A comparison of muscle activity and heart rate response during backward and forward walking on an underwater treadmill.


:This investigation compared muscle activities and heart rate (HR) responses while subjects walked backward or forward in water, with and without a water current. Ten healthy males (23.5+/-1.4 years) volunteered for the study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to evaluate muscle activities while the subjects walked in water, immersed to the level of the xiphoid process. HR responses were monitored continuously by a telemetry method. A "Flowmill" was used for this study, which involves a treadmill at the base of a water flume. Measurement of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of each tested muscle was undertaken prior to gait analysis. The %MVCs obtained from the paraspinal muscles, vastus medialis and tibialis anterior were all significantly greater when walking backward than when walking forward, for every experimental condition (P<0.05). HR responses tended to be greater while walking backward than when walking forward, with a statistical significance at fast speed (P<0.05). In conclusion, walking backward in water resulted in significantly greater muscle activation of the paraspinal muscles, vastus medialis and tibialis anterior compared with walking forward in water. These findings may be helpful in developing water-based exercise programs.


Gait Posture


Gait & posture


Masumoto K,Takasugi S,Hotta N,Fujishima K,Iwamoto Y




Has Abstract


2007-02-01 00:00:00














  • Between-day reliability of time-to-contact measures used to assess postural stability.

    abstract::Traditional measures of postural stability consider movement of the center of pressure (COP) or the center of mass (COM) without regard to the boundary of support (BOS). A potentially more appropriate measure is postural time-to-contact (TtC) which defines the spatio-temporal proximity of the COM or COP to the BOS. Gi...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wheat JS,Haddad JM,Scaife R

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Application of principal component analysis in vertical ground reaction force to discriminate normal and abnormal gait.

    abstract::Discrete parameters from ground reaction force (GRF) are been considered in gait analysis studies. However, principal component analysis (PCA) may provide additional insight into gait analysis for considering the complete pattern of GRF. This study aimed at testing the application of PCA to discriminate the vertical G...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muniz AM,Nadal J

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • The second order autoregressive model in the evaluation of postural stability.

    abstract::The properties of a new postural stability criterion based on the analysis of the difference between centre of pressure and centre of gravity are discussed. This difference may be regarded as the control variable representing active work of ankle muscles allowing to maintain equilibrium and can be effectively modelled...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuczyński M

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Secondary gait compensations in individuals without neuromuscular involvement following a unilateral imposed equinus constraint.

    abstract::Ankle equinus is the most commonly identified impairment of individuals with spastic hemiplegia (SH). However, it is not clear how equinus at the ankle may contribute to gait deviations at other joints. The purpose of this study was to determine what compensatory gait deviations may occur as a result of an imposed, un...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Goodman MJ,Menown JL,West JM Jr,Barr KM,Vander Linden DW,McMulkin ML

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • The high cost of swing leg circumduction during human walking.

    abstract::Humans tend to walk economically, with preferred step width and length corresponding to an energetic optimum. In the case of step width, it is costlier to walk with either wider or narrower steps than normally preferred. Wider steps require more mechanical work to redirect the body's motion laterally with each step, b...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shorter KA,Wu A,Kuo AD

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Functional reaching discloses perceptive impairment in diplegic children with cerebral palsy.

    abstract::The currently accepted definition classifies Cerebral Palsy (CP) as a mere posture and movement disorder. Conversely, some authors have recently associated the presence of several motor dysfunctions exhibited by diplegic children with CP to an impairment in the perceptive system. The aim of the present study was to in...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ferrari A,Tersi L,Ferrari A,Sghedoni A,Chiari L

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Use of gait sandals for measuring rearfoot and shank motion during running.

    abstract::Gait sandals may be used as an alternative to shoes in gait analysis. However, their similarity to running shoes remains unclear. This study aimed to compare rearfoot and shank kinematics between barefoot, running shoes and gait sandal conditions during running. We hypothesised that gait sandals would more closely rep...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barnes A,Wheat J,Milner CE

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Postural strategy to keep balance on the seesaw.

    abstract::This work investigates the kinematic and electromyography (EMG) strategy used by the central nervous system (CNS) to keep equilibrium during anterior-posterior balance on seesaws with different degrees of instability. The movement of hip, knee, and ankle were reconstructed using a 3D motion-analysis system and the EMG...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Almeida GL,Carvalho RL,Talis VL

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Expectation of an upcoming large postural perturbation influences the recovery stepping response and outcome.

