Noradrenergic regulation of hypothalamic cells that produce growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin and the effect of altered adiposity in sheep.


:The growth hormone (GH) axis is sensitive to alteration in body weight and there is evidence that central noradrenergic systems regulate neurones that produce growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF). This study reports semiquantitative estimates of the noradrenergic input to neuroendocrine GHRH and SRIF neurones in the sheep of different body weights. We also studied the effects of altered body weight on expression of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme that produces noradrenalin from dopamine. Ovariectomised ewes were made Lean (39.6 +/- 2.6 kg; Mean +/- SEM) by dietary restriction, whereas Normally Fed animals (61.2 +/- 0.8 kg) were maintained on a regular diet. Brains were perfused for immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation. The Mean +/- SEM number of GHRH-immunoreactive (-IR) cells was lower in Normally Fed (65 +/- 7) than in Lean (115 +/- 14) animals, whereas the number of SRIF-IR cells was similar in the two groups (Normally Fed, 196 +/- 17; Lean 230 +/- 21). Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that the percentage of GHRH-IR cells (Normally Fed 36 +/- 1.5% versus Lean 32 +/- 4.6%) and percentage of SRIF-IR cells (Normally Fed 30 +/- 40.4% versus Lean 32 +/- 2.3%) contacted by noradrenergic fibres did not change with body weight. FluoroGold retrograde tracer injections confirmed that noradrenergic projections to the arcuate nucleus are from ventrolateral medulla and noradrenergic projections to periventricular nucleus arise from the ventrolateral medulla, nucleus of solitary tract, locus coeruleus (LC) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). DBH expressing cells were identified using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation and the level of expression (silver grains/cell) quantified by image analysis. The number of DBH cells was similar in Normally Fed and Lean animals, but the level of expression/cell was lower (P < 0.02) in the PBN and LC of Lean animals. These results provide an anatomical basis for the noradrenergic regulation of GHRH and SRIF cells and GH secretion. Altered activity or noradrenergic neurones in the PBN and LC that occur with reduced body weight may be relevant to the control of GH axis.


J Neuroendocrinol


Iqbal J,Manley TR,Yue Q,Namavar MR,Clarke IJ




Has Abstract


2005-06-01 00:00:00














  • Plasma oxytocin and vasopressin do not predict neuropeptide concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    abstract::The involvement of the neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) in human socio-emotional behaviours is attracting increasing attention. There is ample evidence for elevated plasma levels upon a wide variety of social and emotional stimuli and scenarios, ranging from romantic love via marital distress up to p...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kagerbauer SM,Martin J,Schuster T,Blobner M,Kochs EF,Landgraf R

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Steroids, stress and the gut microbiome-brain axis.

    abstract::It is becoming well established that the gut microbiome has a profound impact on human health and disease. In this review, we explore how steroids can influence the gut microbiota and, in turn, how the gut microbiota can influence hormone levels. Within the context of the gut microbiome-brain axis, we discuss how pert...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tetel MJ,de Vries GJ,Melcangi RC,Panzica G,O'Mahony SM

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Interleukin-3 and interleukin-6 stimulate bovine adrenal cortisol secretion through different pathways.

    abstract::Several interleukins have been reported to play a major role in the regulation of steroid secretion at all three levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of interleukin-3 (IL-3) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) on cortisol secretion of bovine adrenocortical c...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Michl P,Beikler T,Engelhardt D,Weber MM

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Reproductive experience affects parental retrieval behaviour associated with increased plasma oxytocin levels in wild-type and CD38-knockout mice.

    abstract::The transition to motherhood results in a number of hormonal, neurological and behavioural changes necessary to ensure offspring growth. Once motherhood is established, further neurological and behavioural changes may result in long-term memory in mothering. Recent research has shown that postpartum motherhood enhance...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lopatina O,Inzhutova A,Pichugina YA,Okamoto H,Salmina AB,Higashida H

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Photoperiod alters the time course of brain cyclooxygenase-2 expression in Siberian hamsters.

    abstract::Fever is initiated by activation of the arachidonic acid cascade and the biosynthesis of prostaglandins within the brain. Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) is a rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis, and the number of blood vessels expressing COX-2 correlates with elevated body temperature following periphera...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bilbo SD,Quan N,Prendergast BJ,Bowers SL,Nelson RJ

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Role of anterior peri-third ventricular structures in the regulation of supraoptic neuronal activity and neurohypophysical hormone secretion in the rat.

    abstract::Abstract Neurohypophysical hormone release, and the electrical activity of single neurons of the supraoptic nucleus, were monitored in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Immediately after electrolytic lesions of the region anterior and ventral to the third ventricle (AV3V region), supraoptic neurons showed little spontaneou...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leng G,Blackburn RE,Dyball RE,Russell JA

    更新日期:1989-02-01 00:00:00

  • Long slender cytoplasmic extensions: a common feature of neuroendocrine cells?

