Molecular profile of reactive astrocytes--implications for their role in neurologic disease.

Abstract:

:The central nervous system responds to diverse neurologic injuries with a vigorous activation of astrocytes. While this phenomenon is found in many different species, its function is obscure. Understanding the molecular profile characteristic of reactive astrocytes should help define their function. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of molecules whose levels of expression differentiate activated from resting astrocytes and to use the molecular profile of reactive astrocytes as the basis for speculations on the functions of these cells. At present, reactive astrocytosis is defined primarily as an increase in the number and size of cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein. In vivo, this increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells reflects predominantly phenotypic changes of resident astroglia rather than migration or proliferation of such cells. Upon activation, astrocytes upmodulate the expression of a large number of molecules. From this molecular profile it becomes apparent that reactive astrocytes may benefit the injured nervous system by participating in diverse biological processes. For example, upregulation of proteases and protease inhibitors could help remodel the extracellular matrix, regulate the concentration of different proteins in the neuropil and clear up debris from degenerating cells. Cytokines are key mediators of immunity and inflammation and could play a critical role in the regulation of the blood-central nervous system interface. Neurotrophic factors, transporter molecules and enzymes involved in the metabolism of excitotoxic amino acids or in the antioxidant pathway may help protect neurons and other brain cells by controlling neurotoxin levels and contributing to homeostasis within the central nervous system. Therefore, an impairment of astroglial performance has the potential to exacerbate neuronal dysfunction. Based on the synopsis of studies presented, a number of issues become apparent that deserve a more extensive analysis. Among them are the relative contribution of microglia and astrocytes to early wound repair, the characterization of astroglial subpopulations, the specificity of the astroglial response in different diseases as well as the analysis of reactive astrocytes with techniques that can resolve fast physiologic processes. Differences between reactive astrocytes in vivo and primary astrocytes in culture are discussed and underline the need for the development and exploitation of models that will allow the analysis of reactive astrocytes in the intact organism.

journal_name

Neuroscience

journal_title

Neuroscience

authors

Eddleston M,Mucke L

doi

10.1016/0306-4522(93)90380-x

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1993-05-01 00:00:00

pages

15-36

issue

1

eissn

0306-4522

issn

1873-7544

pii

0306-4522(93)90380-X

journal_volume

54

pub_type

杂志文章,评审
  • Precisely timed spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity in dissociated cortical cultures.

    abstract::Recurring patterns of neural activity, a potential substrate of both information transfer and transformation in cortical networks, have been observed in the intact brain and in brain slices. Do these patterns require the inherent cortical microcircuitry of such preparations or are they a general property of self-organ...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.05.025

    authors: Rolston JD,Wagenaar DA,Potter SM

    更新日期:2007-08-10 00:00:00

  • Visual pathways to the cerebellum: segregation in the pontine nuclei of terminal fields from different visual cortical areas in the cat.

    abstract::The cerebellum receives input from visual cortical areas via a relay in the pontine nuclei. We have compared the location in the pontine nuclei of terminal fields of fibres from visual areas 18 and 20, and the posteromedial lateral suprasylvian visual area. Due to individual variations in the precise location of termi...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/0306-4522(89)90335-7

    authors: Bjaalie JG,Brodal P

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Variations of nucleus accumbens dopamine and serotonin following systemic interleukin-1, interleukin-2 or interleukin-6 treatment.

    abstract::The effects of systemically administered interleukin-1beta (1.0 microg), interleukin-6 (1.0 microg) and interleukin-2 (1.0 microg) on in vivo variations of monoamines were assessed in the nucleus accumbens. Administration of interleukin-1beta did not affect extracellular accumbal dopamine, provoked a modest rise of ho...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0306-4522(98)00271-1

    authors: Song C,Merali Z,Anisman H

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • Tonically Active Neurons in the Monkey Dorsal Striatum Signal Outcome Feedback during Trial-and-error Search Behavior.

