Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools: Status and implications of low coverage in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia.

Abstract:

:Adequate access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools impacts health, educational outcomes, and gender disparities. Little multi-country research has been published on WaSH in rural schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this multi-national cross-sectional WaSH study, we document WaSH access, continuity, quality, quantity, and reliability in 2270 schools that were randomly sampled in rural regions of six Sub-Saharan African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. Data collection included: school WaSH surveys containing internationally established WaSH indicators, direct observation, and field- and laboratory-based microbiological water quality testing. We found 1% of rural schools in Ethiopia and Mozambique to 23% of rural schools in Rwanda had improved water sources on premises, improved sanitation, and water and soap for handwashing. Fewer than 23% of rural schools in the six countries studied met the World Health Organization's recommended student-to-latrine ratios for boys and for girls. Fewer than 20% were observed to have at least four of five recommended menstrual hygiene services (separate-sex latrines with doors and locks, water for use, waste bin). The low access to safe and adequate WaSH services in rural schools suggest opportunities for WaSH interventions that could have substantive impact on health, education, and gender disparities.

authors

Morgan C,Bowling M,Bartram J,Lyn Kayser G

doi

10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.03.015

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2017-08-01 00:00:00

pages

950-959

issue

6

eissn

1438-4639

issn

1618-131X

pii

S1438-4639(16)30559-4

journal_volume

220

pub_type

杂志文章
  • Prevalence, structure and expression of urease genes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from humans and the environment.

    abstract::A component of the ure gene cluster in E. coli, ureC, encodes a subunit of urease. We have investigated the distribution of ureC in 202 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains from Austria belonging to 61 different serotypes. These strains were of human (n=150), animal (n=38), and food (n=14) origin. ureC was pre...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2006.06.003

    authors: Orth D,Grif K,Dierich MP,Würzner R

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Biomonitoring at the UK Health and Safety Laboratory.

    abstract::The UK Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) provides research and analytical support to the Health and Safety Executive, other Government Departments and employers. In the area of biomonitoring HSL conducts research studies and provides an analytical service for regular surveillance of worker exposure to hazardous subst...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.01.028

    authors: Cocker J,Jones K,Morton J,Mason HJ

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Interpreting human biomonitoring data in a public health risk context using Biomonitoring Equivalents.

    abstract::Human biomonitoring (HBM) has proven an extremely valuable tool for determining which chemicals are getting into people, detecting trends in population exposures over time, and identifying populations with exposures above background. The potential significance of the HBM data in the context of existing toxicology data...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2011.09.011

    authors: Hays SM,Aylward LL

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Delineating the degree of association between biomarkers of arsenic exposure and type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::Non-carcinogenic effects in low-level (< 100 μgL(-1)) arsenic (As)-impacted populations, such as the development and progression of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), are often neglected given the primary emphasis of public health authorities on As carcinogenicity. We gathered studies reporting urinary biomarkers of As ...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.07.001

    authors: Andra SS,Makris KC,Christophi CA,Ettinger AS

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and PBDEs in blood samples of a rural population in South Germany.

    abstract::The body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like (dl-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like (ndl-PCBs) polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was determined in blood samples from 70 subjects between 4 and 76 years old. The participants of the study were re...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.07.004

    authors: Fromme H,Albrecht M,Appel M,Hilger B,Völkel W,Liebl B,Roscher E

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • The French human biomonitoring program: First lessons from the perinatal component and future needs.

    abstract::This paper presents a progress report of the French human biomonitoring (HBM) program established in 2010. This program has been designed to provide a national representative estimation of the French population's exposure to various environmental chemicals and to study the determinants of exposure. This program curren...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.11.005

    authors: Dereumeaux C,Fillol C,Charles MA,Denys S

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Blood lead levels in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population: the BIOAMBIENT.ES project.

    abstract::This paper provides the first baseline information on a national scale regarding lead exposure in the Spanish adult population. Blood lead levels were measured in a representative sample of the Spanish working population (1880 subjects aged 18-65 years) in order to help establish reference levels, follow temporal tren...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.09.001

    authors: Cañas AI,Cervantes-Amat M,Esteban M,Ruiz-Moraga M,Pérez-Gómez B,Mayor J,Castaño A,BIOAMBIENT.ES.

