[Prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance among previously untreated Spanish patients infected with HIV].


INTRODUCTION:Genotypic resistance was tested to investigate changes in the rates of resistance to antiretroviral drugs in non-treated patients in Spain. MATERIAL AND METHOD:A total of 209 HIV-infected patients from different autonomous communities in Spain without prior antiretroviral (AR) drug treatment were studied from 1997 to 2001. Regions of the HIV pol gene coding for protease (PR) and retrotranscriptase (RT) were sequenced in plasma samples by RT PCR amplification and automated PCR sequencing. RESULTS:At least one primary RT or PR mutation was detected in 14 patients (6.7%); 11 of them were associated with resistance to RT inhibitors (5.3%) and 3 to PR inhibitors (1.4%). The changes in the resistance rate between March 1997-February 1999 and March 1999-February 2001 were as follows: resistance mutations were detected in 3 of the 111 patients studied in the first period, and in 10 of 98 patients in the second period (2.7% versus 10.2%, P = 0.025). The infection time was less than three months in 1.5% of cases, less than 1 year in 13.4%, more than 1 year in 45.9% and unknown in 39.2%. CONCLUSION:The rate of primary resistance in naive patients is low in Spain, although there may be a trend toward an increase. The rising prevalence of resistance is a cause for concern.


Guerrero A,Cañizares A,Tomás S,Velasco D,Cartelle M,Grupo de Estudio de las Resistencias Primarias del VIH en España.




Has Abstract


2005-12-01 00:00:00














  • [Application of PCR for the detection of mutations in the genes coding for beta-lactamases].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to develop a satisfactory technique to detect punctual mutations in blaTEM genes. METHODS:The strains [E. coli HB 101 pBR322 (TEM-1), E. coli J62 RP4 (TEM-2)] were submitted to PCR with primers PL1 and PL2 which amplify the genetic region susceptible of punctual mutations. Then...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gallego L,Basaras M,Alonso R,Sarria L,Cisterna R

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  • [Intestinal parasitic infections and leishmaniasis in patients with HIV infection].

    abstract::Intestinal parasite infections are very frequent in HIV patients with severe immunodeficiency (CD4 < 100/mm3) causing chronic diarrhea and malabsorption in the majority of cases. The most frequent microorganisms are microsporidia and Cryptosporidium parvum while Cyclospora cayetanensis and Isospora belli are more prev...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Moreno-Camacho A,López-Vélez R,Muñoz Sanz A,Labarga-Echevarría P

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • [Epidemiologic and therapeutic aspects of bacteremic infections of the urinary tract].

    abstract::A survey was carried out of all urinary tract infections which developed bacteremia during an 18 month period. The number of episodes of bacteremia of urinary origin (BUO) detected in our institution during that period was 108. The urinary tract was the most common origin of the cases of community acquired (CA) bacter...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tomás S,Torné J,Soriano JC,García-Flores A,Garcés JM,Drobnic L,Morta M,Torres JM

    更新日期:1989-02-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::The effectiveness of different methodologies to identify antigenemia and antibodies against HIV at the time of viral primary infection was evaluated. To this end, 6 consecutive serum samples of a patient who had had symptomatic seroconversion were assessed. The detection of antigenemia was earlier than that of antibod...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Soriano V,Tor J,Ribera A,Muga R,Rivas-Mundó M

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    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To update antiretroviral recommendations in antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children and adolescents. METHODS:Theses guidelines have been formulated by a panel of members of the Plan Nacional sobre el SIDA (PNS) and the Asociacion Espanola de Pediatria (AEP) by reviewing the current available ev...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 共识发展会议,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ramos JT,de José MI,Polo R,Fortuny C,Mellado MJ,Muñoz-Fernández MA,Beceiro J,Bertrán JM,Calvo C,Chamorro L,Ciria L,Guillén S,González-Montero R,González-Tomé MI,Gurbindo MD,Martín-Fontelos P,Martínez-Pérez J,Moreno D,

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Primaquine is now the only drug available to eradicate Plasmodium vivax malaria. The optimal dose of primaquine to prevent relapses of P. vivax remains under discussion. CLINICAL CASES:We describe three cases of P. vivax malaria from different geographical areas, in which a tolerance to standard doses of ...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muñoz J,Velasco M,Alonso D,Valls ME,Corachán M,Gascón J

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::In spite of being described over 60 years, Q fever is still a little known disease. The exact prevalence is also unknown, but probably the number of cases of Q fever is underestimated. There is much variation in the clinical presentation, including severe forms with a poor prognosis. Acute cases often present as an as...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fariñas MT,Collado CM

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  • Phlebovirus-associated diseases transmitted by phlebotominae in Spain: Are we at risk?

    abstract::The genera Phlebovirus transmitted by Diptera belonging to the Psychodidae family are a cause of self-limited febrile syndrome in the Mediterranean basin in summer and autumn. Toscana virus can also cause meningitis and meningoencephalitis. In Spain, Toscana, Granada, Naples, Sicily, Arbia and Arrabida-like viruses ha...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: García San Miguel L,Sierra MJ,Vazquez A,Fernandez-Martínez B,Molina R,Sanchez-Seco MP,Lucientes J,Figuerola J,de Ory F,Monge S,Suarez B,Simón F

