Control of lateral balance in walking. Experimental findings in normal subjects and above-knee amputees.


:In walking the human body is never in balance. Most of the time the trunk is supported by one leg and the centre of mass (CoM) 'falls' to the contralateral side. In dynamical situations the velocity of the CoM should be acknowledged as well in the 'extrapolated centre of mass' (XcoM). Centre of pressure (CoP) position was recorded by a treadmill with built-in force transducers. Lateral CoM and XcoM position were computed by filtering the CoP data. Subjects were six above-knee amputees and six matched healthy controls. They walked at approximately 0.75, 1, and 1.25m/s for 2min. Amputees showed asymmetric gait with shorter stance (60%) at the prosthetic side versus 68% at the non-prosthetic side and a wider stride (13+/-4cm, mean+/-S.D.) compared to controls (9+/-3cm). At foot placement CoP was just lateral to the XcoM. The margin between average CoP and XcoM at foot contact was only 1.6+/-0.7cm in controls, 2.7+/-0.5cm in amputees at the prosthetic side and 1.9+/-0.6cm at the non-prosthetic side. Next to this 'stepping strategy', CoP position was corrected after initial contact by modulating the lateral foot roll-off ('lateral ankle strategy') in non-prosthetic legs up to about 2cm. A simple mechanical model, the inverted pendulum model, can explain that: (1) a less precise foot placement (greater CoP-XcoM margin) results in a wider stride, (2) this effect can be reduced by walking with a higher cadence, and (3) a greater margin at one side, as with a leg prosthesis, should be compensated by a shorter stance duration at the same side to achieve a straight path. This suggests that not in all cases symmetric gait should be an aim of rehabilitation.


Gait Posture


Gait & posture


Hof AL,van Bockel RM,Schoppen T,Postema K




Has Abstract


2007-02-01 00:00:00














  • Tibial impacts and muscle activation during walking, jogging and running when performed overground, and on motorised and non-motorised treadmills.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To examine tibial acceleration and muscle activation during overground (OG), motorised treadmill (MT) and non-motorised treadmill conditions (NMT) when walking, jogging and running at matched velocities. METHODS:An accelerometer recorded acceleration at the mid-tibia and surface EMG electrodes recorded rectus ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montgomery G,Abt G,Dobson C,Smith T,Ditroilo M

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Changes of posture and muscle activities in the trunk and legs during walking in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis after decompression surgery. A preliminary report.

    abstract::Neurogenic intermittent claudication is a main symptom in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS), and postural change is often observed during walking. This study aimed to identify the changes in posture and muscle activity in the trunk and legs during walking in patients with LSS by examining 6 patients who had undergone decom...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goto T,Sakai T,Enishi T,Sato N,Komatsu K,Sairyo K,Katoh S

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Reliability and validity of the Edinburgh Visual Gait Score for cerebral palsy when used by inexperienced observers.

    abstract::The Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS) for cerebral palsy has been validated for observer reliability and validity for observers experienced in gait analysis. This study investigated the reliability and validity of the EVGS for observers inexperienced in gait analysis. Six medical students used the score to analyse vi...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ong AM,Hillman SJ,Robb JE

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Subtalar neutral position as an offset for a kinematic model of the foot during walking.

    abstract::The lack of a common reference position when defining foot postures may underestimate the ability to differentiate foot function in subjects with pathology. The effect of using the subtalar neutral (STN) position as an offset for both rearfoot and forefoot through comparison of the kinematic walking patterns of subjec...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Houck JR,Tome JM,Nawoczenski DA

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Predicting muscle forces during the propulsion phase of single leg triple hop test.

    abstract::Functional biomechanical tests allow the assessment of musculoskeletal system impairments in a simple way. Muscle force synergies associated with movement can provide additional information for diagnosis. However, such forces cannot be directly measured noninvasively. This study aims to estimate muscle activations and...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alvim FC,Lucareli PRG,Menegaldo LL

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of robotic performance-based error-augmentation versus error-reduction training on the gait of healthy individuals.

    abstract::Effective locomotion training with robotic exoskeletons requires identification of optimal control algorithms to better facilitate motor learning. Two commonly employed training protocols emphasize use of training stimuli that either augment or reduce performance errors. The current study sought to identify which of t...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kao PC,Srivastava S,Agrawal SK,Scholz JP

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Developmental changes in spatial margin of stability in typically developing children relate to the mechanics of gait.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Immature balance control is considered an important rate limiter for maturation of gait. The spatial margin of stability (MoS) is a biomechanical measure of dynamic balance control that might provide insights into balance control strategies used by children during the developmental course of gait. RESEARCH ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hallemans A,Verbecque E,Dumas R,Cheze L,Van Hamme A,Robert T

