Postoperative nodal irradiation in breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes involved: the debate continues….


:Regional lymph node irradiation is usually indicated in patients with positive node breast cancer. However, there are some controversies regarding the clinical benefits of adding regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation after breast surgery especially for patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary lymph nodes. More recently, two important studies (NCIC MA.20 and EORTC 22,922-10925) were published to address this significant issue and some further points need to be discussed.


Marta GN,de Moraes FY




Has Abstract


2015-01-01 00:00:00












  • Sequencing therapy in advanced prostate cancer: focus on sipuleucel-T.

    abstract::Immunotherapies such as sipuleucel-T present new and unique challenges for the optimal timing and sequencing of therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Key considerations for the sequencing of sipuleucel-T are its unique proposed mechanism of action, the time required to generate a clini...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Quinn DI,Vaishampayan U,Higano CS,Lin DW,Shore ND,Beer TM

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Emerging agents for the treatment of mantle cell lymphoma.

    abstract::The characterization of the mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) entity had a major impact on patient management and has played a profound role in improving therapy. Although the prognosis is improving in MCL, there is no definitive proof that the therapies currently available will lead to cure. Few randomized studies have been...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Camara-Clayette V,Hermine O,Ribrag V

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • The role of stereotactic body radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery in the re-irradiation of metastatic spinal tumors.

    abstract::Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) are advanced radiotherapy delivery techniques that allow for the delivery of high-dose per fraction radiation. Advances in imaging technology and intensity modulation have allowed SRS and SBRT to be used for the treatment of tumors in close prox...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jain AK,Yamada YJ

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Accelerated second-line or maintenance chemotherapy versus treatment at disease progression in NSCLC.

    abstract::For many decades, the use of chemotherapy as second-line therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer relied upon disease progression. Several studies have shown that four to six cycles of chemotherapy administered as front-line therapy treatment offers a survival advantage to patients; however, further chemotherapy beyond t...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Velez M,Belalcazar A,Domingo G,Blaya M,Raez LE,Santos ES

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk.

    abstract::For most sporadic cancers, genetic susceptibility results from the additive effect of multiple genetic variants, each of which contributes a modest risk individually. The study of genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may help explain the differences in individual cancer susceptibility and may assist in ident...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Meyer LA,Westin SN,Lu KH,Milam MR

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical implications of lung neuroendocrine neoplasm classification.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the lung (Lung NENs) encompass NE tumors (NETs), which are in turn split into typical and atypical carcinoids, and NE carcinomas (NECs), which group together small-cell carcinoma and large-cell NE carcinoma. This classification is the current basis for orienting the daily practi...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Metovic J,Barella M,Harari S,Pattini L,Albini A,Sonzogni A,Veronesi G,Papotti M,Pelosi G

    更新日期:2020-12-24 00:00:00

  • Predicting survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    abstract::There is increasing interest in the use of prognostic markers that may predict survival and guide management in patients diagnosed with the early stages of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Currently, the most important traditional prognostic factors include clinical staging, lymphocyte doubling time and β2-microglo...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bazargan A,Tam CS,Keating MJ

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Stem cell transplantation in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    abstract::Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Treatment outcome is better among patients who demonstrate sensitivity to salvage chemotherapy. Approximately half of the patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation will be cured a...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Murphy F,Sirohi B,Cunningham D

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in the treatment of low-stage nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testicle.

    abstract::Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testicle are highly treatable and curable. The evolution of cancer control for this disease has demonstrated an effective integration of medical and surgical approaches over the last 30 years. Current emphasis in the therapy of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors focuses on minimiz...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yoon GH,Stein JP,Skinner DG

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Surgical management of pediatric brain tumors.

    abstract::Brain tumors are the most common cause of cancer-related death and the second most common form of cancer in pediatric patients. Many of these tumors are treated primarily with surgery, either alone or in combination with radiation or chemotherapy. Recent advances have lead to greater survival and decreased morbidities...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Heuer GG,Jackson EM,Magge SN,Storm PB

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Advances in the management of testicular cancer.

    abstract::Although testicular cancer is currently a rare disease, the incidence is rising. The most important risk factor remains cryptorchism and there is a variable association with testicular microlithiasis. Serum tumor markers remain important for diagnosis, and they have prognostic value and can be used to monitor therapy ...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Balk C,Witjes JA

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Is axillary dissection needed in node-positive breast cancer?

    abstract::The standard of care in the management of the axilla for a woman with breast cancer was traditionally a level I and II axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Since the pivotal studies in the mid-1990s, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast carcinoma has come to replace ALND in women with clinically negative axil...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Greenberg CC,Bafford AC,Golshan M

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Prostate-sparing cystectomy: has Pandora's box been opened?

    abstract::En bloc removal of the prostate has traditionally been an integral component of radical cystectomy for men with bladder cancer owing to a high incidence of occult prostatic malignancy. However, the risk of functional morbidity following this procedure is considerable and can delay patient acceptance of cystectomy, whi...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kefer JC,Cherullo EE,Jones JS,Gong MC,Campbell SC

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Indications, complications, and outcomes following surgical management of locally advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Surgery may set the basis for a potential cure or would provide the best achievable quality of life in locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). However, survival extension with this approach would be scarce and not exempt from adverse events, thus preventing its recommendation in an alre...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: González J,Gaynor JJ,Alameddine M,Esteban M,Ciancio G

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • MUC1 induces tamoxifen resistance in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Tamoxifen, as an essential therapeutic tool in the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, has been available for the past three decades and is currently being utilized as a chemo-preventive agent for patients at high risk for breast carcinoma. However, the induction of chemo-resistance duri...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Merikhian P,Ghadirian R,Farahmand L,Mansouri S,Majidzadeh-A K

