Glucocorticoid resistant syndromes--molecular basis and clinical presentations.

Abstract:

:The mechanisms of action of glucocorticoid hormones are mediated via specific intracellular receptor proteins. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates expression of specific target genes or gene networks by ligand-dependent transcriptional activation, i.e. ligand-dependent activation of the receptor with subsequent dimer formation and DNA binding. There are a number of factors, such as the receptor concentration, receptor associated proteins, receptor alterations and the effects on the gene network including hormonal regulation of transcription, mRNA splicing and translation, that might influence glucocorticoid responsiveness in a normal and healthy population as well as in different diseases. Several categories of glucocorticoid resistance have been described including inherited GR resistance which has been explained in terms of specific mutations and offers an important model for genetic and clinical studies of steroid sensitivity, and relative glucocorticoid resistance, which occurs naturally in the course of cellular differentiation, cell to cell or tissue to tissue, since all cells possess receptors for glucocorticoids but do not show the same response to them. From a clinical point of view, it is also interesting to consider preexisting genetic susceptibility to glucocorticoids, acquired changes in the GR gene structure and organization, including alterations of noncoding sequences, and the importance of mutations, deletions and other changes in the GR gene affecting receptor function. Analysis of mutations within the receptor resulting in relative glucocorticoid resistance, both generalized inherited glucocorticoid resistance (GIGR) and directed mutagenesis, has identified two regions of clustered mutations in the proximity of previously identified affinity labeled residues directly affecting the steroid binding function. Finally, studies of New Words primates and cell lines derived from hematologic malignancies constitute animal and human models for the molecular basis of glucocorticoid resistance where a number of inherited and acquired mutations in the GR gene have been demonstrated.

journal_name

J Neuroendocrinol

authors

Brönnegård M,Stierna P,Marcus C

doi

10.1046/j.1365-2826.1996.04781.x

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1996-06-01 00:00:00

pages

405-15

issue

6

eissn

0953-8194

issn

1365-2826

journal_volume

8

pub_type

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