    abstract::We have recently developed a new method for visualisation of gut mucosal cells and demonstrated that enterochromaffin (EC) and enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells possess cytoplasmic extensions. The aim of the present study was to characterise the morphology of D- and G-cells. The D-cells in the stomach differed morphol...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hauso Ø,Gustafsson BI,Waldum HL

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Down-regulation of hypothalamic kisspeptin and its receptor, Kiss1r, mRNA expression is associated with stress-induced suppression of luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat.

    abstract::Identification of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its G protein-coupled receptor 54 (Kiss1r) as an essential component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis controlling gonadotrophin secretion raises the possibility that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling may play a critical role in the transduction of stress-induced supp...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kinsey-Jones JS,Li XF,Knox AM,Wilkinson ES,Zhu XL,Chaudhary AA,Milligan SR,Lightman SL,O'Byrne KT

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Physiological concentrations of melatonin and corticosterone in stress and their relationship with phagocytic activity.

    abstract::The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible connection between melatonin, corticosterone and the nonspecific immune response under both basal and stressed conditions. The concentrations used in the present study were as determined in an earlier work, and corresponded to the minimum and maximum concentr...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barriga C,Martín MI,Ortega E,Rodriguez AB

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor stimulates prolactin expression in primary culture of the mouse pituitary gland.

    abstract::The roles of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the regulation of prolactin (PRL) gene expression in the normal pituitary gland remain poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of EGF and an inhibitor of the EGF receptor, erlotinib, on PRL gene expression were examined both in the pituitary tumour cell line G...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nogami H,Koshida R,Omori H,Shibata M,Harigaya T,Takei Y

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Maternal neglect: oxytocin, dopamine and the neurobiology of attachment.

    abstract::Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. I provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, aiming to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawi...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Strathearn L

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Projections of RFamide-related peptide-3 neurones in the ovine hypothalamus, with special reference to regions regulating energy balance and reproduction.

    abstract::RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) is a neuropeptide produced in cells of the paraventricular nucleus and dorsomedial nucleus of the ovine hypothalamus. In the present study, we show that these cells project to cells in regions of the hypothalamus involved in energy balance and reproduction. A retrograde tracer (Fluor...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qi Y,Oldfield BJ,Clarke IJ

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Kisspeptin and the preovulatory gonadotrophin-releasing hormone/luteinising hormone surge in the ewe: basic aspects and potential applications in the control of ovulation.

    abstract::The identification of the neural mechanisms controlling ovulation in mammals has long been a 'holy grail' over recent decades, although the recent discovery of the kisspeptin systems has totally changed our views on this subject. Kisspeptin cells are the major link between gonadal steroids and gonadotrophin-releasing ...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Caraty A,Franceschini I,Hoffman GE

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Jacques Benoit lecture: the neuroendocrine view of the angiotensin and apelin systems.

    abstract::The hyperactivity of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the development and maintenance of hypertension in several types of experimental and genetic hypertension animal models. Among the main bioactive peptides of the brain RAS, angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang III display the same affinity fo...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology



    authors: Llorens-Cortes C,Kordon C

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Preproneuropeptide Y Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus of the Rat is Increased by Food Deprivation or Dehydration.

    abstract::The distribution of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) encoding preproneuropeptide Y (prepro-NPY) in the hypothalamus of rats subjected to food deprivation or dehydration has been investigated by quantitative in situ hybridization. Levels of prepro-NPY mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) were selectively increased by bot...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Shea RD,Gundlach AL

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • Region- and sex-specific modulation of anxiety behaviours in the rat.

    abstract::Recent studies in both animals and humans indicate that gonadal hormones have profound control over emotional states, and certainly contribute to the increased occurrence of psychiatric illness in women. Reports, as reviewed here, suggest that two important regions of the limbic system, the central nucleus of the amyg...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Toufexis D

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Diversity in fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 regulation: learning from the investigation of Kallmann syndrome.

    abstract::The unravelling of the genetic basis of the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal disorders, including Kallmann syndrome (KS), has led to renewed interest into the developmental biology of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones and, more generally, into the molecular mechanisms of reproduction. KS is characterised by...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kim SH,Hu Y,Cadman S,Bouloux P

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Stimulation of Alpha-Adrenoceptors Facilitates the Release of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone from Rat Hypothalamus in vitro.

    abstract::Abstract While extensive evidence suggests that adrenoceptors play an important role in the control of growth hormone in the rat, there are few studies involving the direct measurement of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). We have therefore developed a radioimmunoassay for rat GHRH, and used it to investigate th...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsagarakis S,Ge F,Rees LH,Besser GM,Grossman A

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00

  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)-GH-somatic growth and luteinizing hormone (LH)RH-LH-ovarian axes in adult female transgenic mice expressing human GH gene.

    abstract::We have examined alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary GH-somatic growth axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary LH-ovarian axis in a line of transgenic ICR mice expressing human GH (hGH) under the influence of the whey acid protein promoter. Transgenic female mice weighed twice as much as control females and were infer...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sasaki F,Tojo H,Iwama Y,Miki N,Maeda K,Ono M,Kiso Y,Okada T,Matsumoto Y,Tachi C