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Ambulatory system for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of gait and posture in chronic pain patients treated with spinal cord stimulation.

    abstract::The physical activity in normal daily life is determined to a large extent by the functional ability of a subject. As a result, the measurement of the physical activity that a subject performs spontaneously could be a useful and objective measurement of disability, particularly in patients with disease-related functio...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paraschiv-Ionescu A,Buchser EE,Rutschmann B,Najafi B,Aminian K

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of artificially increased trunk stiffness on the balance recovery after a trip.

    abstract::Falls occur frequently in the growing population of elderly. Since trunk control is critical for maintaining balance, the higher trunk stiffness in elderly people compared to the general population has been associated with their increased fall-risk. Theoretically, trunk stiffness may be beneficial for balance recovery...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: van der Burg JC,Pijnappels M,van Dieën JH

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between ambulatory physical activity assessed by activity trackers and physical frailty among nursing home residents.

    abstract:BACKGROUNDS:The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the level of ambulatory physical activity, measured by physical activity tracker, and the clinical components of physical frailty, among nursing home residents. METHODS:We proceeded in 3 steps: (1) Validation of the physical activity tracker (i.e...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buckinx F,Mouton A,Reginster JY,Croisier JL,Dardenne N,Beaudart C,Nelis J,Lambert E,Appelboom G,Bruyère O

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Stability-maneuverability trade-offs during lateral steps.

    abstract::Selecting a specific foot placement strategy to perform walking maneuvers requires the management of several competing factors, including: maintaining stability, positioning oneself to actively generate impulses, and minimizing mechanical energy requirements. These requirements are unlikely to be independent. Our purp...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Acasio J,Wu M,Fey NP,Gordon KE

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Postural responses during volitional and perturbed dynamic balance tasks in new lower limb amputees: a longitudinal study.

    abstract::This study examined the adaptation of postural responses in transtibial amputees during both perturbed and volitional dynamic balance tasks during a five-month period following discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Seven unilateral transtibial amputees performed the sensory organisation test (SOT) and the limits of...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barnett CT,Vanicek N,Polman RC

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of dance training on challenging postural control task.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have shown that dance training affects postural control, particularly during challenging tasks. However, it is still unknown whether dance training also affects the ability to use vestibular, somatosensory, and visual cues, thus leading to postural control differences. OBJECTIVE:The main go...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maheu M,Behtani L,Nooristani M,Jemel B,Delcenserie A,Champoux F

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Peripheral sensory information and postural control in children with strabismus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Sensory feedback from the visual system along with the vestibular and somatosensory systems is essential for the regulation of normal postural control. Children with strabismus and, therefore, with abnormal binocular vision, may have an altered perception of space and use different sets of cues to determine ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jayakaran P,Mitchell L,Johnson GM

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship between static and dynamic foot posture and running biomechanics: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Medial longitudinal arch characteristics are thought to be a contributing factor to lower limb running injuries. Running biomechanics associated with different foot types have been proposed as one of the potential underlying mechanisms. However, no systematic review has investigated this relationship. RESEA...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Hollander K,Zech A,Rahlf AL,Orendurff MS,Stebbins J,Heidt C

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Women with fibromyalgia walk with an altered muscle synergy.

    abstract::Most individuals can use different movement and muscle recruitment patterns to perform a stated task but often only one pattern is selected which optimizes an unknown global objective given the individual's neuromusculoskeletal characteristics. Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS), characterized by their chronic p...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pierrynowski MR,Tiidus PM,Galea V

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Differences between body movement adaptation to calf and neck muscle vibratory proprioceptive stimulation.

    abstract::Adaptation is essential in maintaining stability during balance-challenging situations. We studied, in standing subjects with eyes open and closed, adaptive responses of the anteroposterior head, shoulder, hip and knee movements; gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior EMG activity and anteroposterior body posture when pr...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gomez S,Patel M,Magnusson M,Johansson L,Einarsson EJ,Fransson PA

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Reliability of scapular kinematics estimated with three-dimensional motion analysis during shoulder elevation and flexion.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Knowing the reliability of three-dimensional motion analysis to evaluate scapular kinematics during upper limb movements is essential to plan further research dedicated to understanding scapulothoracic joint movements relative to the global shoulder motion. RESEARCH QUESTION:The aim of this study was to ass...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alexander N,Wegener R,Zdravkovic V,North D,Gawliczek T,Jost B

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Patients with type II diabetes mellitus display reduced toe-obstacle clearance with altered gait patterns during obstacle-crossing.