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic approaches for refractory germ cell cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Most germ cell cancer patients with metastatic disease are cured by cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. 30% of metastatic patients will develop relapse or progress despite adequate first-line treatment and will require salvage therapy, with about 10% of metastasized patients ultimately developing pla...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Oing C,Seidel C,Bokemeyer C

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Minimally invasive cystectomy approaches in the treatment of bladder cancer.

    abstract::Bladder cancer is the most frequently occurring tumor of the urinary system, with over 10,000 new diagnoses each year in the UK. Approximately 70% of these are non-muscle-invasive and limited to the mucosa (Ta) or submucosa (T1). These tumors are generally managed with transurethral resection followed by adjuvant intr...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cheung G,Dasgupta P,Guru KA,Billia M,Khan MS

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of the G1/S phase of the cell cycle and alterations in the RB pathway in human lung cancer.

    abstract::The retinoblastoma (RB)-Cyclin (CCN)D1-p16 cell cycle pathway has a crucial role in lung tumorigenesis. Impairment of the RB pathway has been shown to occur in almost all lung tumors. A deregulation at any level of this core RB pathway seems to make cells insensitive to the mitogenic signaling that is required for cel...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wikman H,Kettunen E

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • The role of tumor angiogenesis as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Angiogenesis is a complex process regulated by several pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, thus the loss of its fine equilibrium plays a key role in colorectal cancer (CRC) development and progression. Therapeutic agents targeting VEGF/VEGFR signaling, the main regulator of this process, proved to be effecti...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Battaglin F,Puccini A,Intini R,Schirripa M,Ferro A,Bergamo F,Lonardi S,Zagonel V,Lenz HJ,Loupakis F

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • The role of abiraterone in the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    abstract::Prostate cancer is the most common solid-organ cancer affecting the male population. Men with metastatic prostate cancer treated with androgen ablation therapy often respond rapidly, with improvement in bone pain and decreases in serum prostate-specific antigen. However, almost all patients progress to the castrate-re...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rawlinson A,Mohammed A,Beatty J,Bell R,Miller M

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • The evolving role of receptors as predictive biomarkers for metastatic breast cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:In breast cancer, estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are essential biomarkers to predict response to endocrine and anti-HER2 therapies, respectively. In metastatic breast cancer, the use of these receptors and targeted therapies present additional challenges: tempora...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Martínez-Pérez C,Turnbull AK,Dixon JM

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Implication of miRNA in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.

    abstract::Breast cancer (BC) comprises a group of different diseases characterized by changes in tissue structure and gene expression. Recent advances in molecular biology have shed new light on the participation of genes and their products in the biology of BC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding endogenous RNA molecules th...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Castañeda CA,Agullo-Ortuño MT,Fresno Vara JA,Cortes-Funes H,Gomez HL,Ciruelos E

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Tivozanib for the treatment of metastatic renal cancer.

    abstract::Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Drugs such as sorafenib, sunitinib and pazopanib act on the VEGF receptor pathway, but they can also inhibit other kinases, resulting in off-target toxicities. Tivozanib was developed due to its potency and selectivi...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wong HH,Eisen T

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Sorafenib therapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: the SHARP trial.

    abstract::Until now, no effective systemic treatment options have been available for patients with unresectable advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the Sorafenib Hepatocellular Carcinoma Assessment Randomized Protocol (SHARP), patients with unresectable advanced HCC with Child-Pugh liver function class A and who had not...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rimassa L,Santoro A

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • The role of surgery in recurrent endometrial cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Endometrial cancer is a common gynecologic malignancy in the United States, and the recurrence rate depends on the disease stage at diagnosis. Recurrence can affect several areas and follow different patterns. AREAS COVERED:The role of surgery at the time of recurrence is not clearly defined. In this revi...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zanfagnin V,Ferrero A,Biglia N,Aletti G,Gill SE,Makdisi PB,Multinu F,Mariani A

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Towards personalized therapy for patients with glioblastoma.

    abstract::Combined therapy with temozolomide and radiotherapy is a standard treatment and improves the survival for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. However, the prognosis remains poor, with a median survival time of 12-15 months. Currently, several clinical trials of dose-dense temozolomide regimen or molecular-targ...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shirai K,Chakravarti A

    更新日期:2011-12-01 00:00:00

  • Current radiotherapy techniques in NSCLC: challenges and potential solutions.

    abstract::Introduction: Radiotherapy is an important therapeutic strategy in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In recent decades, technological implementations and the introduction of image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) have significantly increased the accuracy and tolerability of radiation therapy.Area covered...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Giaj-Levra N,Borghetti P,Bruni A,Ciammella P,Cuccia F,Fozza A,Franceschini D,Scotti V,Vagge S,Alongi F

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Management Strategies for Recurrent Endometrial Cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed world, and its incidence is increasing. Mortality from this cancer has not improved in recent decades and is primarily driven by high-grade carcinomas that are more likely to present at an advanced stage and ultimately are more l...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Connor EV,Rose PG

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Significance of micrometastasis in bone marrow and blood of operable breast cancer patients: research tool or clinical application?

    abstract::Approximately 25% of breast cancer patients without lymph node metastases develop systemic relapse. A growing body of data supports the notion that hematogenous dissemination of breast cancer cells occurs independently of lymphatic spread of disease; however, current clinical practice does not involve routine analysis...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lang JE,Hall CS,Singh B,Lucci A

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

  • Hyperthermia for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    abstract::Recurrent non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents a therapeutic challenge, especially in the case of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)-failures. Chemohyperthermia (CHT) has been tested as adjuvant therapy in selected categories of patients with promising results. The aim of this systematic review is to expl...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Soria F,Allasia M,Oderda M,Gontero P

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00