Postoperative nodal irradiation in breast cancer patients with 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes involved: the debate continues….


:Regional lymph node irradiation is usually indicated in patients with positive node breast cancer. However, there are some controversies regarding the clinical benefits of adding regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast or thoracic-wall irradiation after breast surgery especially for patients with 1 to 3 positive axillary lymph nodes. More recently, two important studies (NCIC MA.20 and EORTC 22,922-10925) were published to address this significant issue and some further points need to be discussed.


Marta GN,de Moraes FY




Has Abstract


2015-01-01 00:00:00












  • Role of chemotherapy in breast cancer.

    abstract::Breast cancer represents a major health problem, with more than a million new cases and 370,000 deaths worldwide yearly. Options and understanding of how to use cytotoxic chemotherapy in both advanced and early stage breast cancer have made substantial progress in the past 10 years, with numerous landmark studies iden...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hussain SA,Palmer DH,Stevens A,Spooner D,Poole CJ,Rea DW

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • Clodronate in the prevention and treatment of skeletal metastasis.

    abstract::Many solid tumors, including breast and prostate cancer, metastasize to bone, thereby putting patients at high risk for developing skeletal complications including pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression and debilitating bone pain. Patients often live for many years after developing bone metastasis, a fact that h...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gulley J,Dahut WL

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Current concepts and future strategies in the management of intracranial germinoma.

    abstract::Radiation therapy is the backbone in the management of intracranial germinoma. In localized disease chemotherapy followed by whole brain irradiation is the present standard providing cure rates in excess of 90%. Craniospinal irradiation alone in metastatic disease provides equally excellent outcome. Chemotherapy is ab...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kortmann RD

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • American Society of Clinical Oncology 2010: report of selected studies from the CNS tumors section.

    abstract::A number of important studies were presented at the CNS tumors section of the 2010 American Society of Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting. There was particular interest in a Phase II study showing that the mTOR inhibitor everolimus had significant activity in tuberous patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. Tw...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wen PY

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Salvage of local recurrence after primary thermal ablation for small renal masses.

    abstract::The management of renal tumors has evolved rapidly over the last two decades, with the ascendance of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), largely spurred by the increased incidental detection of small renal masses (SRMs) and evidence that preservation of renal parenchyma reduces the risk of chronic kidney disease. The field...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nguyen CT,Campbell SC

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma of the head and neck.

    abstract::Since its first description nearly two centuries ago, melanoma has been a difficult disease to diagnose and treat. With the incidence and mortality rates slowly increasing, understanding this disease is more important than ever. Herein, the current diagnostic and treatment recommendations for melanoma of the head and ...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lentsch EJ,McMasters KM

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Sirolimus plus gemcitabine: a new therapeutic combination for resistant sarcomas?

    abstract::Sarcomas are a rare family of heterogeneous tumors of mesenchymal origin characterized by their bad prognosis. In addition, limited active therapeutic options are available. The cytotoxic drug gemcitabine and the inhibition of the mTOR pathway have demonstrated modest activity in sarcomas as monotherapy. However, prec...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Martin-Liberal J,Tirado OM,García del Muro X

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Metastatic soft tissue sarcoma: current treatment landscape and future perspectives.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The therapeutic armamentarium for advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) has increased over the last few years. Doxorubicin monotherapy or in combination is now the established first line treatment. Beyond first line treatment, no standard therapy has been established. Novel drugs have reached the late-clinica...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Skafida E,Kokkali S,Nikolaou M,Digklia A

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Advances in the treatment of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.

    abstract::Waldenström's macroglobulinemia is a distinct disorder characterized by a monoclonal immunoglobulin M paraprotein and morphological evidence of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. It is relatively rare, accounting for approximately 2% of all hematological malignancies. The aim of treatment for patients with Waldenström's macr...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Johnson SA

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Fertility preservation in women with CNS tumors.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Fertility impairment due to treatments is a major concern for adolescents and young adult patients who survived cancer. Areas covered: Chemotherapy may determine a detrimental effect on ovary function, leading to infertility, and premature ovarian failure. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation is a standard s...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tosoni A,Balestrini D,Brandes AA

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Management Strategies for Recurrent Endometrial Cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed world, and its incidence is increasing. Mortality from this cancer has not improved in recent decades and is primarily driven by high-grade carcinomas that are more likely to present at an advanced stage and ultimately are more l...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Connor EV,Rose PG

    更新日期:2018-09-01 00:00:00

  • Development of antiangiogenic agents for ovarian cancer.

    abstract::Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a major source of cancer morbidity and mortality, despite advances in surgical and chemotherapeutic management. The molecular pathways that control angiogenesis have been demonstrated to be key to the pathogenesis of EOC, and have been shown to have prognostic significance. Incr...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Collinson FJ,Hall GD,Perren TJ,Jayson GC

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic polymorphisms and endometrial cancer risk.

    abstract::For most sporadic cancers, genetic susceptibility results from the additive effect of multiple genetic variants, each of which contributes a modest risk individually. The study of genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may help explain the differences in individual cancer susceptibility and may assist in ident...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Meyer LA,Westin SN,Lu KH,Milam MR

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Optimal management of pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer.

    abstract::The incidence of colorectal cancers is rising worldwide and pulmonary metastases were seen in approximately 10-15% of all patients. Surgical metastasectomy is a widely accepted procedure in selected patients and is considered as the only curative option in patients with secondary pulmonary malignancy. But surgical res...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Limmer S,Unger L

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a contemporary review with a special focus on bladder-sparing treatments.

