Affective disorders in patients with HIV infection: impact of antiretroviral therapy.


:At the beginning of the AIDS pandemic, affective disorders (such as depressed mood) were seen in a considerable number of HIV-1-infected individuals. These disorders were a result of the poor physical condition of the patients, brain involvement by the virus (e.g. encephalopathy) or a reaction to disadvantageous living conditions (losing friends, jobs, etc.). In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), mental illness related to physical weakness is declining, as is the incidence of HIV-1-associated encephalopathy. However, depressed mood and fatigue caused by efavirenz (a standard component of HAART) is becoming increasingly important, particularly in individuals who are infected long-term with HIV-1. Whatever the cause of affective disorders, their presence has been shown to negatively influence adherence to HAART and HIV-1 disease progression. Specialist knowledge of HIV-1 infection, and HAART and its psychiatric complications (particularly in subgroups of patients such as drug abusers and older people), is needed to care adequately for patients. Furthermore, prospective studies are needed to more fully differentiate between the various aetiologies of affective disorders seen in individuals living with HIV/AIDS and to determine their incidence and prevalence. Such information is important to ensure that affective disorders are recognised and adequately treated, which will in turn improve the efficacy of HAART.


CNS Drugs


CNS drugs


Arendt G




Has Abstract


2006-01-01 00:00:00














  • Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    abstract::Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) may occur in up to one-third of adult women in the US. The essential feature of female HSDD is a deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty. The evaluation of female HSDD generally requ...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Warnock JJ

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Granisetron adjunct to fluvoxamine for moderate to severe obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Several small studies have shown beneficial effects of ondansetron, a serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The efficacy of other 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists in patients with OCD is still unclear. Granisetron does not alter cytochrome P450 activity a...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Askari N,Moin M,Sanati M,Tajdini M,Hosseini SM,Modabbernia A,Najand B,Salimi S,Tabrizi M,Ashrafi M,Hajiaghaee R,Akhondzadeh S

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Targeting Infectious Agents as a Therapeutic Strategy in Alzheimer's Disease.

    abstract::Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent dementia in the world. Its cause(s) are presently largely unknown. The most common explanation for AD, now, is the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which states that the cause of AD is senile plaque formation by the amyloid β peptide, and the formation of neurofibrillary tangl...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fülöp T,Munawara U,Larbi A,Desroches M,Rodrigues S,Catanzaro M,Guidolin A,Khalil A,Bernier F,Barron AE,Hirokawa K,Beauregard PB,Dumoulin D,Bellenger JP,Witkowski JM,Frost E

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Blonanserin: a review of its use in the management of schizophrenia.

    abstract::Oral blonanserin (Lonasen) is an atypical antipsychotic agent indicated for use in patients with schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. It is effective in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, providing short- and long-term efficacy against both the positive and negative symptoms of the disorder in several randomiz...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Deeks ED,Keating GM

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Characterisation of Agomelatine-Induced Increase in Liver Enzymes: Frequency and Risk Factors Determined from a Pooled Analysis of 7605 Treated Patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Antidepressant-induced liver injury is a major concern and a liver monitoring scheme has been recommended by the European Medicines Agency for agomelatine. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to assess the liver safety and identify the characteristics of patients who developed a significant increase i...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Perlemuter G,Cacoub P,Valla D,Guyader D,Saba B,Batailler C,Moore K

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Maternal Anti-Fetal Brain IgG Autoantibodies and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Current Knowledge and its Implications for Potential Therapeutics.

    abstract::Several studies have found a correlation between the presence of circulating maternal autoantibodies and neuronal dysfunction in the neonate. Specifically, maternal anti-brain autoantibodies, which may access the fetal compartment during gestation, have been identified as one risk factor for developing autism spectrum...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fox-Edmiston E,Van de Water J

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Hashimoto's encephalopathy : epidemiology, pathogenesis and management.

    abstract::Hashimoto's encephalopathy is a term used to describe an encephalopathy of presumed autoimmune origin characterised by high titres of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies. In a similar fashion to autoimmune thyroid disease, Hashimoto's encephalopathy is more common in women than in men. It has been reported in paediatric...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mocellin R,Walterfang M,Velakoulis D

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological management of postherpetic neuralgia.

