Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for schizophrenia.


BACKGROUND:Limited evidence supports a hypothesis suggesting that schizophrenic symptoms may be the result of altered neuronal membrane structure and metabolism. This structure and metabolism is dependent on blood plasma levels of certain essential fatty acids and their metabolites. OBJECTIVES:To review the effects polyunsaturated fatty acids for people with schizophrenia. SEARCH STRATEGY:The initial search of 1998 was updated. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (July 2002), and authors of included studies and relevant pharmaceutical companies were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA:All randomised clinical trials of polyunsaturated fatty acid treatment for schizophrenia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Reviewers, working independently, selected, quality assessed, and extracted relevant data. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Where possible and appropriate Relative Risk (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and the number needed to treat (NNT) estimated. For continuous data, weighted mean differences (WMD) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Data were inspected for heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS:Five short small studies (n=313) were included. One small study (n=30) suggested that an omega-3 EFA (ecisapentenoic acid (EPA) enriched oil) may have some antipsychotic properties when compared with placebo, even if not given as a supplement to standard drugs (RR not needing antipsychotic drugs 0.73 CI 0.54 to 1.00; RR less than 25% improvement in PANSS 0.54 CI 0.3 to 0.96, NNT 3 CI 2 to 29). Other studies comparing omega-3 EFA's with placebo as a supplement to antipsychotics were too small to be conclusive. There was a suggestion that people already on antipsychotics when given omega-3 EFA supplementation had greater improvement of mental state compared to those receiving a placebo supplementation but the result were not significant (n=29, 1 RCT, RR <25% improvement in PANSS 0.62 CI 0.37 to 1.05). However, the mental state of both medicated and un-medicated patients was significantly better for those receiving omega-3 EFA supplementation (n=59, 2 RCTs, RR <25% improved on PANSS 0.58 CI 0.39 to 0.85, NNT 3 CI 2-8). Medium term data, however, did not favour either group (n=87, 1 RCT, MD PANSS endpoint -1.0 CI -8.15 to 6.15). All studies had low attrition (<10% total, n=271, 4 RCTs, RR leaving the study early 0.91 CI 0.36 to 2.33). Another study (n=31) comparing two types of omega-3 EFA's, ecisapentenoic acid enriched oil and docosahexanoic acid oil, also found no differences between these two EFA's in measures of mental state. One small (n=16) study investigated the effects of an omega-6 EFA compared with placebo for tardive dyskinesia and found no clear effects. There is not a clear dose response to omega-3 supplementation. Adverse effects seem rare but diarrhoea may be a problem in the medium term. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS:The use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for schizophrenia remains experimental and large well designed, conducted and reported studies are indicated and needed.


Joy CB,Mumby-Croft R,Joy LA





Has Abstract


2003-01-01 00:00:00








  • High-dose chemotherapy and autologous haematopoietic stem cell rescue for children with high-risk neuroblastoma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite the development of new treatment options, the prognosis of high-risk neuroblastoma patients is still poor; more than half of patients experience disease recurrence. High-dose chemotherapy and haematopoietic stem cell rescue (i.e. myeloablative therapy) might improve survival. OBJECTIVES:To compare t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Yalçin B,Kremer LC,Caron HN,van Dalen EC

    更新日期:2010-05-12 00:00:00

  • Zinc supplementation for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The chronic hyperglycaemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases with age, obesity, and lack of physical activity. Insulin resistance is a fu...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Beletate V,El Dib RP,Atallah AN

    更新日期:2007-01-24 00:00:00

  • Acupuncture for insomnia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although conventional non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments for insomnia are effective in many people, alternative therapies such as acupuncture are still widely practiced. However, it remains unclear whether the existing evidence is rigorous enough to support its use. OBJECTIVES:To determine t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Cheuk DK,Yeung WF,Chung KF,Wong V

    更新日期:2007-07-18 00:00:00

  • Pulmonary artery flow catheters for directing management in pre-eclampsia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia can cause fluid shifts. Pulmonary oedema and renal failure can result from these shifts. Fluid management is crucial in managing pre-eclampsia, especially in the context of pulmonary oedema and renal failure. Pulmonary artery catheterisation may be a method of effec...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Li YH,Novikova N

    更新日期:2012-06-13 00:00:00

  • Perioperative nutrition for the treatment of bladder cancer by radical cystectomy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Radical cystectomy (RC) is the primary surgical treatment for muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. This major operation is typically associated with an extended hospital stay, a prolonged recovery period and potentially major complications. Nutritional interventions are beneficial in some peo...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burden S,Billson HA,Lal S,Owen KA,Muneer A

    更新日期:2019-05-20 00:00:00

  • Vaccines for preventing invasive salmonella infections in people with sickle cell disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Salmonella infections are a common bacterial cause of invasive disease in people with sickle cell disease especially children, and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Although available in some centres, people with sickle cell anaemia are not routinely immunized with salmonella vaccines. ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Odey F,Okomo U,Oyo-Ita A

