) is a promiscuous G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), and belongs to a chemoattractant receptor family protein. This receptor has been reported to interact with various host-derived peptides and lipids involved in inflammatory responses. We described here, a novel role fo...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Elagoz A,Henderson D,Babu PS,Salter S,Grahames C,Bowers L,Roy MO,Laplante P,Grazzini E,Ahmad S,Lembo PM

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of atropine and tetrodotoxin on neurotensin-induced ileal sodium transport in the dog.

    abstract::1. Neurotensin was infused intravenously, in the presence or absence of intravenous atropine or intraarterial tetrodotoxin, into dogs anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone. Net and unidirectional fluxes of sodium and blood flows in the ileum were measured. Arterial and mesenteric venous blood pressures, haematocrit...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mailman D

    更新日期:1988-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of 8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate on phenylephrine-induced phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis and contraction in rat caudal artery.

    abstract::1. The effects of 8-bromoguanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-bromo-cyclic GMP) on phenylephrine-induced contractions and phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis were investigated in rat isolated caudal artery. The effects of the nucleotide were compared to those of felodipine, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonis...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lum Min SA,Tabrizchi R

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Stimulatory effects of the putative metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist L-AP3 on phosphoinositide turnover in neonatal rat cerebral cortex.

    abstract::1. The effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist, L-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionate (L-AP3) on phosphoinositide turnover in neonatal rat cerebral cortex slices has been investigated. 2. At concentrations of < or = 300 microM, L-AP3 inhibited total [3H]-inositol phosphate ([3H]-InsPx) and Ins(1,4,...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mistry R,Prabhu G,Godwin M,Challiss RA

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00

  • Activation of ecto-5'-nucleotidase by protein kinase C and its role in ischaemic tolerance in the canine heart.

    abstract::1. Ischaemic preconditioning (IP) protects the myocardium against irreversible ischaemic injury by activating protein kinase C (PKC). The mechanism by which PKC protects the myocardium is unknown. We have shown that PKC increases the activity of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (ecto-5'-N) and thereby the production of adenosine ...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Node K,Kitakaze M,Minamino T,Tada M,Inoue M,Hori M,Kamada T

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Electrophysiological study of SR 42641, a novel aminopyridazine derivative of GABA: antagonist properties and receptor selectivity of GABAA versus GABAB responses.

    abstract::A new arylamino-pyridazine gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivative, SR 42641, has been tested for its ability to antagonize the actions of GABA on mammalian sensory neurones. SR 42641 and bicuculline reversibly decreased GABAA-induced depolarizations and currents recorded intracellularly from dorsal root ganglion ne...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Desarmenien M,Desaulles E,Feltz P,Hamann M

    更新日期:1987-02-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological mapping of regional effects in the rabbit heart of some new antiarrhythmic drugs.

    abstract::In vitro preparations of rabbit heart were made from which measurements of effective refractory period (ERP), atrio-Hisian (A-H) and His-Purkinje (H-P) conduction times could be obtained, analogous to electrophysiological measurements customarily carried out in vivo. Intracellular potentials also were recorded from th...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Millar JS,Vaughan Williams EM

    更新日期:1983-07-01 00:00:00

  • Efficient functional coupling of the human D3 dopamine receptor to G(o) subtype of G proteins in SH-SY5Y cells.

    abstract::1 The D3 dopamine receptor presumably activates Gi/Go subtypes of G-proteins, like the structurally analogous D2 receptor, but its signalling targets have not been clearly established due to weak functional signals from cloned receptors as heterologously expressed in mostly non-neuronal cell lines. 2 In this study, re...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zaworski PG,Alberts GL,Pregenzer JF,Im WB,Slightom JL,Gill GS

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • Cannabidiol is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Cannabidiol has been reported to act as an antagonist at cannabinoid CB1 receptors. We hypothesized that cannabidiol would inhibit cannabinoid agonist activity through negative allosteric modulation of CB1 receptors. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Internalization of CB1 receptors, arrestin2 recruitment, ...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laprairie RB,Bagher AM,Kelly ME,Denovan-Wright EM

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • The actions of a new beta-adrenoceptor blocking drug, ICI 66082, on the rabbit papillary muscle and on the dog heart.

    abstract::1 The actions of 4-(2-hydroxy-3-isopropylaminopropoxy) phenyl acetamide (ICI 66082), a new beta-adrenoceptor blocking drug, on the twitch response of the isolated papillary muscle of the rabbit and on dP/dt max and free heart rate of a denervated dog heart preparation, are described.2 ICI 66082 (up to 1 mg/ml) did not...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harry JD,Knapp MF,Linden RJ

    更新日期:1974-06-01 00:00:00

  • The novel anticonvulsant MK-801 binds to the activated state of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in rat brain.

    abstract::The influence of endogenous and exogenous acidic amino acids on the binding of [3H]-MK-801, a selective, non-competitive antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, has been investigated in rat cerebral cortex crude synaptic membranes (CSM). Removal of endogenous glutamate and aspartate from CSM by repeated w...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Foster AC,Wong EH

    更新日期:1987-06-01 00:00:00

  • Single pulse stimulation of guinea-pig vas deferens and the presynaptic receptor hypothesis.

