Racial vulnerability and individual barriers for Brazilian women seeking first care following abortion.

Abstract:

:Social inequalities in Brazil are reflected in women's search for abortion care, when they face individual, social, and structural barriers and are exposed to situations of vulnerability. Black women are the most heavily exposed to these barriers, from the search for the service to the care itself. The study aimed to analyze factors related to individual barriers in the search for first post-abortion care according to race/color. The study was conducted in Salvador (Bahia State), Recife, (Pernambuco State) and São Luís (Maranhão State), Brazil, with 2,640 patients admitted to public hospitals. Logistic regression was performed to analyze differences according to race/color (white, brown, and black), with "no individual barriers in the search for first care" as the reference category in the dependent variable. Of the women interviewed, 35.7% were black, 53.3% brown, and 11% white. Black women had less schooling, fewer children, and reported more induced abortions (31.1%) and more second-trimester abortions (15.4%). Black women reported more individual barriers in the search for first care (32% vs. 28% in brown women and 20.3% in whites), such as fear of being mistreated and lack of money for transportation. Regression analysis confirmed the association between black and brown race/color and individual barriers in the search for post-abortion care, even after adjusting for all the selected variables. The results confirmed the situation of vulnerability for black women and brown women in Brazil. Racial discrimination in health services and abortion-related stigma can act simultaneously, delaying women's access to health services, a limitation that can further complicate their post-abortion condition. :As desigualdades sociais no Brasil se refletem na busca por atenção pelas mulheres com abortamento, as quais enfrentam barreiras individuais, sociais e estruturais, expondo-as a situações de vulnerabilidades. São as negras as mais expostas a essas barreiras, desde a procura pelo serviço até o atendimento. O estudo objetivou analisar os fatores relacionados às barreiras individuais na busca do primeiro atendimento pós-aborto segundo raça/cor. A pesquisa foi realizada em Salvador (Bahia), Recife (Pernambuco) e São Luís (Maranhão), Brasil, com 2.640 usuárias internadas em hospitais públicos. Foi realizada regressão logística para análise das diferenças segundo raça/cor (branca, parda e preta), considerando-se “não houve barreiras individuais na busca pelo primeiro atendimento” como categoria de referência da variável dependente. Das entrevistadas, 35,7% eram pretas, 53,3% pardas e 11% brancas. Mulheres pretas tinham menor escolaridade, menos filhos e declararam mais o aborto como provocado (31,1%), após 12 semanas de gestação (15,4%). Relataram mais barreiras individuais na busca pelo primeiro atendimento (32% vs. 28% entre pardas e 20,3% entre brancas), tais como o medo de ser maltratada e não ter dinheiro para o transporte. Na regressão, confirmou-se a associação entre raça/cor preta e parda e barreiras individuais na busca de cuidados pós-aborto, mesmo após o ajuste por todas as variáveis selecionadas. Os resultados confirmam a situação de vulnerabilidade das pretas e pardas. A discriminação racial nos serviços de saúde e o estigma em relação ao aborto podem atuar simultaneamente, retardando a ida das mulheres ao serviço, o que pode configurar uma situação limite de maior agravamento do quadro pós-abortamento. :Las desigualdades sociales en Brasil se reflejan en la búsqueda de atención sanitaria por parte de las mujeres que abortan, que enfrentan barreras individuales, sociales y estructurales, exponiéndolas a situaciones de vulnerabilidad. Las negras son las más expuestas a estas barreras, desde la búsqueda del servicio hasta la atención. El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar los factores relacionados con las barreras individuales en la búsqueda de la primera atención post-aborto según raza/color. La investigación se realizó en Salvador (Bahia), Recife (Pernambuco) y São Luis (Maranhão), Brasil, con 2.640 pacientes internadas en hospitales públicos. Se realizó una regresión logística para el análisis de las diferencias según raza/color (blanca, mulata/mestiza y negra), considerándose “no tuvo barreras individuales en la búsqueda de la primera atención” como categoría de referencia de la variable dependiente. De las entrevistadas 35,7% eran negras, 53,3% mulatas/mestizas y 11% blancas. Las mujeres negras tenían menor escolaridad, menos hijos y declararon más el aborto como provocado (31,1%), tras 12 semanas de gestación (15,4%). Informaron más barreras individuales en la búsqueda de la primera atención (32% vs. 28% entre multas/mestizas y un 20,3% entre las blancas), tales como el miedo de ser maltratada y no tener dinero para el transporte. En la regresión se confirmó la asociación entre raza/color negro y mulato/mestizo y barreras individuales en la búsqueda de cuidados post-aborto, incluso tras el ajuste por todas las variables seleccionadas. Los resultados confirman la situación de vulnerabilidad de las negras y mulatas/mestizas. La discriminación racial en los servicios de salud y el estigma en relación con el aborto pueden actuar simultáneamente, retardando la ida de las mujeres al servicio de salud, lo que puede constituir una situación límite de mayor gravedad en el cuadro post-aborto.

journal_name

Cad Saude Publica

authors

Goes EF,Menezes GMS,Almeida MC,Araújo TVB,Alves SV,Alves MTSSBE,Aquino EML

doi

10.1590/0102-311X00189618

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2020-02-10 00:00:00

pages

e00189618

issue

Suppl 1

eissn

0102-311X

issn

1678-4464

pii

S0102-311X2020001305006

journal_volume

36Suppl 1

pub_type

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