Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients following chemotherapy for malignancy. Trials have shown the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in decreasing the incidence of bacterial infections, but not in reducing mortality rates. OBJECTIVES:This review aimed to evaluate whether antibiotic prophylaxis in afebrile neutropenic patients reduced mortality when compared to placebo or no intervention. SEARCH STRATEGY:Electronic searches on The Cochrane Cancer Network Register of Trials (2004), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2004), MEDLINE (1966 to 2004) and EMBASE (1980 to 2004) and abstracts of conference proceedings; references of identified studies; the first author of each included trial was contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA:RCTs or quasi-RCTs comparing different types of antibiotic prophylaxis with placebo or no intervention, or another antibiotic to prevent bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two authors independently appraised the quality of each trial and extracted data from the included trials. Relative risks (RR) or average differences, with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. MAIN RESULTS:One hundred trials (10,274 patients) performed between the years 1973 to 2004 met inclusion criteria. Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly decreased the risk for death when compared with placebo or no intervention (RR, 0.66 [95% CI 0.54 to 0.81]). The authors estimated the number needed to treat (NNT) in order to prevent 1 death from all causes as 60 (95% CI 34 to 268). Prophylaxis resulted in a significant decrease in the risk of infection-related death, RR 0.58 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.74) and in the occurrence of fever, RR 0.78 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.82). A reduction in mortality was also evident when the more recently conducted quinolone trials were analysed separately. Quinolone prophylaxis reduced the risk for all-cause mortality, RR 0.52 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.84). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Our review demonstrated that prophylaxis significantly reduced all-cause mortality. The most significant reduction in mortality was observed in trials assessing prophylaxis with quinolones. The benefit demonstrated in our review outweighs harm, such as adverse effects, and development of resistance, since all-cause mortality is reduced. Since most trials in our review were of patients with haematologic cancer, prophylaxis, preferably with a quinolone, should be considered for these patients.

authors

Gafter-Gvili A,Fraser A,Paul M,van de Wetering M,Kremer L,Leibovici L

doi

10.1002/14651858.CD004386.pub2

keywords:

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2005-10-19 00:00:00

pages

CD004386

issue

4

issn

1469-493X

pub_type

杂志文章,meta分析,评审
  • Virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as new treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation. In particular, commercial gaming consoles are being rapidly adopted in clinical settings; however, there is currently little information about their effectiveness. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effec...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008349.pub2

    authors: Laver KE,George S,Thomas S,Deutsch JE,Crotty M

    更新日期:2011-09-07 00:00:00

  • Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. However, the evidence for their use for this symp...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007354.pub2

    authors: Simon ST,Higginson IJ,Booth S,Harding R,Bausewein C

    更新日期:2010-01-20 00:00:00

  • Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although medication is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, always, some sort of informal or formal talking therapy is indicated. In cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) links are made between the person's feelings and patterns of thinking which underpin their distress. OBJECTIVES:To review the effec...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000524

    authors: Jones C,Cormac I,Mota J,Campbell C

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Steroid avoidance or withdrawal for kidney transplant recipients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Steroid-sparing strategies have been attempted in recent decades to avoid morbidity from long-term steroid intake among kidney transplant recipients. Previous systematic reviews of steroid withdrawal after kidney transplantation have shown a significant increase in acute rejection. There are various protocol...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005632.pub3

    authors: Haller MC,Royuela A,Nagler EV,Pascual J,Webster AC

    更新日期:2016-08-22 00:00:00

  • Garlic for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The suggestion that garlic may lower blood pressure, inhibit platelet aggregation, and reduce oxidative stress has led to the hypothesis that it may have a role in preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of garlic on prevention of pre-eclampsia and its complications....

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006065

    authors: Meher S,Duley L

    更新日期:2006-07-19 00:00:00

  • Topical antifungal treatments for tinea cruris and tinea corporis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Tinea infections are fungal infections of the skin caused by dermatophytes. It is estimated that 10% to 20% of the world population is affected by fungal skin infections. Sites of infection vary according to geographical location, the organism involved, and environmental and cultural differences. Both tinea ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009992.pub2

    authors: El-Gohary M,van Zuuren EJ,Fedorowicz Z,Burgess H,Doney L,Stuart B,Moore M,Little P