    abstract::Patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported to be at high risk of falls that may be further increased by the effects of challenging activities such as obstacle-crossing. The purpose of this study was to compare the end-point trajectory and joint kinematic and kinetic patterns of the lower extremiti...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu MW,Hsu WC,Lu TW,Chen HL,Liu HC

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Objective measures of unobstructed walking and obstacle avoidance in Parkinson's disease subtypes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Objective measures of gait in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients according to motor subtypes are not yet fully understood. Although recent advances have been made for unobstructed walking, further work is required on locomotor tasks challenging postural stability, such as obstacle avoidance. RESEARCH QUESTIO...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Orcioli-Silva D,Vitório R,Lirani-Silva E,Santos PCR,Beretta VS,Gobbi LTB

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Ambulatory measurement of the scapulohumeral rhythm: intra- and inter-operator agreement of a protocol based on inertial and magnetic sensors.

    abstract::To measure the scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) in outpatient settings, the motion analysis protocol named ISEO (INAIL Shoulder and Elbow Outpatient protocol) was developed, based on inertial and magnetic sensors. To complete the sensor-to-segment calibration, ISEO requires the involvement of an operator for sensor placeme...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parel I,Cutti AG,Fiumana G,Porcellini G,Verni G,Accardo AP

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of hamstring lengthening on muscle activation timing.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to describe the changes in muscle activation patterns using surface electromyography (sEMG) during walking in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), before and after hamstring lengthening. In the current clinical use of sEMG during walking in CP for pre-operative planning, various authors hav...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Buurke JH,Hermens HJ,Roetenberg D,Harlaar J,Rosenbaum D,Kleissen RF

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Inertial sensor based reference gait data for healthy subjects.

    abstract::Inertial sensor gait analysis systems (ISGAS) facilitate gait analysis in an unobstructed environment outdoors or outside of a conventional gait laboratory. However, their use in clinical settings and in large scale studies necessitates thorough evaluation of their performance in different settings and populations and...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schwesig R,Leuchte S,Fischer D,Ullmann R,Kluttig A

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of conflicting constraints and age on strategy choice in stepping down during gait.

    abstract::For negotiating a step down during gait, as in stepping from a curb, two different strategies can be used, i.e. heel landing and toe landing. Toe landing allows more negative work by the leading leg to reduce the momentum gained during the descent, which facilitates maintaining stability but reduces walking velocity. ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Dieën JH,Pijnappels M

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Spinal stability is improved by inducing a lumbar lordosis in boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: a pilot study.

    abstract::The development of scoliosis in boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a significant, morbid event in the progression of the disease caused by progressive spinal musculature weakness. As an alternative to muscle activity, the spine can also be stabilised by locking the articular facet joints, which is achieved...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kerr TP,Lin JP,Gresty MA,Morley T,Robb SA

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Braking and propulsive impulses increase with speed during accelerated and decelerated walking.

    abstract::The ability to accelerate and decelerate is important for daily activities and likely more demanding than maintaining a steady-state walking speed. Walking speed is modulated by anterior-posterior (AP) ground reaction force (GRF) impulses. The purpose of this study was to investigate AP impulses across a wide range of...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peterson CL,Kautz SA,Neptune RR

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Inclination angles of the ankle and head relative to the centre of mass identify gait deviations post-stroke.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Whole-body movement adjustments during gait are common post-stroke, but comprehensive ways of quantifying and evaluating gait from a whole-body perspective are lacking. RESEARCH QUESTION:Can novel kinematic variables related to Center of Mass (CoM) position discriminate side asymmetries as well as coordinat...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nedergård H,Schelin L,Frykberg GE,Häger CK

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Regional plantar pressure during walking, stair ascent and descent.

    abstract::Regional plantar pressures during stair walking may be injurious in at risk populations. However, limited data are available examining the reliability of plantar pressure data collected during stair walking. The aims of this study were three fold; to assess the reliability of the plantar pressure data recorded during ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rao S,Carter S

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of foot structure on 1st metatarsophalangeal joint flexibility and hallucal loading.

    abstract::The purpose of our study was to examine 1st metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint motion and flexibility and plantar loads in individuals with high, normal and low arch foot structures. Asymptomatic individuals (n=61), with high, normal and low arches participated in this study. Foot structure was quantified using malleolar...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rao S,Song J,Kraszewski A,Backus S,Ellis SJ,Deland JT,Hillstrom HJ

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Shoulder assessment according to the international classification of functioning by means of inertial sensor technologies: A systematic review.

    abstract::This review investigates current protocols using Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) in shoulder research, and outlines future paths regarding IMU use for shoulder research. Different databases were searched for relevant articles. Criteria for study selection were (1) research in healthy persons or persons with shoulder...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: De Baets L,van der Straaten R,Matheve T,Timmermans A

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00