A comparison of muscle activity and heart rate response during backward and forward walking on an underwater treadmill.


:This investigation compared muscle activities and heart rate (HR) responses while subjects walked backward or forward in water, with and without a water current. Ten healthy males (23.5+/-1.4 years) volunteered for the study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to evaluate muscle activities while the subjects walked in water, immersed to the level of the xiphoid process. HR responses were monitored continuously by a telemetry method. A "Flowmill" was used for this study, which involves a treadmill at the base of a water flume. Measurement of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of each tested muscle was undertaken prior to gait analysis. The %MVCs obtained from the paraspinal muscles, vastus medialis and tibialis anterior were all significantly greater when walking backward than when walking forward, for every experimental condition (P<0.05). HR responses tended to be greater while walking backward than when walking forward, with a statistical significance at fast speed (P<0.05). In conclusion, walking backward in water resulted in significantly greater muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles, vastus medialis and tibialis anterior compared with walking forward in water. These findings may be helpful in developing water-based exercise programs.


Gait Posture


Gait & posture


Masumoto K,Takasugi S,Hotta N,Fujishima K,Iwamoto Y




Has Abstract


2007-02-01 00:00:00














  • Orthotic correction of lower limb function during gait does not immediately influence spinal kinematics in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Foot equinus and leg length discrepancy (LLD) are common problems in hemiplegic cerebral palsy (hCP), both causing secondary deviations of pelvic motion during gait. It can therefore be assumed that the spinal deviations observed in hCP patients are secondary as a compensation for the position of...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmid S,Romkes J,Taylor WR,Lorenzetti S,Brunner R

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Leg length and offset differences above 5mm after total hip arthroplasty are associated with altered gait kinematics.

    abstract::We aimed to investigate the relationship between postoperative leg length/offset (LL/OS) reconstruction and gait performance after total hip arthroplasty (THA). In the course of a prospective randomized controlled trial, 60 patients with unilateral hip arthrosis received cementless THA through a minimally-invasive ant...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Renkawitz T,Weber T,Dullien S,Woerner M,Dendorfer S,Grifka J,Weber M

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cluster analysis for the extraction of sagittal gait patterns in children with cerebral palsy.

    abstract::Classification of gait disorders would facilitate standardisation of gait management and communication across professional boundaries. In the past, such classification was undertaken using a variety of approaches with often unclear methodology and validation procedures. This study describes the application of hierarch...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Toro B,Nester CJ,Farren PC

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • How humans use visual optic flow to regulate stepping during walking.

    abstract::Humans use visual optic flow to regulate average walking speed. Among many possible strategies available, healthy humans walking on motorized treadmills allow fluctuations in stride length (Ln) and stride time (Tn) to persist across multiple consecutive strides, but rapidly correct deviations in stride speed (Sn=Ln/Tn...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salinas MM,Wilken JM,Dingwell JB

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Functional range of motion in the upper extremity and trunk joints: Nine functional everyday tasks with inertial sensors.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Functional range of motion is defined as the required range of motions for individuals to maintain maximal independence, along with optimal conditions for activities of daily living. Intervention plans for rehabilitation are directed towards the acquisition of anatomical range of motion. However, this isn't ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Doğan M,Koçak M,Onursal Kılınç Ö,Ayvat F,Sütçü G,Ayvat E,Kılınç M,Ünver Ö,Aksu Yıldırım S

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Spatiotemporal gait characteristic changes with gait training using the hybrid assistive limb for chronic stroke patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Robotic rehabilitation has been attracting attention as a means to carry out "intensive", "repetitive", "task-specific", gait training. The newly developed robotic device, the Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL), is thought to have the possibility of having an excellent effect on gait speed improvement over the conv...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tanaka H,Nankaku M,Nishikawa T,Hosoe T,Yonezawa H,Mori H,Kikuchi T,Nishi H,Takagi Y,Miyamoto S,Ikeguchi R,Matsuda S

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Reliability and validity of the Edinburgh Visual Gait Score for cerebral palsy when used by inexperienced observers.

    abstract::The Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS) for cerebral palsy has been validated for observer reliability and validity for observers experienced in gait analysis. This study investigated the reliability and validity of the EVGS for observers inexperienced in gait analysis. Six medical students used the score to analyse vi...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ong AM,Hillman SJ,Robb JE

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Proprioceptive control of posture: a review of new concepts.

    abstract::The assumption that proprioceptive inputs from the lower legs are used to trigger balance and gait movements is questioned in this review (an outgrowth of discussions initiated during the Neural Control of Movement Satellite meeting held in Cozumel, Mexico, April 1997). Recent findings presented here suggest that trun...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allum JH,Bloem BR,Carpenter MG,Hulliger M,Hadders-Algra M

