Postoperative nodal irradiation in breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes involved: the debate continues….


:Regional lymph node irradiation is usually indicated in patients with positive node breast cancer. However, there are some controversies regarding the clinical benefits of adding regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation after breast surgery especially for patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary lymph nodes. More recently, two important studies (NCIC MA.20 and EORTC 22,922-10925) were published to address this significant issue and some further points need to be discussed.


Marta GN,de Moraes FY




Has Abstract


2015-01-01 00:00:00












  • Management of residual masses in testicular germ cell tumors.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:About 50% of all patients with advanced testicular cancer demonstrate residual retroperitoneal or extraretroperitoneal masses. About two thirds of the masses harbour necrosis/fibrosis only whereas as about 10% and 40% harbour vital cancer or teratoma. Appropriate therapy will result in a high cure rate if ...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Heidenreich A,Paffenholz P,Nestler T,Pfister D

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Promising predictors of checkpoint inhibitor response in NSCLC.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The development of immune-checkpoint inhibitors targeting the programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) axis has transformed the treatment paradigm in non-small-cell lung cancer, bringing about unprecedented 5-year survival rates. Despite this dramatic improvement, roughly 70% of patients do not der...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alex F,Alfredo A

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • The safety and efficacy of ramucirumab in combination with docetaxel in the treatment of lung cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Angiogenesis is critical for tumor growth, proliferation and metastasis with the crucial role of Vascular Endothelial Growth factor (VEGF) pathway. Ramucirumab is a monoclonal antibody that specifically targets the extracellular domain of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2. Areas covered: We per...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paulus V,Avrillon V,Pérol M

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Adopting an alternative structure for clinical trials in immunotherapy.

    abstract::Background: This evaluation emphasizes the main points of the original article 'Position paper: new insights into the immunobiology and dynamics of tumor-host interactions require adaptations of clinical studies' by Sprenger et al. and provides further justification for the use of an alternative approach in the design...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roussos Torres ET,Epstein AL

    更新日期:2021-01-19 00:00:00

  • Advances in the management of testicular cancer.

    abstract::Although testicular cancer is currently a rare disease, the incidence is rising. The most important risk factor remains cryptorchism and there is a variable association with testicular microlithiasis. Serum tumor markers remain important for diagnosis, and they have prognostic value and can be used to monitor therapy ...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Balk C,Witjes JA

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Eribulin mesylate in the management of metastatic breast cancer and other solid cancers: a drug review.

    abstract::In the new era of 'precision' cancer medicine, new drug development has shifted from cytotoxic chemotherapy to molecularly targeted agents. Eribulin mesylate, a microtubule-destabilizing agent, is the only 'classical' cytotoxic agent approved for the treatment of breast cancer in the last 7 years. This synthetic analo...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Polastro L,Aftimos PG,Awada A

    更新日期:2014-06-01 00:00:00

  • Optimal treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    abstract::For over 40 years, fluorouracil has been the only drug registered for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. During the past 5 years, combination chemotherapy regimens including either irinotecan or oxaliplatin have proven to be superior to fluorouracil monotherapy in randomized clinical trials, in terms of re...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pessino A,Sobrero A

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Gene alterations and epigenetic changes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a highly malignant neoplasm. The incidence of ICC has been increasing world-wide over the past several decades. Areas covered: The pathogenesis of ICC is a complex process involving the alteration of specific genes and epigenetic changes. This review summarizes the ...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Huang SB,Zheng CX

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Organ preservation strategies in bladder cancer.

    abstract::Bladder cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Promising results with organ preservation strategies using multimodality treatment over the last decade offers an option for bladder preservation in a significant proportion of patients who currently undergo cystectomy. The primary goal of the bladder-s...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hussain SA,James ND

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Systemic treatment of vulvar cancer.

    abstract::Squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva is a rare disease, accounting for approximately 5% of cancers of the female genital tract. Standard therapy for early-stage vulvar cancer mainly comprises of surgery of the vulva and groins. In locally advanced or metastatic vulvar cancer, neoadjuvant or definitive chemoradiation i...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mahner S,Prieske K,Grimm D,Trillsch F,Prieske S,von Amsberg G,Petersen C,Mueller V,Jaenicke F,Woelber L

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Immunotherapy advances for mesothelioma treatment.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Mesothelioma is a rare type of cancer that is strongly tied to asbestos exposure. Despite application of different modalities such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, patient prognosis remains very poor and therapies are ineffective. Much research currently focuses on the application of novel approa...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bakker E,Guazzelli A,Ashtiani F,Demonacos C,Krstic-Demonacos M,Mutti L

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk.

    abstract::For most sporadic cancers, genetic susceptibility results from the additive effect of multiple genetic variants, each of which contributes a modest risk individually. The study of genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may help explain the differences in individual cancer susceptibility and may assist in ident...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Meyer LA,Westin SN,Lu KH,Milam MR

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Metastatic soft tissue sarcoma: current treatment landscape and future perspectives.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The therapeutic armamentarium for advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) has increased over the last few years. Doxorubicin monotherapy or in combination is now the established first line treatment. Beyond first line treatment, no standard therapy has been established. Novel drugs have reached the late-clinica...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Skafida E,Kokkali S,Nikolaou M,Digklia A

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Abiraterone acetate in combination with prednisone in the treatment of prostate cancer: safety and efficacy.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Metastatic prostate cancer is a life-threatening disease and an important public health concern with prevalence rates varying drastically between high- and low-income countries. Androgen-deprivation therapy alone has been the first-line treatment option for decades, temporarily controlling disease until in...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Manceau C,Mourey L,Pouessel D,Ploussard G