    更新日期:2020-04-25 00:00:00

  • [Associated factors and descriptive analysis of healthcare-related infective endocarditis in a tertiary reference hospital].

    abstract:INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES:The primary aim of this study was to evaluate associated factors, clinical features and prognosis of healthcare-related infective endocarditis cases compared with community-acquired and intravenous drug user-related episodes. Changes in the distribution of healthcare-related infective endoca...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Núñez Aragón R,Pedro-Botet Montoya ML,Mateu Pruñonosa L,Vallejo Camazón N,Sopena Galindo N,Casas García I,Molinos Arbós S,Sabrià Leal M

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    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Community-onset infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are increasing. However, there is little information about community-onset bacteremia (CB) due to MRSA in Spain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence, clinical and molecular epidemiology, clinica...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Millan AB,Domínguez MA,Borraz C,González MP,Almirante B,Cercenado E,Padilla B,Pujol M,Rodríguez-Baño J,GEIH\/GEMARA\/REIPI.

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Streptococcus suis spondylodiscitis: 2 new cases and a literature review.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection is poorly described zoonosis in our country, which is related with exposure to pigs or their meat. The most common clinical presentation is meningitis, while spinés involvement is rare. METHODS:We report 2 cases of S. suis infection and perform a systematic review of...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Romay-Lema EM,Ventura-Valcárcel P,Iñiguez-Vázquez I,García-Pais MJ,García-Garrote F,Rabuñal-Rey R,Alonso MP,Corredoira-Sánchez J

    更新日期:2020-10-14 00:00:00

  • Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. Detection of drug resistance mechanisms.

    abstract::Tuberculosis is still a serious public health problem, with 10.8 million new cases and 1.8 million deaths worldwide in 2015. The diversity among members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causal agent of tuberculosis, is conducive to the design of different methods for rapid diagnosis. Mutations in the gen...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Viñuelas-Bayón J,Vitoria MA,Samper S

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Interest in simplification arises from the need to dispense with nucleoside analogs due to their long-term toxicity. Since the first trials analyzing the safety and effectiveness of the strategy with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) emerged more than 10 years ago, simplification continues to arouse scientific, clinical and...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sebastián Mde L,Pardo OB,Ortega FP

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • [Analysis of the results of the HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral load of SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2013].

    abstract::Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Orta Mira N,Del Remedio Guna Serrano M,Latorre Martínez JC,Medina González R,Rosario Ovies M,Poveda M,Ruiz de Gopegui E,Gimeno Cardona C

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:BACKGROUND:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become an important hospital-acquired pathogen, with transfer of the organism from a carrier or infected patient to uninfected patients by the hands or clothing of staff as the main mode of transmission. METHODS:Investigation of a cluster of new cases o...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Molina-Cabrillana J,Del Rosario-Quintana C,Tosco-Núñez T,Dorta-Hung E,Quori A,Martín-Sánchez AM

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Symtuza® in clinical practice.

    abstract::Because lifelong therapy is needed in HIV infection, high long-term adherence is necessary. Darunavir/co-bicistat/emtricitabina/tenofovir alafenamide (Symtuza®) is the first triple therapy combining a protease inhibitor (PI) in a single tablet regimen. This drug combines the potency and high genetic barrier of the mos...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Luis Casado J,Fontecha M,Monsalvo M,Vizcarra P

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of a dilution method for non-evaluable results in the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae with the Cobas 4800 platform.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:A variable percentage of samples analysed using the Cobas 4800 assay can give an invalid result by PCR inhibition or erroneous due to incorrect DNA extraction with the Cobas 4800 CT/NG test. METHOD:An analysis was performed using the vortex agitation and dilution protocol on the original sample (swab or u...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parra-Sánchez M,García-Rey S,Zakariya-Yousef Breval I,Sierra-Atienza C,Bernal-Martínez S,Palomares-Folía JC

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • [Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Sub-Saharan immigrants in Almería (Spain)].

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:There is scant information available in Spain regarding virological markers and clinical status in Sub-Saharan patients infected with HVB. METHODS:A cross-sectional and retrospective study of virological markers and clinical status of HBV infection in 510 adult patients from Sub-Saharan Africa, not co-inf...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salas J,Vázquez J,Cabezas T,Lozano AB,Cabeza I

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • [Evaluation of two commercial kits for detection of Helicobacter pylori specific antibodies in patients undergoing gastroscopy. A seroprevalence study in an asymptomatic population].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We evaluate two different commercially available kits for detecting specific antibodies against Helicobacter pylori in a group of 48 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms that underwent an endoscopic procedure. We also study the seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori antibodies in asimptomatic individuals from o...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Navarro F,Coll P,Sáinz S,Mirelis B,Cardeñosa N,Alonso C,March F,Monés J

