In vitro percutaneous permeation of the repellent DEET and the sunscreen oxybenzone across human skin.

Abstract:

PURPOSE:DEET and oxybenzone are two essential active ingredients in repellent and sunscreen products. The percutaneous permeation of the two compounds across human skin from five commercially available repellent and sunscreen products was investigated in vitro. METHODS:Diffusion studies were carried out at 37 degrees C, using Franz-style diffusion cells and human epidermis (380 microm in thickness). The test products were evaluated either individually or in various combinations for up to 6 hours. Concentrations of both compounds permeated through the skin were measured using an HPLC assay. Permeability and permeation percentage of DEET and oxybenzone from different application approaches were calculated and statistically compared. RESULTS:The accumulated transdermal permeation was 0.5-25.7% for DEET and 0.3-1.6% for oxybenzone, respectively. Repellent lotion produced an 18-fold increase in transdermal permeation in comparison to that of repellent spray, while using repellent spray prior to sunscreen lotion resulted in the highest penetration of DEET among the study groups. Premixing sunscreen lotion with repellent spray at different ratios also produced significantly higher permeation of oxybenzone across the skin than the control, but other application approaches did not differentiate from the single sunscreen lotion. CONCLUSION:It was concluded from this study that human skin was less permeable to DEET and oxybenzone than artificial membranes, but was comparable to pig skin in permeability. DEET permeated transdermally more across human skin than oxybenzone, and both compounds acted as permeation enhancers when used simultaneously. Premixing repellent and sunscreen enhanced the overall penetration of both DEET and oxybenzone. Using different application sequences and amounts resulted in variable percutaneous permeation of DEET and oxybenzone through the skin.

journal_name

J Pharm Pharm Sci

authors

Wang T,Gu X

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2007-01-01 00:00:00

pages

17-25

issue

1

issn

1482-1826

journal_volume

10

pub_type

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