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Prodrugs for targeted cancer therapy.

    abstract::Introduction: Prodrugs have been used to improve the selectivity and efficacy of cancer therapy by targeting unique abnormal markers that are overexpressed by cancer cells and are absent in normal tissues. In this context, different strategies have been exploited and new ones are being developed each year. Areas cover...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Souza C,Pellosi DS,Tedesco AC

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatocellular cancer in HIV-infected individuals: tomorrow's problem?

    abstract::A number of cancers occur with increased frequency in individuals with HIV infection. There is a debate as to whether or not hepatocellular cancer is one of these tumors. This article reviews the current data regarding incidence etiology, treatment and outcome for HIV-related hepatocellular cancer. It also attempts to...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Powles T,Macdonald D,Nelson M,Stebbing J

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Promising novel therapies for relapsed and refractory testicular germ cell tumors.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common solid malignancies in young men. The overall cure rate of GCT patients in metastatic stage is excellent, however; patients with relapsed or refractory disease have poor prognosis. Attempts to treat refractory disease with novel effective treatment to improve prog...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kozakova K,Mego M,Cheng L,Chovanec M

    更新日期:2020-11-02 00:00:00

  • Laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery.

    abstract::Colorectal cancer remains the second most common cause of cancer death in the USA and western Europe, with more than 34,000 new cases per year in the UK alone. Annual expenditure is in excess of pounds sterling 300 million, required for surgical, adjuvant and palliative treatment. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery has y...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Macafee DA,Maxwell-Armstrong C,Scholefield JH

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Metastases of colorectal cancer to the liver and peritoneum: comparison of surgical paradigms.

    abstract::The treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer is evolving. Although the advent of new chemotherapeutic and biologic agents has certainly improved the outlook for many patients, surgical resection in certain subsets of patients with advanced colorectal cancer is the only chance for long-term survival. Traditionally, pa...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shen P,Stewart JH,Levine EA

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Recent advances in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    abstract::Therapeutic outcomes of the currently used chemotherapeutic agents for recurrent or advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, such as methotrexate or a combination of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin, are far beyond satisfaction. New chemotherapeutic agents, such as taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel, are among the m...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kim KB,Khuri FR,Shin DM

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Raloxifene for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer?

    abstract::Raloxifene is a member of a family of drugs known as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Raloxifene is currently approved by the FDA for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. SERMs hold the potential to treat and prevent breast cancer, osteoporosis and coronary heart disease...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pappas SG,Jordan VC

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • Targeted therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer are improving, with better understanding and use of targeted therapies. Areas covered: A review of the literature and recent conference presentations was undertaken on the topic of systemic treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. This article reviews the current ...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Price TJ,Tang M,Gibbs P,Haller DG,Peeters M,Arnold D,Segelov E,Roy A,Tebbutt N,Pavlakis N,Karapetis C,Burge M,Shapiro J

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • New treatment strategies for malignant gliomas.

    abstract::Malignant gliomas are the most prevalent type of primary brain tumor in adults. Despite progress in brain tumor therapy, the prognosis of malignant glioma patients remains dismal. The median survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme, the most common grade of malignant glioma, is 10-12 months. Conventional ther...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sathornsumetee S,Rich JN

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • Aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer therapy.

    abstract::Estrogens are involved in numerous physiological processes and have crucial roles in certain disease states, such as mammary carcinomas. Estradiol, the most potent endogenous estrogen, is biosynthesized from androgens by the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex called aromatase. Aromatase is found in breast tissue and the i...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brueggemeier RW

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Palonosetron hydrochloride for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    abstract::A large number of different 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)(3) receptor antagonists have been marketed with the indication of preventing nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy--palonosetron is the most recently developed of these. Pharmacologic studies have revealed that palonosetron has a long half-life, a high affinit...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ruhlmann C,Herrstedt J

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cladribine in indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    abstract::Before the advent of rationally designed targeted antineoplastic therapies, cladribine was identified as a lymphocyte-specific cytotoxic agent. Cladribine is a purine nucleoside analogue that is resistant to cellular catabolism. Through diverse mechanisms, cladribine is equally toxic to dividing and nondividing cells,...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sigal DS,Saven A

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Salvage of local recurrence after primary thermal ablation for small renal masses.

    abstract::The management of renal tumors has evolved rapidly over the last two decades, with the ascendance of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), largely spurred by the increased incidental detection of small renal masses (SRMs) and evidence that preservation of renal parenchyma reduces the risk of chronic kidney disease. The field...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nguyen CT,Campbell SC

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Venous thromboembolism and malignancy.

    abstract::The association between venous thromboembolism (VTE) and malignancy was first recognized more than 135 years ago. Since then, a markedly increased incidence of VTE has been found in patients with malignant disease. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that malignancy or its treatment are major risk factors for ...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gao S,Escalante C

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.

    abstract::Sinonasal malignancies continue to have poor survival rates. Disease-related mortality is usually the result of disease recurrence and progression at the primary site despite aggressive therapy. Complete surgical excision with postoperative radiation therapy remains the standard of care for resectable lesions. Improve...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maghami E,Kraus DH

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    abstract::Dietary factors and other naturally occurring substances may emerge as potent therapeutic or preventative agents in the battle against prostate cancer. Much of the current support for these agents is epidemiologically based, but new prospective studies are now underway which may support their use in conventional medic...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ward JF,Blute ML

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00