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    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pappagallo M,Haldey EJ

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Discontinuation syndrome in dysthymic patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a clinical investigation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Many authors have reported discontinuation symptoms associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and characteristics of the discontinuation syndrome in patients who stopped treatment with the SSRIs paroxetine and fluoxetine under the u...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Bogetto F,Bellino S,Revello RB,Patria L

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Newly initiated opioid treatment and the risk of fall-related injuries. A nationwide, register-based, case-crossover study in Sweden.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is growing epidemiological evidence that opioids may increase the risk of unintentional injuries and it is plausible that the time of initiation is most critical in that respect. Studies on fall-related injuries remain few, limited and mostly focused on specific groups of elderly patients. OBJECTIVE:T...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Söderberg KC,Laflamme L,Möller J

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Neutralizing antibodies to interferon-beta and other immunological treatments for multiple sclerosis: prevalence and impact on outcomes.

    abstract::Biopharmaceuticals can induce antibodies, which interact with and neutralize the therapeutic effect of such drugs and are therefore termed neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In the treatment of multiple sclerosis, NAbs against interferon (IFN)-beta and natalizumab have been recognized. The prevalence of NAbs against diff...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Deisenhammer F

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Biological markers of age-related memory deficits: treatment of senescent physiology.

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    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Foster TC

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antipsychotic polypharmacy in schizophrenia: benefits and risks.

    abstract::Antipsychotic polypharmacy refers to the co-prescription of more than one antipsychotic drug for an individual patient. Surveys of prescribing in psychiatric services internationally have identified the relatively frequent and consistent use of combined antipsychotics, usually for people with established schizophrenia...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Barnes TR,Paton C

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: Definition and Measurement.

    abstract::Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) is diagnosed retrospectively and involves a clinical course characterized by a progressive accumulation of neurological disability, independent of relapses, following an initial relapsing-remitting (RR) phase. Our incomplete understanding of the pathological mechanisms u...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Plantone D,De Angelis F,Doshi A,Chataway J

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Pregabalin: as adjunctive treatment of partial seizures.

    abstract::Pregabalin, the pharmacologically active S-enantiomer of 3-aminomethyl-5-methylhexanoic acid, possesses anticonvulsant activity. Pregabalin binds with high affinity and specificity to voltage-gated calcium channel alpha(2)-delta proteins. The putative mechanism of action of the drug is reduced excitatory neurotransmit...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Warner G,Figgitt DP

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive Efficacy of Pharmacologic Treatments in Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Cognitive impairment is prevalent and debilitating among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). While many pharmacologic treatments have shown good efficacy in reducing clinical relapses, brain lesions, and improving certain physical symptoms, their efficacy for improving cognitive function is not well unde...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chen MH,Goverover Y,Genova HM,DeLuca J

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Neuropsychiatric adverse events associated with statins: epidemiology, pathophysiology, prevention and management.

    abstract::Statins, or 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, such as lovastatin, atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, rosuvastatin and pitavastatin, are cholesterol-lowering drugs used in clinical practice to prevent coronary heart disease. These drugs are generally well tolerated and have ...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tuccori M,Montagnani S,Mantarro S,Capogrosso-Sansone A,Ruggiero E,Saporiti A,Antonioli L,Fornai M,Blandizzi C

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Pregnancy outcome after in utero exposure to valproate : evidence of dose relationship in teratogenic effect.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Valproate is a first-line antiepileptic agent and is also used in the treatment of bipolar disorder and migraine. It is a known human teratogen. The objective of the study was to evaluate the teratogenic risk of valproate. METHODS:All callers who contacted the Israeli Teratology Information Service (TIS) be...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Diav-Citrin O,Shechtman S,Bar-Oz B,Cantrell D,Arnon J,Ornoy A

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Impact of Disease-Modifying Drugs.

    abstract::Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a profound impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), a comprehensive subjective measure of the patient's health status. Assessment of HRQoL informs on the potential advantages and disadvantages of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) beyond their effects on observer-based disability and m...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jongen PJ

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Spotlight on levetiracetam in epilepsy.