    abstract::1 The effect of phenoxybenzamine on the efflux of [3H]-noradrenaline and the mechanical response to single pulse excitation of superfused guinea-pig vas deferens was determined to examine the validity of the currently accepted hypothesis of a presynaptic negative feedback system on adrenergic nerve terminals. 2 The ad...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kalsner S

    更新日期:1979-06-01 00:00:00

  • Update on melatonin receptors: IUPHAR Review 20.

    abstract::Melatonin receptors are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to the GPCR superfamily. In mammals, two melatonin receptor subtypes exist - MT1 and MT2 - encoded by the MTNR1A and MTNR1B genes respectively. The current review provides an update on melatonin receptors by the corresponding subcommittee of the I...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jockers R,Delagrange P,Dubocovich ML,Markus RP,Renault N,Tosini G,Cecon E,Zlotos DP

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Noradrenaline content of the heart of the adrenal-demedullated rat.

    abstract::1. The noradrenaline (NA) concentration in the "heart" (atria and right ventricle) of male rats was estimated at different periods following adrenal demedullation. For 1-3 weeks after the operation there was, in all rats, a reduction in NA content of the tissue, whereas, after somewhat longer intervals, the concentrat...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Borchard F,Vogt M

    更新日期:1970-01-01 00:00:00

  • NMDA-induced glutamate and aspartate release from rat cortical pyramidal neurones: evidence for modulation by a 5-HT1A antagonist.

    abstract::1. We have investigated an aspect of the regulation of cortical pyramidal neurone activity. Microdialysis was used to assess whether topical application of drugs (in 10 microliter) to fill a burr hole over the frontal cortex, where part of the corticostriatal pathway originates, would change concentrations of the exci...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dijk SN,Francis PT,Stratmann GC,Bowen DM

    更新日期:1995-08-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of beta adrenoceptor blocking agents on the membrane potential and spike generation in the smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia coli.

    abstract::1. The measurement of changes in spike generation and membrane resistance in the guinea-pig taenia coli, using the sucrose gap extracellular recording method, has been shown to be a useful way to demonstrate the intrinsic sympathomimetic activity of the beta adrenoceptor blocking agents.2. Pronethalol, INPEA, MJ 1999,...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Davis WG

    更新日期:1970-01-01 00:00:00

  • Neuroadaptations of presynaptic and postsynaptic GABAB receptor function in the paraventricular nucleus in response to chronic unpredictable stress.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Chronic stress impairs GABAA (GABA type A) receptor-mediated inhibition in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It is not clear whether GABAB receptor function is also altered. We hypothesize that chronic stress alters GABAB receptor function in PVN corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CR...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gao Y,Zhou JJ,Zhu Y,Wang L,Kosten TA,Zhang X,Li DP

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Neural 5-HT4 receptors in the human isolated detrusor muscle: effects of indole, benzimidazolone and substituted benzamide agonists and antagonists.

    abstract::1. In strips of human isolated detrusor muscle, the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor (5-HT4) that mediates facilitation of neuromuscular cholinergic transmission was further characterized by using 5-HT and a series of ligands known for their 5-HT4 agonist (5-methoxytryptamine: 5-MeOT, cisapride, (R,S)-zacopride, BI...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Candura SM,Messori E,Franceschetti GP,D'Agostino G,Vicini D,Tagliani M,Tonini M

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Alzheimer's disease & metals: therapeutic opportunities.

    abstract::Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age related neurodegenerative disease. Currently, there are no disease modifying drugs, existing therapies only offer short-term symptomatic relief. Two of the pathognomonic indicators of AD are the presence of extracellular protein aggregates consisting primarily of the Aβ ...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kenche VB,Barnham KJ

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Adrenergic transmission in the dog mesenteric vein and its modulation by alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    abstract::Adrenergic transmission was investigated in the dog mesenteric vein by recording electrical responses of single smooth muscle cells to perivascular nerve stimulation. Perivascular nerve stimulation generated an excitatory junction potential (e.j.p.) and a slow depolarization of the membrane. The amplitude of the e.j.p...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suzuki H

    更新日期:1984-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of diltiazem on electrical responses evoked spontaneously or by electrical stimulation in the antrum smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig stomach.

    abstract::In circular smooth muscle cells of the guinea-pig stomach (antrum), diltiazem (10(-6)-10(-5)M) blocked the overshooting spike potential generated either spontaneously or by electrical stimulation in the presence of 2 mM tetraethylammonium chloride, but did not block the slow wave and the abortive spike potential. The ...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ishikawa S,Komori K,Nagao T,Suzuki H

    更新日期:1985-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of 5-HT6 receptor antagonism and cholinesterase inhibition in models of cognitive impairment in the rat.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The beneficial effect of 5-HT6 receptor antagonism in cognition remains controversial. This study has been undertaken to reassess the cognition enhancing properties of acute vs subchronic treatment with the selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB-271046 in unimpaired rats, as well as against scopo...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marcos B,Chuang TT,Gil-Bea FJ,Ramirez MJ

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Preclinical evaluation of [18 F]MA3: a CB2 receptor agonist radiotracer for PET.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Non-invasive in vivo imaging of cannabinoid CB2 receptors using PET is pursued to study neuroinflammation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vivo binding specificity of [18 F]MA3, a CB2 receptor agonist, in a rat model with local overexpression of human (h) CB2 receptors. METHODS:[...

    journal_title:British journal of pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Attili B,Celen S,Ahamed M,Koole M,Haute CVD,Vanduffel W,Bormans G

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00