    abstract::An animal's choice behavior is shaped by the outcome feedback from selected actions in a trial-and-error approach. Tonically active neurons (TANs), presumed cholinergic interneurons in the striatum, are thought to be involved in the learning and performance of reward-directed behaviors, but it remains unclear how TANs...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.08.007

    authors: Inokawa H,Matsumoto N,Kimura M,Yamada H

    更新日期:2020-10-15 00:00:00

  • Effect of lidocaine on dynamic changes in cortical reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence during transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    abstract::Rats were subjected to 90min of focal ischemia by occluding the left middle cerebral and both common carotid arteries. The dynamic changes in the formation of brain ischemic areas were analyzed by measuring the direct current (DC) potential and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence with ultravi...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.01.010

    authors: Naito H,Takeda Y,Danura T,Kass IS,Morita K

    更新日期:2013-04-03 00:00:00

  • Analysis of genetics and risk factors of Alzheimer's Disease.

    abstract::Alzheimer's Disease is the leading neurodegenerative cause of dementia. The pathogenesis is not clearly understood yet, is believed to be the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Consequently vascular risk factors and Apolipoprotein E genotyping are increasingly gaining importance. This study...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2016.03.051

    authors: Panpalli Ates M,Karaman Y,Guntekin S,Ergun MA

    更新日期:2016-06-14 00:00:00

  • Thiamine deficiency in vitro accelerates A-type potassium current inactivation in cerebellar granule neurons.

    abstract::Thiamine deficiency during embryonic or early postnatal development causes deficits in cerebellum-dependent activities including motor control and procedural memory. Here, we give a detailed description of the changes to A-type current in cultured cerebellar granule neurons exposed to thiamine deficiency in vitro. A-t...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.06.053

    authors: Cruz JS,Kushmerick C,Moreira-Lobo DC,Oliveira FA

    更新日期:2012-09-27 00:00:00

  • Sensory innervation of the thoracolumbar fascia in rats and humans.

    abstract::The available data on the innervation of the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) are inconsistent and partly contradictory. Therefore, the role of the fascia as a potential source of pain in the low back is difficult to assess. In the present study, a quantitative evaluation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substa...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.07.066

    authors: Tesarz J,Hoheisel U,Wiedenhöfer B,Mense S

    更新日期:2011-10-27 00:00:00

  • Acute actions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on intracellular Ca(2+) and K(+) currents in human microglia.

    abstract::The effects of acute application of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) on levels of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) and on whole-cell outward and inward K(+) currents were studied in cultured human microglia. TNFalpha elicited a linear increase in [Ca(2+)]i to a plateau level in micr...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0306-4522(01)00119-1

    authors: McLarnon JG,Franciosi S,Wang X,Bae JH,Choi HB,Kim SU

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • 3-Amino thioacridone, a selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor, attenuates kainic acid-induced apoptosis in neurons.

    abstract::The mechanisms underlying selective neuronal cell death in kainic acid-mediated neurodegeneration are not fully understood. We have recently demonstrated that in cerebellar granule neurons, kainic acid induces the expression of proteins associated with cell-cycle progression. In the present study we show that 3-amino ...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0306-4522(03)00424-x

    authors: Verdaguer E,Jordà EG,Canudas AM,Jiménez A,Sureda FX,Rimbau V,Pubill D,Escubedo E,Camarasa J,Pallàs M,Camins A

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Remaining Puzzles about Morpheme Production in the Posterior Temporal Lobe.

    abstract::Using data from time-resolved cortical stimulation, intracranial neural recordings, and focal surgical resections, Lee et al. (2018) demonstrate that a small area within left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) supports the ability to produce functional morphemes but not other basic aspects of language production...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.09.032

    authors: Fedorenko E,Williams ZM,Ferreira VS

    更新日期:2018-11-10 00:00:00

  • Differential regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptors in the regenerating amphibian spinal cord in vivo.

    abstract::Unlike mammals, adult urodele amphibians can regenerate their spinal cord and associated ganglia, but the molecular mechanisms controlling regeneration are not fully understood. We have recently shown that expression of FGF2, a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, is induced in the progenitor cells of the re...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0306-4522(02)00321-4

    authors: Zhang F,Clarke JD,Santos-Ruiz L,Ferretti P

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pathologic changes in the CNS of dystonia musculorum mutant mouse: an animal model for human spinocerebellar ataxia.

    abstract::This paper examines the topography of neuronal degeneration in the central nervous system of the dystonia musculorum (dt) mutant mouse, revealed by selective silver impregnation, specific histochemical staining and electron microscopy. Neuronal lesions have been observed exclusively in the spinal cord, the medulla and...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/0306-4522(88)90277-1

    authors: Sotelo C,Guenet JL

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • Stress, anxiety, and dendritic spines: what are the connections?