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • [Infectious food poisoning in the Autonomous Basque Community (1984-1986)].

    abstract::The results of the study of 117 outbreaks of food poisoning in the Basque Autonomous Community during 1984-1986 are reported. In 76% of these outbreaks the causative agent could be isolated. Bacteria of the genus Salmonella accounted for 86.5% of the outbreaks with a known etiology, S. enteritidis being the most commo...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perales I,Muñiz J,Zigorraga C,Dorronsoro M,Martín F,García-Calabuig MA

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • Prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections in high-risk individuals, including patients with HIV infection.

    abstract::Sexually transmitted infections are a global public health problem both due to their high prevalence and due to their morbidity. A rapid and precise diagnosis is key to establishing appropriate targeted treatment and also to decreasing dissemination of these diseases among the high-risk population. To perform adequate...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Del Romero J,García-Pérez JN,Espasa-Soley M

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • [Bacteremia and recurrent arthritis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes in a heroin addict with AIDS].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Streptococcus pyogenes is a bacteria which, at present, is seldom isolated in blood and articular fluid. An intravenous drug addict with human immunodeficiency virus infection, with bacteremia and arthritis by S. pyogenes, associated with tuberculosis is presented. METHODS:Blood and articular fluid cultures...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Santos J,Fernández A,Arana C,Falces A,Márquez M,Rivero A

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • [Identification of yeasts of the Candida genus with a growth inhibition system: Microring YT].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:It has been observed an spectacular increasing of opportunistic Candida yeast infections. Many of them are fatal, and rapid and effective identification of the infecting species contributes to start the correct treatment. Several new methods for yeast identification have become available; Microring YT is one...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Torres-Rodríguez JM,Montsant-Montané L,Madrenys-Brunet N

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • [Comparison of conventional and non-conventional serological tests for the diagnosis of imported Chagas disease in Spain].

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a major imported parasitic disease in Spain, because of the increase of immigrants from endemic areas. Since the laboratory diagnosis during the chronic phase is based on detection of anti-T. cruzi IgG antibodies, our aims were to compare 10 tests for determining anti-T. cruz...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Flores-Chávez M,Cruz I,Rodríguez M,Nieto J,Franco E,Gárate T,Cañavate C

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Adapting immunisation schedules for children undergoing chemotherapy.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Children undergoing chemotherapy for cancer have special vaccination needs after completion of the treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptation of post-chemotherapy vaccination schedules. METHOD:An observational study was performed on a retrospective cohort that included all children ag...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fernández-Prada M,Rodríguez-Martínez M,García-García R,García-Corte MD,Martínez-Ortega C

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • [Candida albicans meningitis in 2 parenteral drug addicts. Review of the literature].

    abstract:BACKGROUND:HIV infection and parenteral drug abuse (PDA) are frequently associated conditions. Both are at increased risk of developing specific types of Candida infections. Localized CNS infection is an exceptional finding. METHODS:We report two cases of meningitis in PDA due to Candida albicans--one of them HIV posi...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sánchez-Portocarrero J,Pérez-Cecilia E,Roca V,Rábano J,Martín-Rabadán P,Ramírez C,Varela de Seijas E

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  • [Spanish recommendations for proper use of enfuvirtide].

    abstract::Enfuvirtide is a high-cost, parenterally administered drug commonly used in late phases of HIV infection, when its efficacy may be compromised. To optimize enfuvirtide use, consensus recommendations for this purpose have been formulated by 247 physicians attending patients with HIV infection in Spain. A literature rev...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 共识发展会议,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ribera E,Moreno S,Viciana P,Echevarría S,Flores J,Francés A,Gómez-Sirvent JL,González J,Hernández-Quero J,Lozano F,Mallolas J,Muñoz A,Ocampo A,Portilla J,Pulido F,Rivero A,Santos J,Soriano V,Antela A,Arazo P,Arrib

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • [Fever of intermediate duration].

    abstract::Fever of intermediate duration (FID) is defined as non-localized fever occurring in the community, lasting from one to four weeks, and having no diagnostic orientation after basic clinical, analytical and radiological evaluations are completed. These may include careful recording of clinical history, physical examinat...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rivero A,Zambrana JL,Pachón J

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • [Evaluation of mass spectrometry for the identification of clinically interesting yeasts].

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Identification of yeasts is based on morphological, biochemical and nutritional characteristics, and using molecular methods. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, a new method for the identification of microorganisms, has demonstrated to be very useful. ...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Galán F,García-Agudo L,Guerrero I,Marín P,García-Tapia A,García-Martos P,Rodríguez-Iglesias M

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • [Application of mass spectrometry in mycobacteria].

    abstract::To date, more than 170 species of mycobacteria have been described, of which more than one third may be pathogenic to humans, representing a significant workload for microbiology laboratories. These species must be identified in clinical practice, which has long been a major problem due to the shortcomings of conventi...

    journal_title:Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alcaide F,Palop-Borrás B,Domingo D,Tudó G

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00