    abstract::Tripping during locomotion, the leading cause of falls in older adults, generally occurs without prior warning and often while performing a secondary task. Prior warning can alter the state of physiological preparedness and beneficially influence the response to the perturbation. Previous studies have examined how alt...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pater ML,Rosenblatt NJ,Grabiner MD

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of a kinetic multi-segment foot model. Part I: Model repeatability and kinematic validity.

    abstract::Kinematic multi-segment foot models are still evolving, but have seen increased use in clinical and research settings. The addition of kinetics may increase knowledge of foot and ankle function as well as influence multi-segment foot model evolution; however, previous kinetic models are too complex for clinical use. I...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruening DA,Cooney KM,Buczek FL

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Increased use of stepping strategy in response to medio-lateral perturbations in the elderly relates to altered reactive tibialis anterior activity.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The influence of aging on reactive control of balance during walking has been mainly investigated in the sagittal plane, whereas balance control in response to frontal plane perturbations is largely unexplored in the elderly. This is remarkable, given that walking mainly requires active control in the fronta...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Afschrift M,van Deursen R,De Groote F,Jonkers I

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • How humans use visual optic flow to regulate stepping during walking.

    abstract::Humans use visual optic flow to regulate average walking speed. Among many possible strategies available, healthy humans walking on motorized treadmills allow fluctuations in stride length (Ln) and stride time (Tn) to persist across multiple consecutive strides, but rapidly correct deviations in stride speed (Sn=Ln/Tn...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salinas MM,Wilken JM,Dingwell JB

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • The association between intersegmental coordination in the lower limb and gait speed in elderly females.

    abstract::Human multi-segmental motion is a complex task requiring motor coordination. Uncoordinated motor control may contribute to the decline in mobility; however, it is unknown whether the age-related decline in intersegmental coordination relates to the decline in gait performance. The aim of this study was to clarify the ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ogaya S,Iwata A,Higuchi Y,Fuchioka S

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Hip- and patellofemoral-joint loading during gait are increased in children with idiopathic torsional deformities.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Torsional deformities of the femur and tibia are associated with gait impairments and joint pain. Several studies have investigated these gait deviations in children with cerebral palsy. However, relatively little is known about gait deviations in children with idiopathic torsion and debate ensues about the ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Passmore E,Graham HK,Pandy MG,Sangeux M

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of malalignment on socket reaction moments during gait in amputees with transtibial prostheses.

    abstract::Alignment - the process and measured orientation of the prosthetic socket relative to the foot - is important for proper function of a transtibial prosthesis. Prosthetic alignment is performed by prosthetists using visual gait observation and amputees' feedback. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of t...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Boone DA,Kobayashi T,Chou TG,Arabian AK,Coleman KL,Orendurff MS,Zhang M

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Kinematic gait asymmetry assessment using joint angle data in patients with chronic stroke-A normalized cross-correlation approach.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Gait asymmetry is an important characteristic often studied in stroke patients. Several methods have been used to define gait asymmetry using joint angles. However, these methods may require normative data from healthy individuals as reference points. This study used normalized cross-correlation (CCnorm) to ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ogihara H,Tsushima E,Kamo T,Sato T,Matsushima A,Niioka Y,Asahi R,Azami M

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Risk of falls in older people during fast-walking--the TASCOG study.

    abstract:AIMS:To investigate the relationship between fast-walking and falls in older people. METHODS:Individuals aged 60-86 years were randomly selected from the electoral roll (n=176). Gait speed, step length, cadence and a walk ratio were recorded during preferred- and fast-walking using an instrumented walkway. Falls were ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Callisaya ML,Blizzard L,McGinley JL,Srikanth VK

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Functional limits of agreement: a method for assessing agreement between measurements of gait curves.

    abstract::Three dimensional measurements of gait is a widely used tool in clinical gait analysis, and the evaluation of the reliability and reproducibility of the method is a recurring topic in the literature. The reliability of gait curve measurements is often assessed by extraction of single points from the gait curves before...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Røislien J,Rennie L,Skaaret I

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • No evidence hip joint angle modulates intrinsically produced stretch reflex in human hopping.

    abstract::Motor output in activities such as walking and hopping is suggested to be mediated neurally by purported stretch reflex augmentation of muscle output. Reflex EMG activity during these tasks has been frequently investigated in the soleus muscle; with alterations in reflex amplitude being associated with changes in hip ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibson W,Campbell A,Allison G