    更新日期:2014-08-04 00:00:00

  • Hyperbaric oxygen as an adjuvant treatment for malignant otitis externa.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Malignant, or necrotising, otitis externa is a potentially fatal infection of the external ear canal and surrounding soft tissue and bone. It may be complicated by involvement of cranial nerves, principally the facial nerves and the contents of the jugular foramen. It is an uncommon condition mainly found in...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004617.pub3

    authors: Phillips JS,Jones SE

    更新日期:2013-05-31 00:00:00

  • Methods of communicating a primary diagnosis of breast cancer to patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The method of delivering a diagnosis of breast cancer to women has the potential to impact on their level of interpretation, patient recall and satisfaction. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effectiveness of different methods when used to communicate a primary diagnosis of breast cancer to women. SEARCH STRATEGY:W...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006011.pub2

    authors: Lockhart K,Dosser I,Cruickshank S,Kennedy C

    更新日期:2007-07-18 00:00:00

  • Interventions for chronic suppurative otitis media.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a serious bacterial infection of the middle ear that can follow untreated acute otitis media. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of different treatments for CSOM. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched Medline from 1966 to 1996 and a bibliographic collection of the Hearing Imp...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000473

    authors: Acuin J,Smith A,Mackenzie I

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Heated, humidified air for the common cold.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Heated, humidified air has long been used by sufferers of the common cold. The theoretical basis is that steam may help congested mucus drain better and heat may destroy the cold virus as it does in vitro. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of inhaling heated water vapour (steam) in the treatment of the commo...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001728.pub4

    authors: Singh M,Singh M

    更新日期:2011-05-11 00:00:00

  • Mobility management to prevent, reduce, or delay driving a car in teenagers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Rates of injury and death caused by car crashes with teenage drivers remain high in most high-income countries. In addition to injury and death, car use includes other non-traffic risks; these may be health-related, such as physical inactivity or respiratory disease caused by air pollution, or have global si...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009438.pub2

    authors: Ward A,Lewis SR,Weiss H

    更新日期:2020-08-16 00:00:00

  • Antiviral prophylactic intervention for chronic hepatitis C virus in patients undergoing liver transplantation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:It is not clear whether prophylactic antiviral therapy is indicated in patients undergoing liver transplantation for chronic decompensated hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. OBJECTIVES:To compare the benefits and harms of different prophylactic anti-viral therapies for patients undergoing liver transplantat...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006573.pub2

    authors: Gurusamy KS,Tsochatzis E,Davidson BR,Burroughs AK

    更新日期:2010-12-08 00:00:00

  • Pars plana vitrectomy versus scleral buckling for repairing simple rhegmatogenous retinal detachments.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a separation of neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. It is caused by retinal tears, which let fluid pass from the vitreous cavity to the subretinal space. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), scleral buckling surgery and pneumatic retinopexy a...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009562.pub2

    authors: Znaor L,Medic A,Binder S,Vucinovic A,Marin Lovric J,Puljak L

    更新日期:2019-03-08 00:00:00

  • Urate oxidase for the prevention and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome in children with cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a serious complication of malignancies and can result in renal failure or death. Preliminary reports suggest that urate oxidase is highly effective in reducing serum uric acid. It is uncertain whether high quality evidence exists to support its routine use in children with malig...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006945.pub2

    authors: Cheuk DK,Chiang AK,Chan GC,Ha SY

    更新日期:2010-06-16 00:00:00

  • Respite care for people with dementia and their carers.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Caring for someone with dementia can be emotionally and physically demanding. Respite care is any intervention designed to give rest or relief to caregivers. It is not clear what positive and negative effects the provision of respite care may have on people with dementia and their caregivers. OBJECTIVES:To ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004396.pub2

    authors: Lee H,Cameron M

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Strategies for improving the acceptability and acceptance of the copper intrauterine device.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are highly effective and are the most widely used reversible contraceptive method in the world. However, in developed countries IUDs are among the least common methods of contraception used. We evaluated the effect of interventions to increase uptake of the copper IUD, a long-acti...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008896.pub2

    authors: Arrowsmith ME,Aicken CR,Saxena S,Majeed A

    更新日期:2012-03-14 00:00:00

  • Chinese herbs combined with Western medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, which first appeared in Foshan City, China on 22 December 2002. Chinese herbs were used in its treatment. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the possible effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbs combined with Wester...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004882.pub3

    authors: Liu X,Zhang M,He L,Li Y

    更新日期:2012-10-17 00:00:00

  • Botulinum toxin injections for the treatment of spasmodic dysphonia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of spasmodic dysphonia is currently the treatment of choice for management of this neurological voice disorder. Over the past 20 years, botulinum toxin has been used to treat both adductor and abductor forms of the disorder, with vocal improvement noted after trea...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004327.pub2

    authors: Watts CC,Whurr R,Nye C

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Risk scoring for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The current paradigm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasises absolute risk assessment to guide treatment decisions in primary prevention. Although the derivation and validation of multivariable risk assessment tools, or CVD risk scores, have attracted considerable attention, their effect on clinical outc...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006887.pub4