    abstract::Levetiracetam (Keppra®, E Keppra®) is an established second-generation antiepileptic drug (AED). Worldwide, levetiracetam is most commonly approved as adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization; other approved indications include monotherapy treatment of partial-onset seizu...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lyseng-Williamson KA

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Adjunctive Cenobamate for Focal-Onset Seizures in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cenobamate is a novel tetrazole-derived carbamate compound with a dual mechanism of action. This drug can enhance the inactivated state of voltage-gated sodium channels, preferentially inhibiting the persistent component of the sodium channel current, and acts as a positive allosteric modulator of GABAA rece...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lattanzi S,Trinka E,Zaccara G,Striano P,Del Giovane C,Silvestrini M,Brigo F

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Hypnosedative-induced complex behaviours : incidence, mechanisms and management.

    abstract::A number of news items and case reports describing complex behaviours (e.g. sleep driving, sleep cooking, sleep eating, sleep conversations, sleep sex) associated with the use of hypnosedative medications have recently received considerable attention. Regulatory agencies examining these reports have subsequently issue...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dolder CR,Nelson MH

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prospects for improving brain function in individuals with Down syndrome.

    abstract::Down syndrome (DS), which results from an extra copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21), is the most common genetically defined cause of intellectual disability. Although no pharmacotherapy aimed at counteracting the cognitive and adaptive deficits associated with this genetic disorder has been approved at present, there h...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Costa AC,Scott-McKean JJ

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Selection criteria for the clinical use of the newer antiepileptic drugs.

    abstract::In recent years, several new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been licensed: felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin and zonisamide. These drugs have proven efficacy as add-on therapy in patients with difficult-to-treat partial epilepsy, as 20-50% of patients ...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Deckers CL,Knoester PD,de Haan GJ,Keyser A,Renier WO,Hekster YA

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic Potential of Ursolic Acid to Manage Neurodegenerative and Psychiatric Diseases.

    abstract::Ursolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in several plants. Despite its initial use as a pharmacologically inactive emulsifier in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries, several biological activities have been reported for this compound so far, including anti-tumoural, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective and...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ramos-Hryb AB,Pazini FL,Kaster MP,Rodrigues ALS

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Ziprasidone.

    abstract::▴ Ziprasidone is a novel antipsychotic drug. It has high affinity for serotonin 5-HT(2) and dopamine D(2) receptors in vitro, with an 11-fold higher affinity for 5-HT(2) than for D(2) receptors, suggestive of a low potential for inducing motor disturbance [including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)].▴ The effects of zipr...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Davis R,Markham A

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and alcohol use disorders.

    abstract::Alcoholic patients suffer from harmful allostatic neuroplastic changes in the brain causing an acute withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of drinking followed by a protracted abstinence syndrome and an increased risk of relapse to heavy drinking. Benzodiazepines have long been the treatment of choice for detoxifying pat...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hammond CJ,Niciu MJ,Drew S,Arias AJ

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • HIV-related movement disorders: epidemiology, pathogenesis and management.

    abstract::Clinically relevant movement disorders are identified in 3% of patients with HIV infection seen at tertiary referral centres. In the same setting, prospective follow-up shows that 50% of patients with AIDS develop tremor, parkinsonism or other extrapyramidal features. Hemiballism-hemichorea and tremor are the most com...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cardoso F

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antimicrobial Use in Patients with Dementia: Current Concerns and Future Recommendations.

    abstract::Infections are common in people with dementia, and antibiotic use is widespread, albeit highly variable, across healthcare settings and countries. The few studies conducted to date that consider the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing specifically for people with dementia focus on people with advanced dementia a...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parsons C,van der Steen JT

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of Clinically Meaningful Improvements in Self-Reported Walking Ability in Participants with Multiple Sclerosis: Results from the Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III ENHANCE Trial of Prolonged-Release Fampridine.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Walking impairment is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). It affects > 90% of individuals over time, reducing independence and negatively impacting health-related quality of life, productivity, and daily activities. Walking impairment is consistently reported as one of the most distressing impairments by ...

    journal_title:CNS drugs

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Hobart J,Ziemssen T,Feys P,Linnebank M,Goodman AD,Farrell R,Hupperts R,Blight AR,Englishby V,McNeill M,Chang I,Lima G,Elkins J,ENHANCE study investigators.

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00