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Toddle temporal-spatial deviation index: Assessment of pediatric gait.

    abstract::This research aims to develop a gait index for use in the pediatric clinic as well as research, that quantifies gait deviation in 18-22 month-old children: the Toddle Temporal-spatial Deviation Index (Toddle TDI). 81 preterm children (≤32 weeks) with very-low-birth-weights (≤1500g) and 42 full-term TD children aged 18...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cahill-Rowley K,Rose J

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Plantar pressures determinants in mild Hallux Valgus.

    abstract::While podobarometric techniques have been applied to the study of pressures in Hallux Valgus (HV), little is known about its clinical and radiological determinants. So, the aim of the present study was to determine the plantar pressure pattern in participants with mild HV, comparing to a control group, and their clini...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martínez-Nova A,Sánchez-Rodríguez R,Pérez-Soriano P,Llana-Belloch S,Leal-Muro A,Pedrera-Zamorano JD

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Knee adduction moments are not increased in obese knee osteoarthritis patients during stair negotiation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Negotiating stairs is an important activity of daily living that is also associated with large loads on the knee joint. In medial compartment knee osteoarthritis, the knee adduction moment during level walking is considered a marker for disease severity. It could be argued that the discriminative capability ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verlaan L,Boekesteijn RJ,Oomen PW,Liu WY,Peters MJM,Emans PJ,van Rhijn LW,Meijer K

    更新日期:2019-09-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in temporal parameters during performance of the Step Test in older adults.

    abstract::The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the changes in the temporal parameters measured during the performance of the Step Test, to evaluate the relationship between age and these measurements and to determine their relationships to aerobic endurance, muscular strength and mobility in a sample of olde...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brustio PR,Magistro D,Liubicich ME

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Comprehensive biomechanical characterization of feet in USMA cadets: Comparison across race, gender, arch flexibility, and foot types.

    abstract::Lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries are common, complex, and costly problems. Literature supports associations between static foot structure and dynamic foot function, as well as between overuse injury and demographic characteristics. Previous studies failed to provide a comprehensive biomechanical foot character...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Song J,Choe K,Neary M,Zifchock RA,Cameron KL,Trepa M,Hannan MT,Hillstrom H

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Calf muscle-tendon lengths before and after Tendo-Achilles lengthenings and gastrocnemius lengthenings for equinus in cerebral palsy and idiopathic toe walking.

    abstract::The calf muscle-tendon lengths in children exhibiting equinus gait in two clinical populations, cerebral palsy (CP) and idiopathic toe walking (ITW), were examined to compare the effects of diagnosis and two different surgical procedures, Tendo-Achilles lengthening (TAL) versus Vulpius procedure (VP) gastrocnemius rec...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jahn J,Vasavada AN,McMulkin ML

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • The role of lower peripheral visual cues in the visuomotor coordination of locomotion and prehension.

    abstract::It has been previously suggested that coupled upper and limb movements need visuomotor coordination to be achieved. Previous studies have not investigated the role that visual cues may play in the coordination of locomotion and prehension. The aim of this study was to investigate if lower peripheral visual cues provid...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Graci V

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Reliability of scapular kinematics estimated with three-dimensional motion analysis during shoulder elevation and flexion.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Knowing the reliability of three-dimensional motion analysis to evaluate scapular kinematics during upper limb movements is essential to plan further research dedicated to understanding scapulothoracic joint movements relative to the global shoulder motion. RESEARCH QUESTION:The aim of this study was to ass...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alexander N,Wegener R,Zdravkovic V,North D,Gawliczek T,Jost B

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of body fat on three dimensional motion of the paediatric foot during walking.

    abstract::Childhood obesity is commonly associated with a pes planus foot type and altered lower limb joint function during walking. However, limited information has been reported on dynamic intersegment foot motion with the level of obesity in children. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between intersegmen...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mahaffey R,Morrison SC,Bassett P,Drechsler WI,Cramp MC

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of robotic performance-based error-augmentation versus error-reduction training on the gait of healthy individuals.

    abstract::Effective locomotion training with robotic exoskeletons requires identification of optimal control algorithms to better facilitate motor learning. Two commonly employed training protocols emphasize use of training stimuli that either augment or reduce performance errors. The current study sought to identify which of t...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Kao PC,Srivastava S,Agrawal SK,Scholz JP

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • A systematic review of approaches to modelling lower limb muscle forces during gait: Applicability to clinical gait analyses.

    abstract::Computational methods to estimate muscle forces during walking are becoming more common in biomechanical research but not yet in clinical gait analysis. This systematic review aims to identify the current state-of-the-art, examine the differences between approaches, and consider applicability of the current approaches...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Trinler U,Hollands K,Jones R,Baker R