    abstract::Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCUB) is a rare and aggressive disease. To date, no standard treatment has been proposed due to the lack of prospective studies resulting from the rarity of this disease. Recently published studies of relatively large patient cohorts, however, have shed some light on the m...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Koga F,Yokoyama M,Fukushima H

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Stem cell transplantation in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    abstract::Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment for patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Treatment outcome is better among patients who demonstrate sensitivity to salvage chemotherapy. Approximately half of the patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation will be cured a...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Murphy F,Sirohi B,Cunningham D

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Colorectal cancer stem cells and their implications for novel anticancer therapy.

    abstract::Anticancer therapy relies on targeting highly proliferative cells. Commonly used chemotherapy does not selectively target individual cancer cells. The identification of distinct cancer stem cells that have the unique ability to engraft tumors and maintain cancer self-renewal may prove vital in the development of novel...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Klotz D

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Management of atypical lobular hyperplasia, atypical ductal hyperplasia, and lobular carcinoma in situ.

    abstract::Atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ are rare proliferative breast lesions, growing inside ducts and terminal ducto-lobular units. They represent a marker of increased risk for breast cancer and a non-obligate precursor of malignancy. Evidence available on diagnosis and management is scarce. They are fre...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Clauser P,Marino MA,Baltzer PA,Bazzocchi M,Zuiani C

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • CyberKnife robotic radiosurgery system for tumor treatment.

    abstract::Defined by its high level of accuracy and rapid radiation dose fall-off, radiosurgery has emerged as an effective radiation technique over the past few decades. Although it was once limited to conditions of the brain, head and neck regions, technological advances in computing and imaging have allowed the application o...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hara W,Soltys SG,Gibbs IC

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Screening for ovarian cancer.

    abstract::Ovarian cancer frequently presents late, when chances for long-term survival are poor. The increased survival advantage for patients diagnosed with early-stage ovarian cancer suggests that screening to detect early-stage disease might have an impact on disease mortality. Attempts are being made to develop effective sc...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lewis S,Menon U

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • The addition of gemtuzumab ozogamicin to chemotherapy in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    abstract::The treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia has remained largely unchanged for the last 30 years since the advent of combination chemotherapy with cytarabine arabinoside and daunorubicin with remission rates around 70% but with long term survival still only around 40% in young adults. Doses of chemotherapy have been push...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kell J

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Promising novel therapies for relapsed and refractory testicular germ cell tumors.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common solid malignancies in young men. The overall cure rate of GCT patients in metastatic stage is excellent, however; patients with relapsed or refractory disease have poor prognosis. Attempts to treat refractory disease with novel effective treatment to improve prog...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kozakova K,Mego M,Cheng L,Chovanec M

    更新日期:2020-11-02 00:00:00

  • Hyperthermia for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    abstract::Recurrent non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents a therapeutic challenge, especially in the case of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG)-failures. Chemohyperthermia (CHT) has been tested as adjuvant therapy in selected categories of patients with promising results. The aim of this systematic review is to expl...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Soria F,Allasia M,Oderda M,Gontero P

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Combining surgery and chemotherapy for invasive bladder cancer: current and future directions.

    abstract::More than 13,000 patients died from invasive bladder cancer in 2005 alone. Radical cystectomy is the most commonly prescribed treatment for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, or for those with a nonmuscle-invasive disease that is refractory to intravesical therapy. Despite advances in surgical technique and...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Amiel GE,Lerner SP

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Implication of miRNA in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.

    abstract::Breast cancer (BC) comprises a group of different diseases characterized by changes in tissue structure and gene expression. Recent advances in molecular biology have shed new light on the participation of genes and their products in the biology of BC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding endogenous RNA molecules th...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Castañeda CA,Agullo-Ortuño MT,Fresno Vara JA,Cortes-Funes H,Gomez HL,Ciruelos E

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in the treatment of low-stage nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testicle.

    abstract::Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testicle are highly treatable and curable. The evolution of cancer control for this disease has demonstrated an effective integration of medical and surgical approaches over the last 30 years. Current emphasis in the therapy of nonseminomatous germ cell tumors focuses on minimiz...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yoon GH,Stein JP,Skinner DG

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Improving the accuracy in prognosis for Burkitt lymphoma patients.

    abstract::A recent population-based study on 2000 adult patients with Burkitt lymphoma presented a novel score that takes into account age, race and clinical stage to prognosticate survival. The outcome of patients with Burkitt lymphoma has improved in the last decade, likely due to intensive chemotherapy regimens and anti-CD20...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Castillo JJ,Nadeem O

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatocellular cancer in HIV-infected individuals: tomorrow's problem?

    abstract::A number of cancers occur with increased frequency in individuals with HIV infection. There is a debate as to whether or not hepatocellular cancer is one of these tumors. This article reviews the current data regarding incidence etiology, treatment and outcome for HIV-related hepatocellular cancer. It also attempts to...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Powles T,Macdonald D,Nelson M,Stebbing J

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Bevacizumab in non-small-cell lung cancer: a review.

    abstract::Current targeted strategies for cancer focus on the blockade of growth factor receptors and the inhibition of angiogenesis. The VEGF pathway has become an attractive target in multiple malignancies, including lung cancer. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against VEGF, increased survival in non-small-cell lung cancer...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Planchard D

    更新日期:2011-08-01 00:00:00

  • Gene alterations and epigenetic changes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a highly malignant neoplasm. The incidence of ICC has been increasing world-wide over the past several decades. Areas covered: The pathogenesis of ICC is a complex process involving the alteration of specific genes and epigenetic changes. This review summarizes the ...

    journal_title:Expert review of anticancer therapy

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Huang SB,Zheng CX

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00