    abstract::Stressful life events, especially those that induce fear, can produce a state of anxiety that is useful for avoiding similar fearful and potentially dangerous situations in the future. However, they can also lead to exaggerated states, which over time can produce mental illness. These changing states of readiness vers...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.04.021

    authors: Leuner B,Shors TJ

    更新日期:2013-10-22 00:00:00

  • Dissociation of function within the hippocampus: effects of dorsal, ventral and complete excitotoxic hippocampal lesions on spatial navigation.

    abstract::The present study was designed to assess the possibility that sub-total ventral hippocampal lesions might leave intact a mechanism for only highly accurate navigation, whereas sub-total dorsal hippocampal lesions might leave intact a mechanism only for less precise navigation. Animals with selective dorsal, ventral or...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.05.007

    authors: Zhang WN,Pothuizen HH,Feldon J,Rawlins JN

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • The frequency of spontaneous seizures in rats correlates with alterations in sensorimotor gating, spatial working memory, and parvalbumin expression throughout limbic regions.

    abstract::Cognitive deficits and psychotic symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Imaging studies in humans have suggested that these comorbidities are associated with atrophy in temporal lobe structures and other limbic regions. It remains to be clarified whether TLE comorbidities are due ...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.11.008

    authors: Wolf DC,Bueno-Júnior LS,Lopes-Aguiar C,Do Val Da Silva RA,Kandratavicius L,Leite JP

    更新日期:2016-01-15 00:00:00

  • Selective effects of neonatal handling on rat brain N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

    abstract::Neonatal handling, an experimental model of early life experiences, is known to affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function thus increasing adaptability, coping with stress, cognitive abilities and in general brain plasticity-related processes. A molecule that plays a most critical role in such processes i...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.09.032

    authors: Stamatakis A,Toutountzi E,Fragioudaki K,Kouvelas ED,Stylianopoulou F,Mitsacos A

    更新日期:2009-12-29 00:00:00

  • Excitatory projections from the amygdala to neurons in the nucleus pontis oralis in the rat: an intracellular study.

    abstract::There is a consensus that active (REM) sleep (AS) is controlled by cholinergic projections from the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT/PPT) to neurons in the nucleus pontis oralis (NPO) that generate AS (i.e. AS-Generator neurons). The present study was designed to provide evidence that other proj...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.09.029

    authors: Xi M,Fung SJ,Sampogna S,Chase MH

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of capsaicin pre-treatment on the responses of single neurones to sensory stimuli in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis of the rat: evidence against a role for substance P as the neurotransmitter serving thermal nociception.

    abstract::Rats were systemically pre-treated with capsaicin either on the first day of life or at an age of 1 month. Both treatments were found to deplete substance P levels in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (55.6% and 57.9% depletions, respectively). Extracellular single neurone recordings in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis r...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/0306-4522(82)91121-6

    authors: Salt TE,Crozier CS,Hill RG

    更新日期:1982-05-01 00:00:00

  • Distribution of serotonin receptor 5-HT6 mRNA in rat neuronal subpopulations: A double in situ hybridization study.

    abstract::The 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) is almost exclusively expressed in the brain and has emerged as a promising target for cognitive disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we have determined the cell types on which the 5-HT6R is expressed by colocalizing 5-HT6R mRNA with that of a range of neuronal an...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.09.064

    authors: Helboe L,Egebjerg J,de Jong IE

    更新日期:2015-12-03 00:00:00

  • Termination pattern and fine structural characteristics of GABA- and [Met]enkephalin-containing nerve fibers and synapses in the superior cervical ganglion of adult rat.

    abstract::Morphological features of nerve fibers and synapses containing GABA and [Met]enkephalin were studied at the light and electron microscopic levels in the superior cervical ganglia of rats by pre- and postembedding immunohistochemistry. Both GABA and [Met]enkephalin immunoreactivities were found in varicose nerve fibers...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/0306-4522(92)90372-9

    authors: Párducz A,Dobó E,Joó F,Wolff JR

    更新日期:1992-08-01 00:00:00

  • Zic1 levels regulate mossy fiber neuron position and axon laterality choice in the ventral brain stem.