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic glucocorticoid deficiency-induced abnormal aggression, autonomic hypoarousal, and social deficit in rats.

    abstract::Certain aggression-related psychopathologies are associated with decreased glucocorticoid production and autonomic functions in humans. We have previously shown that experimentally-induced chronic glucocorticoid deficiency leads to abnormal forms of attack in rats. Here, we compared the effects of acute and chronic gl...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haller J,Halász J,Mikics E,Kruk MR

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Immunocytochemical Localization of Glucagon-Related Peptides in the Cerebral Ganglion of the Protochordate Ascidian, Styela plicata.

    abstract::Abstract The central nervous system of the protochordate ascidian Styela plicata has been investigated by means of immunocytochemical techniques in order to localize peptides of the glucagon/secretin family. In particular, glucagon- and peptide histidine isoleucine-containing neurons were localized in the cortex of th...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pestarino M

    更新日期:1990-10-01 00:00:00

  • Are hormonal responses to exercise in young men with Down's syndrome related to reduced endurance performance?

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to analyse whether hormonal responses could explain an exercise limitation in Down's syndrome (DS). Fourteen young men with DS (mean age 22.5 +/- 0.7 years) and 15 controls (CONT, mean age 22.5 +/- 0.3 years) participated in the study. During a treadmill submaximal incremental test, bl...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bricout VA,Guinot M,Faure P,Flore P,Eberhard Y,Garnier P,Juvin AF

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Post-transcriptional regulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene in GT1-7 cells.

    abstract::GT1-7 cells respond to treatment with the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), with an inhibition of transcription of the proGnRH gene and decreases in GnRH mRNA levels. However, the timing of this decrease in GnRH mRNA levels suggests that a decrease in GnRH mRNA stability may be involved in addition...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gore AC,Yeo TT,Ho A,Roberts JL

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Fos-like immunoreactivity in the brainstem of the rat following peripheral administration of cholecystokinin.

    abstract::Ninety min after intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Cholecystokinin (CCK, 50 μg/kg body wt) Fos-like protein was expressed in cells throughout the nucleus of the tractus solitarii (NTS) and area postrema, and also in scattered cells in the lateral reticular area of the brainstem. Using dual fluorescent immunocytochemis...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Luckman SM

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • Circannual variation in thyroid hormone deiodinases in a short-day breeder.

    abstract::At temperate latitudes, many mammals and birds show internally timed, long-term changes in seasonal physiology, synchronised to the seasons by changing day length (photoperiod). Photoperiodic control of thyroid hormone levels in the hypothalamus dictates the timing. This is effected through reciprocal regulation of th...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sáenz de Miera C,Hanon EA,Dardente H,Birnie M,Simonneaux V,Lincoln GA,Hazlerigg DG

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Noradrenergic nuclei that receive sensory input during mating and project to the ventromedial hypothalamus play a role in mating-induced pseudopregnancy in the female rat.

    abstract::In female rats, vaginal-cervical stimulation (VCS) received during mating induces bicircadian prolactin surges that are required for the maintenance of pregnancy or pseudopregnancy (PSP). The neural circuits that transmit VCS inputs to the brain have not been fully described, although mating stimulation is known to ac...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Northrop LE,Polston EK,Erskine MS

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Do corticosteroids damage the brain?

    abstract::Corticosteroids are an essential component of the body's homeostatic system. In common with other such systems, this implies that corticosteroid levels in blood and, more importantly, in the tissues remain within an optimal range. It also implies that this range may vary according to circumstance. Lack of corticostero...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Herbert J,Goodyer IM,Grossman AB,Hastings MH,de Kloet ER,Lightman SL,Lupien SJ,Roozendaal B,Seckl JR

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Dorsal hippocampal administration of triiodothyronine enhances long-term memory for trace cued and delay contextual fear conditioning in rats.

    abstract::Thyroid hormones play critical roles in brain maturation and cognitive functions. The present study investigated the role of thyroid hormone in emotional learning and memory using trace and delay contextual and cued fear conditioning tasks, respectively. Rats were administered triiodothyronine (T3) into the dorsal hip...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sui L,Wang F,Liu F,Wang J,Li BM

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of constant light, pinealectomy and guanosine triphosphate gamma-s on the density of melatonin receptors in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus: a possible implication of melatonin action.

    abstract::We report here the effects of pinealectomy and exposition to constant light on the density of melatonin receptors in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the rat using quantitative autoradiography. The B(max) values were significantly increased when the animals were maintained in constant light for 3 days (8.22 ± 0.95 fmol/m...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gauer F,Masson-Pévet M,Pévet P

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Reproductively-relevant stimuli induce Fos-immunoreactivity within progestin receptor-containing neurons in localized regions of female rat forebrain.

    abstract::An experiment was conducted to determine if neurons that respond to stimuli associated with mating in female brain also contain progestin receptors. We found that a portion of the neurons that respond to stimuli associated with mating also contains progestin receptors. While the appropriate hormonal conditions are imp...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Auger AP,Moffatt CA,Blaustein JD

    更新日期:1996-11-01 00:00:00