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Life style factors and acquired susceptibility to environmental disease.

    abstract::Multifactorial risk factors are responsible for many diseases. They can be broadly categorized as environmental, genetic and life style factors. Much attention has been focused on the first two categories, e.g. the identification of environmental toxicants/carcinogens and the elucidation of genetic susceptibility to d...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1078/1438-4639-00067

    authors: Au WW

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • Subgrouping outpatients of an environmental medicine unit using SCL-90-R and cluster analysis.

    abstract::Between 1999 and 2003 all consecutive outpatients of the environmental medicine unit of the Charité hospital in Berlin were invited to participate in a study on environmentally related disorders. One hundred and sixty-nine of the patients completed a psychosocial questionnaire which comprised SCL-90-R and 14 other tes...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2006.11.006

    authors: Helm D,Eis D

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Environmental risk factors for prevention and molecular intervention of cervical cancer.

    abstract::Cervical cancer (CC) is potentially the most preventable and treatable cancer in human but it is a leading cause for cancer morbidity and mortality in women around the world. Therefore, more innovative prevention and treatment protocols need to be developed and implemented. With better understanding of the etiology of...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2006.10.003

    authors: Au WW,Abdou-Salama S,Sierra-Torres CH,Al-Hendy A

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood publi...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.02.006

    authors: Schüle SA,Gabriel KMA,Bolte G

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Increase of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk from China in 2007-2011.

    abstract::A national survey was conducted to determine polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from 16 provinces in China to assess current exposure and temporal trends in China. The arithmetic mean concentration of total TE...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.07.013

    authors: Zhang L,Yin S,Li J,Zhao Y,Wu Y

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Predacious bacteria, Bdellovibrio with potential for biocontrol.

    abstract::Bacteria of the genus of Bdellovibrio are highly motile Gram-negative predators of other Gram-negative bacteria causing lysis of their prey. Here we report results of studies on the interactions of Bdellovibrio with species of Alcaligenes, Campylobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Helicobacter, Pseudomonas, Legionella, and...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2010.08.004

    authors: Markelova NY

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Prenatal pesticide exposure and respiratory health outcomes in the first year of life: Results from the infants' Environmental Health (ISA) study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Growing evidence suggests that pesticide exposure may influence respiratory health, but data in young children are very limited. We examined the association of prenatal pesticide exposure with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and wheeze at one year of age in children from the Infants' Environmental...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113474

    authors: Mora AM,Hoppin JA,Córdoba L,Cano JC,Soto-Martínez M,Eskenazi B,Lindh CH,van Wendel de Joode B

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Retrospective monitoring of perfluorocarboxylates and perfluorosulfonates in human plasma archived by the German Environmental Specimen Bank.

    abstract::Due to the increased awareness of the ubiquitous contamination of all environmental compartments and of human beings with perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), voluntary withdrawals and shifts in products and manufacturing technologies, as well as in regulatory measures, have been made. To investigate whether these activi...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.08.004

    authors: Schröter-Kermani C,Müller J,Jürling H,Conrad A,Schulte C

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on the second to fourth digit ratio in children aged 4 years.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is assumed to be a biomarker of prenatal sex steroid exposure, correlating negatively with prenatal testosterone and positively with prenatal estrogen. The ratio has been suggested to be influenced by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, evidence regarding ...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113639

    authors: Chen Y,Miao M,Liang H,Chen Y,Ji H,Ren Y,Liu X,Zhou Y,Wang Z,Yuan W

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of the distribution of the tick Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae) in a nature reserve of western Germany using Geographic Information Systems.

    abstract::From May to November 2003, at five selected sites of the 'Siebengebirge', a nature reserve near Bonn, Germany, data on microclimate, pedology, plant sociology and tick abundance were collected weekly and correlated. A total of 2832 host-seeking Ixodes ricinus (2660 nymphs and 172 adults) were collected, with maximal a...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.12.001

    authors: Schwarz A,Maier WA,Kistemann T,Kampen H

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Human biomonitoring activities--programmes by industry.

    abstract::Biomonitoring of exposure to chemicals has been practiced for over half a century on a regular basis. During the last decade, however, the focus changed from occupational to environmental settings, requiring a different interpretative framework. Under the auspices of the European Centre for Ecology and Ecotoxicology (...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.01.006

    authors: Boogaard PJ

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Is physical activity a modifier of the association between air pollution and arterial stiffness in older adults: The SAPALDIA cohort study.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES:Air pollution and insufficient physical activity have been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, molecular mechanisms linked to arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease. There are no studies on how physical activity modifies the association between air pollution and arteria...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.06.001

    authors: Endes S,Schaffner E,Caviezel S,Dratva J,Stolz D,Schindler C,Künzli N,Schmidt-Trucksäss A,Probst-Hensch N

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Value of acoustic rhinometry in environmental medicine.

    abstract::It is a weak point of environmental medicine that health disturbances, e.g. functional affections of the upper respiratory tract, cannot be objectively judged by physicians resp. researchers. In this study, the validity of acoustic rhinometry, a method giving information on cross-sectional areas of the upper airways b...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1078/S1438-4639(04)70008-5

    authors: Wiesmüller GA,Steup A,Ranft U,Bachert C

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Critical working tasks and determinants of exposure to bioaerosols and MVOC at composting facilities.