    更新日期:2015-06-05 00:00:00

  • Antenatal lower genital tract infection screening and treatment programs for preventing preterm delivery.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Preterm birth is birth before 37 weeks' gestation. Genital tract infection is one of the causes of preterm birth. Infection screening during pregnancy has been used to reduce preterm birth. However, infection screening may have some adverse effects, e.g. increased antibiotic drug resistance, increased costs ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Swadpanich U,Lumbiganon P,Prasertcharoensook W,Laopaiboon M

    更新日期:2008-04-16 00:00:00

  • Fewer-than-four ports versus four ports for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Traditionally, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed using two 10-mm ports and two 5-mm ports. Recently, a reduction in the number of ports has been suggested as a modification of the standard technique with a view to decreasing pain and improving cosmesis. The safety and effectiveness of using fewer-tha...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gurusamy KS,Vaughan J,Rossi M,Davidson BR

    更新日期:2014-02-20 00:00:00

  • Prophylactic versus therapeutic amnioinfusion for oligohydramnios in labour.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Amnioinfusion aims to relieve umbilical cord compression during labour by infusing a liquid into the uterine cavity. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the effects of prophylactic amnioinfusion for oligohydramnios compared with therapeutic amnioinfusion only if fetal heart rate decelerati...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hofmeyr GJ

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of seizures in multiple sclerosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Epileptic seizures occur in only a minority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but can have serious consequences. The available literature suggests an association of seizures in MS with cortical and subcortical demyelinating lesions, which suggest that seizures in MS are probably most often symptomati...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Koch MW,Polman SK,Uyttenboogaart M,De Keyser J

    更新日期:2009-07-08 00:00:00

  • Enamel etching for bonding fixed orthodontic braces.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Acid etching of tooth surfaces to promote the bonding of orthodontic attachments to the enamel has been a routine procedure in orthodontic treatment since the 1960s. Various types of orthodontic etchants and etching techniques have been introduced in the past five decades. Although a large amount of informat...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Hu H,Li C,Li F,Chen J,Sun J,Zou S,Sandham A,Xu Q,Riley P,Ye Q

    更新日期:2013-11-25 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological interventions for somatoform disorders in adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Somatoform disorders are characterised by chronic, medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS). Although different medications are part of treatment routines for people with somatoform disorders in clinics and private practices, there exists no systematic review or meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolera...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Kleinstäuber M,Witthöft M,Steffanowski A,van Marwijk H,Hiller W,Lambert MJ

    更新日期:2014-11-07 00:00:00

  • Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:It has been suggested that peptides from gluten and casein may have a role in the origins of autism and that the physiology and psychology of autism might be explained by excessive opioid activity linked to these peptides. Research has reported abnormal levels of peptides in the urine and cerebrospinal fluid...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Millward C,Ferriter M,Calver S,Connell-Jones G

    更新日期:2008-04-16 00:00:00

  • Medical and surgical treatment for ocular myasthenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Approximately 50% of people with myasthenia gravis present with purely ocular symptoms, so called ocular myasthenia. Of these between 50% to 60% develop generalized disease, most within two years. Their management is controversial. This is an update of a review first published in 2006 and previously updated ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Benatar M,Kaminski H

    更新日期:2012-12-12 00:00:00

  • Band ligation versus beta-blockers for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Portal hypertension commonly accompanies advanced liver disease and often gives rise to life-threatening complications, including haemorrhage from oesophageal and gastrointestinal varices. Variceal haemorrhage commonly occurs in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein obstruction. Prevention is th...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gana JC,Cifuentes LI,Gattini D,Villarroel Del Pino LA,Peña A,Torres-Robles R

    更新日期:2019-09-24 00:00:00

  • Early enteral nutrition (within 48 hours) versus delayed enteral nutrition (after 48 hours) with or without supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Early enteral nutrition support (within 48 hours of admission or injury) is frequently recommended for the management of patients in intensive care units (ICU). Early enteral nutrition is recommended in many clinical practice guidelines, although there appears to be a lack of evidence for its use and benefit...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Fuentes Padilla P,Martínez G,Vernooij RW,Urrútia G,Roqué I Figuls M,Bonfill Cosp X

    更新日期:2019-10-31 00:00:00

  • Interventions to increase the reporting of occupational diseases by physicians.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Under-reporting of occupational diseases is an important issue worldwide. The collection of reliable data is essential for public health officials to plan intervention programmes to prevent occupational diseases. Little is known about the effects of interventions for increasing the reporting of occupational ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Curti S,Sauni R,Spreeuwers D,De Schryver A,Valenty M,Rivière S,Mattioli S

    更新日期:2015-03-25 00:00:00

  • Blood transfusions for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Sickle cell disease is an inherited autosomal recessive blood condition and is one of the most prevalent genetic blood diseases worldwide. Acute chest syndrome is a frequent complication of sickle cell disease, as well as a major cause of morbidity and the greatest single cause of mortality in children with ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dastgiri S,Dolatkhah R