    abstract::Pontine gray neurons of the brain stem are a major source of mossy fiber (MF) afferents to granule cells of the cerebellum. Achieving this connectivity involves an early regionalization of pontine gray neuron cell bodies within the brainstem pontine nuclei, as well as establishing the proper ratio of crossed versus un...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.02.082

    authors: Dipietrantonio HJ,Dymecki SM

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Expression and localization of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 and the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in the retina of vervet monkeys.

    abstract::The presence of a widespread endocannabinoid (eCB) system within the nervous system, including the retina, has been demonstrated in recent years. Expression patterns of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) and enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are available for rodents, but data for humans and monkeys are sca...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.11.041

    authors: Bouskila J,Burke MW,Zabouri N,Casanova C,Ptito M,Bouchard JF

    更新日期:2012-01-27 00:00:00

  • Chitinase1 contributed to a potential protection via microglia polarization and Aβ oligomer reduction in D-galactose and aluminum-induced rat model with cognitive impairments.

    abstract::Chitinase activity is increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the role of chitinase1 in AD is unknown. We investigated the effects of chitinase1 on Alzheimer's pathology and microglia function. Artificial chitinase1 and chitinase inhibitor (chitinase-IN-2) were used to determine the effects of chitinase1 on in...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.04.050

    authors: Xiao Q,Yu W,Tian Q,Fu X,Wang X,Gu M,Lü Y

    更新日期:2017-07-04 00:00:00

  • Late direct and transneuronal effects in mice with targeted expression of a toxin gene to D1 dopamine receptor neurons.

    abstract::Detailed analysis of a novel transgenic model of basal ganglia disease has been undertaken. In this model the expression of an attenuated form of the diphtheria toxin gene was tightly controlled by D1 dopamine receptor regulatory domains. The behavioral and both direct toxin-mediated and transneuronal effects observed...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/s0306-4522(99)00498-4

    authors: Wong JY,Padungchaichot P,Massalas JS,Drago J

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Vitamin D regulates tyrosine hydroxylase expression: N-cadherin a possible mediator.

    abstract::Vitamin D is a neuroactive steroid. Its genomic actions are mediated via the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The VDR emerges in the rat mesencephalon at embryonic day 12, representing the peak period of dopaminergic cell birth. Our prior studies reveal that developmental...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.07.048

    authors: Cui X,Pertile R,Liu P,Eyles DW

    更新日期:2015-09-24 00:00:00

  • Mechanical allodynia and spinal up-regulation of P2X4 receptor in experimental autoimmune neuritis rats.

    abstract::Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is the animal model of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) that is the most common subtype of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). While neuropathic pain is a common symptom of GBS, its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Central sensitization, particularly...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.12.042

    authors: Zhang Z,Zhang ZY,Fauser U,Schluesener HJ

    更新日期:2008-03-18 00:00:00

  • Depolarization of rat locus coeruleus neurons by adenosine 5'-triphosphate.

    abstract::Intracellular recordings were performed in a pontine slice preparation of the rat brain containing the locus coeruleus. The enzymatically stable P2-purinoceptor agonist alpha,beta-methylene ATP increased the firing rate without altering the amplitude or shape of action potentials; the afterhyperpolarization following ...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/0306-4522(92)90282-7

    authors: Harms L,Finta EP,Tschöpl M,Illes P

    更新日期:1992-06-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of Young and Old Adult Brains: An EEG Functional Connectivity Analysis.

    abstract::Brain connectivity studies have reported that functional networks change with older age. We aim to (1) investigate whether electroencephalography (EEG) data can be used to distinguish between individual functional networks of young and old adults; and (2) identify the functional connections that contribute to this cla...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.08.038

    authors: Moezzi B,Pratti LM,Hordacre B,Graetz L,Berryman C,Lavrencic LM,Ridding MC,Keage HAD,McDonnell MD,Goldsworthy MR

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • The major neurotransmitter systems in the basolateral amygdala and the ventral tegmental area mediate morphine-induced memory consolidation impairment.

    abstract::In the present study, we investigated the possible participation of the endocannabinoid system in the basolateral amygdala and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) or GABA-A receptor neurotransmission in the ventral tegmental area in the memory consolidation impairment induced by morphine administration. To measure memory form...

    journal_title:Neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.03.036

    authors: Sharifi KA,Rezayof A,Torkaman-Boutorabi A,Zarrindast MR

    更新日期:2017-06-14 00:00:00