    abstract::Airborne bioaerosols and Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (MVOC) concentrations were simultaneously monitored at a composting facility and the main determinants of atmospheric concentrations were characterised, in order to help protect workers from potential adverse health effects. Microorganisms and MVOC were sam...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2010.06.001

    authors: Persoons R,Parat S,Stoklov M,Perdrix A,Maitre A

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Ambient air pollution and preterm birth: A prospective birth cohort study in Wuhan, China.

    abstract:IMPORTANCE:Although studies in western countries suggest that ambient air pollution is positively associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, the upper levels of pollutant exposures have been relatively low, thus eroding confidence in the conclusions. Meanwhile, in Asia, where upper levels of exposure have been greater...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.11.003

    authors: Qian Z,Liang S,Yang S,Trevathan E,Huang Z,Yang R,Wang J,Hu K,Zhang Y,Vaughn M,Shen L,Liu W,Li P,Ward P,Yang L,Zhang W,Chen W,Dong G,Zheng T,Xu S,Zhang B

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Pulmonary function and urban air pollution in preschool children.

    abstract::Epidemiologic evidence indicates that respiratory disease in infancy and childhood has respiratory health consequences in later life. Pulmonary function is considered a good index of early effects. This study assessed the relationship of pulmonary function in preschool children in Leipzig, Germany, and exposure to hig...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1078/S1438-4639(04)70034-6

    authors: Fritz GJ,Herbarth O

    更新日期:2001-03-01 00:00:00

  • Association of sociodemographic and environmental factors with the mental health status among preschool children-Results from a cross-sectional study in Bavaria, Germany.

    abstract:AIM:It has been reported that a great proportion of mental health disorders have an origin in early childhood. In order to evaluate factors possibly associated with children's health, the health monitoring units have been established since 2004 in six study regions in Bavaria, Germany. The second health monitoring surv...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.04.012

    authors: Zach A,Meyer N,Hendrowarsito L,Kolb S,Bolte G,Nennstiel-Ratzel U,Stilianakis NI,Herr C,GME Study Group.

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Mercury exposure and omega-3 fatty acid intake in relation to renal function in the US population.

    abstract::It remains unclear whether exposure to low-level mercury (Hg) is associated with impaired renal function, and whether omega-3 fatty acid (FA) intake could affect the association of interest. The current study examined the association of blood Hg and omega-3 FAs with renal function using data from 1046 subjects aged 40...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.09.004

    authors: Lin YS,Ginsberg G,Lin JW,Sonawane B

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • A fast and effective alternative to a high-ethanol disinfectant: Low concentrations of fermented ethanol, caprylic acid, and citric acid synergistically eradicate biofilm-embedded methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is a growing need to develop a powerful bactericidal method with low ethanol concentrations due to the frequent ineffectiveness of traditional antibiotics against biofilms and the side effect of a high ethanol concentration. OBJECTIVES:This study aims to develop a novel synergistic technique replacing...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113586

    authors: Kim HW,Lee NY,Park SM,Rhee MS

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Selecting mixtures on the basis of dietary exposure and hazard data: application to pesticide exposure in the European population in relation to steatosis.

    abstract::Populations are exposed to mixtures of pesticides through their diet on a daily basis. The question of which substances should be assessed together remains a major challenge due to the complexity of the mixtures. In addition, the associated risk is difficult to characterise. The EuroMix project (European Test and Risk...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.12.002

    authors: Crépet A,Vanacker M,Sprong C,de Boer W,Blaznik U,Kennedy M,Anagnostopoulos C,Christodoulou DL,Ruprich J,Rehurkova I,Domingo JL,Hamborg Jensen B,Metruccio F,Moretto A,Jacxsens L,Spanoghe P,Senaeve D,van der Voet H,van

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and human exposure to environmental chemicals.

    abstract::Researchers are increasingly interested in using human biomonitoring - the measurement of chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in biological specimens/body fluids - for investigating exposure to environmental chemicals. General population human biomonitoring programs are useful for investigating ...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2011.08.014

    authors: Calafat AM

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • The prevalence, intensity and clinical manifestations of Onchocerca volvulus infection in Toro local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    abstract::Between January and October 1994, a study of the prevalence, intensity and clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in nine communities of Toro local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria was undertaken using the skin-snip method. Of the 1117 inhabitants examined, 188 (16.8%) were positive for microfilariae of Onc...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1078/1438-4639-00052

    authors: Anosike JC,Celestine,Onwuliri OE,Onwuliri VA

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring the half-life of glyphosate in human urine samples.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recently classified glyphosate as a Group 2A 'probably carcinogenic to humans'. Due to this carcinogenic classification and resulting international debate, there is an increased demand for studies evaluating human health effects from glyphosate expos...

    journal_title:International journal of hygiene and environmental health

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.09.004

    authors: Connolly A,Jones K,Basinas I,Galea KS,Kenny L,McGowan P,Coggins MA

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00