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Associations of self-report measures with gait, range of motion and proprioception in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Spinal stenosis is defined as neurogenic claudication due to narrowing of the spinal canal lumen diameter. As the disease progresses, ambulation and gait may be impaired. Self-report measures are routinely used in the clinical setting to capture data related to lumbar pain symptoms, function and perceived ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Conrad BP,Shokat MS,Abbasi AZ,Vincent HK,Seay A,Kennedy DJ

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Older adults adopted more cautious gait patterns when walking in socks than barefoot.

    abstract::Walking barefoot or in socks is common for ambulating indoors and has been reported to be associated with increased risk of falls and related injuries in the elderly. This study sought to determine if gait patterns differed between these two conditions for young and older adults. A motion analysis system was used to r...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsai YJ,Lin SI

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gait speed and gender effects on center of pressure progression during normal walking.

    abstract::The COP progression is the trajectory of the center of foot pressure. Thirty healthy young adults were recruited to participate in this study. All subjects were asked to walk randomly at four different speeds (3km/h, preferred walking speed, 4km/h and 5km/h). A foot pressure measurement system (RS-scan(®) system) was ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chiu MC,Wu HC,Chang LY

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of partial weight bearing in a walking boot on plantar pressure distribution and center of pressure.

    abstract::Physicians routinely prescribe partial weight bearing in a walking boot following fractures of the lower limbs in order to produce the needed mechanical environment to facilitate healing. Plantar pressure measurements can provide key information regarding the mechanical environment experienced by lower limb bones. The...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: North K,Potter MQ,Kubiak EN,Bamberg SJ,Hitchcock RW

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Can toe-ground footwear margin alter swing-foot ground clearance?

    abstract::Falls are an important healthcare concern in the older population and tripping is the primary cause. Greater swing foot-ground clearance is functional for tripping prevention. Trips frequently occur due to the lowest part of the shoe contacting the walking surface. Shoe design effects on swing foot-ground clearance ar...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagano H,Sparrow WA,Begg RK

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Midstance hamstring length is a better indicator for hamstring lengthening procedures than initial contact length.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Children with static encephalopathy often walk with excessive knee and hip flexion throughout the gait cycle. This crouch gait pattern can be debilitating. These children may undergo hamstring-lengthening procedures to correct this crouch gait. Some improve, while others remain in crouch gait or go into knee...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Augsburger S,White H,Iwinski H

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Do physical examination and CT-scan measures of femoral neck anteversion and tibial torsion relate to each other?

    abstract::Informed clinical decision making for femoral and/or tibial de-rotation osteotomies requires accurate measurement of patient function through gait analysis and anatomy through physical examination of bony torsions. Validity of gait analysis has been extensively studied; however, controversy remains regarding the accur...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sangeux M,Mahy J,Graham HK

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interaction between age and gait velocity in the amplitude and timing of antagonist muscle coactivation.

    abstract::Old adults execute single-joint voluntary movements with heightened antagonist muscle coactivation and altered timing between agonist and antagonist muscles. It is less clear if old adults adopt similar strategies during the most common form of activity of daily living, gait, and if age and gait velocity interact. We ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hortobágyi T,Solnik S,Gruber A,Rider P,Steinweg K,Helseth J,DeVita P

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Developmental changes in spatial margin of stability in typically developing children relate to the mechanics of gait.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Immature balance control is considered an important rate limiter for maturation of gait. The spatial margin of stability (MoS) is a biomechanical measure of dynamic balance control that might provide insights into balance control strategies used by children during the developmental course of gait. RESEARCH ...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hallemans A,Verbecque E,Dumas R,Cheze L,Van Hamme A,Robert T

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between energy cost, gait speed, vertical displacement of centre of body mass and efficiency of pendulum-like mechanism in unilateral amputee gait.

    abstract::The energy cost of gait (C) is greater in amputee than in normal subjects. Our objective was to assess the influence of lower speed, inefficient pendulum mechanism and disturbed smoothness of centre of body mass (CM(b)) displacement on C in unilateral amputees and to have a better understanding the relationship betwee...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Detrembleur C,Vanmarsenille JM,De Cuyper F,Dierick F

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effectiveness of different visual biofeedback signals for human balance improvement.

    abstract::The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of visual biofeedback (VBF) signals from a force platform and accelerometer sensors placed on different body segments. The study was performed on 20 young subjects during standing on a firm and foam support surface with a VBF signal sensed from CoP, lower trunk (L...

    journal_title:Gait & posture

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Halická Z,Lobotková J,Bučková K,Hlavačka F

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00