    authors: Karmali KN,Persell SD,Perel P,Lloyd-Jones DM,Berendsen MA,Huffman MD

    更新日期:2017-03-14 00:00:00

  • Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sickness.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Motion sickness - the discomfort experienced when perceived motion disturbs the organs of balance - may include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pallor, cold sweats, hypersalivation, hyperventilation and headaches. The control and prevention of these symptoms have included pharmacological, behavioural and ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002851.pub3

    authors: Spinks AB,Wasiak J,Villanueva EV,Bernath V

    更新日期:2007-07-18 00:00:00

  • Household interventions for preventing domestic lead exposure in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Lead poisoning is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children, and trials have tested many household interventions to prevent lead exposure. This is an update of the original review, first published in 2008. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of household interventions for ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006047.pub5

    authors: Nussbaumer-Streit B,Yeoh B,Griebler U,Pfadenhauer LM,Busert LK,Lhachimi SK,Lohner S,Gartlehner G

    更新日期:2016-10-16 00:00:00

  • Reminiscence therapy for dementia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Reminiscence Therapy (RT) has been defined as vocal or silent recall of events in a person's life, either alone, or with another person or group of people. It typically involves group meetings, at least once a week, in which participants are encouraged to talk about past events, often assisted by aids such a...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001120

    authors: Spector A,Orrell M,Davies S,Woods RT

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antiviral agents for treatment of herpes simplex virus infection in neonates.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a rare but serious neonatal pathogen. Prior to the availability of antiviral drugs the mortality associated with all but localised neonatal infection was high, with 85% of infants with disseminated HSV infection and 50% of infants with encephalitis dying by one year of age. The ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004206.pub2

    authors: Jones CA,Walker KS,Badawi N

    更新日期:2009-07-08 00:00:00

  • Non-nutritive sucking for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in preterm and low birth weight infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is commonly diagnosed in the neonatal population (DiPietro 1994), and generally causes few or no symptoms (Vandenplas 2009). Conversely, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) refers to GOR that causes troublesome symptoms with or without complications such as damage to the ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009817.pub2

    authors: Psaila K,Foster JP,Richards R,Jeffery HE

    更新日期:2014-10-15 00:00:00

  • Midwife-led continuity models versus other models of care for childbearing women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Midwives are primary providers of care for childbearing women around the world. However, there is a lack of synthesised information to establish whether there are differences in morbidity and mortality, effectiveness and psychosocial outcomes between midwife-led continuity models and other models of care. O...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004667.pub4

    authors: Sandall J,Soltani H,Gates S,Shennan A,Devane D

    更新日期:2015-09-15 00:00:00

  • Deworming drugs for treating soil-transmitted intestinal worms in children: effects on growth and school performance.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In areas where intestinal worm infections occur, the World Health Organization recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs to improve growth and school performance. The evidence base for this policy needs to be established for countries to commit resources to implement t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000371.pub3

    authors: Taylor-Robinson DC,Jones AP,Garner P

    更新日期:2007-10-17 00:00:00

  • Cognitive behavioural therapy plus standard care versus standard care plus other psychosocial treatments for people with schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a psychosocial treatment that aims to help individuals re-evaluate their appraisals of their experiences that can affect their level of distress and problematic behaviour. CBT is now recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) as an add-o...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008712.pub3

    authors: Jones C,Hacker D,Meaden A,Cormac I,Irving CB,Xia J,Zhao S,Shi C,Chen J

    更新日期:2018-11-15 00:00:00

  • Bile acids for primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Bile acids have been used for treating primary sclerosing cholangitis, but their beneficial and harmful effects remain unclear. OBJECTIVES:To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of bile acids for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Gro...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003626

    authors: Chen W,Gluud C

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Early versus delayed antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive people with cryptococcal meningitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There remains uncertainty about the optimum timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV-positive people with cryptococcal meningitis. This uncertainty is the result of conflicting data on the mortality risk and occurrence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) when ART is initiate...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009012.pub3

    authors: Eshun-Wilson I,Okwen MP,Richardson M,Bicanic T

    更新日期:2018-07-24 00:00:00

  • Reminder packaging for improving adherence to self-administered long-term medications.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Current methods of improving medication adherence for health problems are mostly complex, labour-intensive, and not reliably effective. Medication 'reminder packaging' which incorporates a date or time for a medication to be taken in the packaging, can act as a reminder system to improve adherence. OBJECTIV...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005025.pub2

    authors: Heneghan CJ,Glasziou P,Perera R

    更新日期:2006-01-25 00:00:00