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of different force and pressure measuring transducers on lower extremity kinematics measured during walking.

    abstract::The examination of synchronous three dimensional (3-D) kinetics and kinematics of walking in laboratory based analyses typically requires participants/patients to make foot contact with a force or pressure measuring device. However, it has been proposed that this may lead to targeting whereby participants modify their...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greenhalgh A,Taylor PJ,Sinclair J

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of orthognathic surgery on the body posture.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Postural control is classically described as being based on the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive musculo-articular sensory systems. The influence of mandibular proprioception on postural stabilization remains controversial. Most previous studies analyzed how postural stability is influenced by partial ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paya-Argoud M,Tardieu C,Cheynet F,Raskin A,Borel L

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Joint kinematics following bi-compartmental knee replacement during daily life motor tasks.

    abstract::In many cases knee osteoarthritis leads to total knee replacement surgery (TKR) even if the lateral compartment is not involved. More recently, a bicompartmental knee replacement system (BKR) (Journey Deuce, Smith & Nephew Inc., Memphis, TN, USA) has been developed that only replaces the medial tibiofemoral and the pa...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leffler J,Scheys L,Planté-Bordeneuve T,Callewaert B,Labey L,Bellemans J,Franz A

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Virtual obstacle crossing: Reliability and differences in stroke survivors who prospectively experienced falls or no falls.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Stroke survivors often fall during walking. To reduce fall risk, gait testing and training with avoidance of virtual obstacles is gaining popularity. However, it is unknown whether and how virtual obstacle crossing is associated with fall risk. AIM:The present study assessed whether obstacle crossing char...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Punt M,Bruijn SM,Wittink H,van de Port IG,Wubbels G,van Dieën JH

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Validity and reliability of the activPAL3 for measuring posture and stepping in adults and young people.

    abstract::Characterisation of free-living physical activity requires the use of validated and reliable monitors. This study reports an evaluation of the validity and reliability of the activPAL3 monitor for the detection of posture and stepping in both adults and young people. Twenty adults (median 27.6y; IQR22.6y) and 8 young ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sellers C,Dall P,Grant M,Stansfield B

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of artificially increased trunk stiffness on the balance recovery after a trip.

    abstract::Falls occur frequently in the growing population of elderly. Since trunk control is critical for maintaining balance, the higher trunk stiffness in elderly people compared to the general population has been associated with their increased fall-risk. Theoretically, trunk stiffness may be beneficial for balance recovery...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: van der Burg JC,Pijnappels M,van Dieën JH

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Change in the natural head-neck orientation momentarily altered sensorimotor control during sensory transition.

    abstract::Achilles tendon vibration generates proprioceptive information that is incongruent with the actual body position; it alters the perception of body orientation leading to a vibration-induced postural response. When a person is standing freely, vibration of the Achilles tendon shifts the internal representation of the v...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Xu I,Laurendeau S,Teasdale N,Simoneau M

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Combining advanced computational and imaging techniques as a quantitative tool to estimate patellofemoral joint stress during downhill gait: A feasibility study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The onset and progression of patellofemoral osteoarthritis (OA) has been linked to alterations in cartilage stress-a potential precursor to pain and subsequent cartilage degradation. A lack in quantitative tools for objectively evaluating patellofemoral joint contact stress limits our understanding of pathom...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gustafson JA,Elias JJ,Fitzgerald GK,Tashman S,Debski RE,Farrokhi S

    更新日期:2020-11-18 00:00:00

  • Center of pressure metrics derived from spatially registered typically developing data.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pedobarography is a commonly used testing procedure in clinical gait analysis, yet has limited roles in quantification for treatment planning, outcome assessment, and classification. Spatial registration between plantar pressure and motion capture data allows for accurate quantitative assessment and metric d...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: MacWilliams BA,McMulkin ML,Saraswat P,Davis RB

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of gait cycles in treadmill walking using a Kinect.

    abstract::Treadmill walking is commonly used to analyze several gait cycles in a limited space. Depth cameras, such as the low-cost and easy-to-use Kinect sensor, look promising for gait analysis on a treadmill for routine outpatient clinics. However, gait analysis is based on accurately detecting gait events (such as heel-stri...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Auvinet E,Multon F,Aubin CE,Meunier J,Raison M

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Sensory cueing effects on maximal speed gait initiation in persons with Parkinson's disease and healthy elders.

    abstract::Researchers have suggested that sensory cues can improve gait initiation in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD); however, there is little research that documents the effects of sensory cues on gait initiation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of auditory and cutaneous sensory cues on maximal spee...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Dibble LE,Nicholson DE,Shultz B,MacWilliams BA,Marcus RL,Moncur C

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00