    更新日期:2016-08-30 00:00:00

  • Antiemetics for reducing vomiting related to acute gastroenteritis in children and adolescents.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Vomiting caused by acute gastroenteritis is very common in children and adolescents. Treatment of vomiting in children can be problematic and the use of antiemetics remains a controversial issue. There have been concerns expressed about apparently unacceptable levels of side effects such as sedation and extr...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Alhashimi D,Alhashimi H,Fedorowicz Z

    更新日期:2006-07-19 00:00:00

  • Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with asthma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Influenza vaccination is recommended for asthmatic patients in many countries as observational studies have shown that influenza infection can be associated with asthma exacerbations, but influenza vaccination itself has the potential to adversely affect pulmonary function. A recent overview concluded that t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cates CJ,Jefferson TO,Bara AI,Rowe BH

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Early treatment versus expectant management of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus for preterm infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to prevent or treat a PDA. There are concerns regarding adverse effects of NSAIDs in preterm infants. Controversy exists on whether early targeted t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Mitra S,Scrivens A,von Kursell AM,Disher T

    更新日期:2020-12-10 00:00:00

  • Position for women during second stage of labour.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:For centuries, there has been controversy around whether being upright (sitting, birthing stools, chairs, squatting) or lying down have advantages for women delivering their babies. OBJECTIVES:To assess the benefits and risks of the use of different positions during the second stage of labour (i.e. from ful...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gupta JK,Hofmeyr GJ

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic disease management programmes for adults with asthma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The burden of asthma on patients and healthcare systems is substantial. Interventions have been developed to overcome difficulties in asthma management. These include chronic disease management programmes, which are more than simple patient education, encompassing a set of coherent interventions that centre ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Peytremann-Bridevaux I,Arditi C,Gex G,Bridevaux PO,Burnand B

    更新日期:2015-05-27 00:00:00

  • Addition of anti-leukotriene agents to inhaled corticosteroids for adults and adolescents with persistent asthma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Asthma management guidelines recommend low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) as first-line therapy for adults and adolescents with persistent asthma. The addition of anti-leukotriene agents to ICS offers a therapeutic option in cases of suboptimal control with daily ICS. OBJECTIVES:To assess the efficacy a...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Chauhan BF,Jeyaraman MM,Singh Mann A,Lys J,Abou-Setta AM,Zarychanski R,Ducharme FM

    更新日期:2017-03-16 00:00:00

  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased the need for evidence-based treatments to lessen the impact of symptoms. Presently, no therapies are available to effectively treat individuals with all of the symptoms of this disorder. It has been suggested that hyperbaric oxygen therapy...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Xiong T,Chen H,Luo R,Mu D

    更新日期:2016-10-13 00:00:00

  • Methods of preventing bacterial sepsis and wound complications after liver transplantation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Bacterial sepsis and wound complications after liver transplantation increase mortality, morbidity, or hospital stay and are likely to increase overall transplant costs. All liver transplantation patients receive antibiotic prophylaxis. This is an update of our 2008 Cochrane systematic review on the same top...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Gurusamy KS,Nagendran M,Davidson BR

    更新日期:2014-03-05 00:00:00

  • Interferon beta for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Therapy with either recombinant beta-1a or beta-1b interferons (IFNs) is worldwide approved for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). A major unanswered question is whether this treatment is able to safely reverse or retard the progressive phase of the disease. OBJECTIVES:The main objective was to ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: La Mantia L,Vacchi L,Di Pietrantonj C,Ebers G,Rovaris M,Fredrikson S,Filippini G

    更新日期:2012-01-18 00:00:00

  • Vaccines for preventing rotavirus diarrhoea: vaccines in use.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Rotavirus results in more diarrhoea-related deaths in children less than five years of age than any other single agent in countries with high childhood mortality. It is also a common cause of diarrhoea-related hospital admissions in countries with low childhood mortality. Currently licensed rotavirus vaccine...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Soares-Weiser K,Maclehose H,Bergman H,Ben-Aharon I,Nagpal S,Goldberg E,Pitan F,Cunliffe N

    更新日期:2012-11-14 00:00:00

  • Trifluoperazine versus low-potency first-generation antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Antipsychotic drugs are the core treatment for schizophrenia. Treatment guidelines state that there is no difference in efficacy between any other antipsychotic compounds, however, low-potency antipsychotic drugs are often perceived as less efficacious than high-potency compounds by clinicians, and they also...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Tardy M,Dold M,Engel RR,Leucht S

    更新日期:2014-07-08 00:00:00

  • Techniques for the interruption of tubal patency for female sterilisation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This is an update of a review that was first published in 2002. Female sterilisation is the most popular contraceptive method worldwide. Several techniques exist for interrupting the patency of fallopian tubes, including cutting and tying the tubes, damaging the tube using electric current, applying clips or...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Lawrie TA,Kulier R,Nardin JM

    更新日期:2015-09-07 00:00:00