Prologue: ventricular assist devices and total artificial hearts. A historical perspective.


:In the 1960s, when LVADs and TAHs were introduced into clinical use, researchers estimated that, with this technology, the problem of heart failure could be solved within 20 years. Unfortunately, the evolution of these devices has taken much longer than anticipated. Nevertheless, significant advances have been achieved in both cardiac assistance and replacement, and today's cardiac surgeons have a wide range of devices from which to choose (Table 4). This progress has largely been due to the support of the NHLBI, especially the Devices and Technology Division headed by John Watson, and of the devoted commitment of the investigators. Because of the long-term commitment required for both basic and clinical research, commercial medical technology companies are unable to assume this burden. Advances in mechanical circulatory support and replacement have benefited numerous patients worldwide who would otherwise have died of heart failure, and devices now exist for use as bridges to recovery, bridges to transplant, and destination therapy. The current challenge is to refine what we have and to apply these technologies to broader patient populations with maximal safety and at a reasonable cost.


Cardiol Clin


Cardiology clinics


Frazier OH




Has Abstract


2003-02-01 00:00:00














  • Imaging of myocardial microvasculature using fast computed tomography and three-dimensional microscopic computed tomography.

    abstract::In the past, much attention in imaging research was focused on the macroscopic morphology and patency of arteries. Only recently, research and clinical interest have shifted to the microcirculation and its impact on the long-term prognosis in patients with vascular diseases. This focus and newly developed therapeutic ...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kantor B,Möhlenkamp S

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation and management of the patient who has cocaine-associated chest pain.

    abstract::Patients who have chest pain following the use of cocaine have become more common in emergency departments throughout the United States,with approximately 6% of these patients sustaining an acute MI. The authors have described the rationale for recommending aspirin, benzodiaze-pines, and nitroglycerin as first-line tr...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hollander JE,Henry TD

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Platelet function, coagulopathy, and impaired fibrinolysis in diabetes.

    abstract::Diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, that underlies it are hyper-coagulable states. Increased platelet reactivity,augmented activity of the coagulation system,and impaired fibrinolysis are characteristic and understood to a remarkable extent. In aggregate,these derangements contribute to ...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sobel BE,Schneider DJ

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Initial Clinical Evaluation.

    abstract::The initial evaluation of patients with transient loss of consciousness (LOC) comprises a detailed medical history, physical examination, and 12-lead electrocardiogram. Because there are many causes of syncopal and nonsyncopal LOC, an adequate method of taking the clinical history, which is the cornerstone of diagnosi...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Alboni P,Coppola P,Stucci N

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • Contemporary Approaches to Patients with Heart Failure.

    abstract::Incident heart failure and the burden of hospitalization may be demonstrating a decline. However, as the population ages, the prevalence of heart failure continues to increase. Mortality among heart failure patients is increasingly due to non-cardiovascular causes. Current evidence-based therapy for heart failure has ...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mitter SS,Yancy CW

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Procedures and Outcomes of Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Adults.

    abstract::The ideal aortic valve substitute remains elusive. Bioprosthetic valves are the replacement option of choice in elderly patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). When implanted in young and middle-aged adults, both bioprosthetic and mechanical valves are associated with excess mortality compared with the age...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mazine A,El-Hamamsy I

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Ebstein Anomaly in the Adult Patient.

    abstract::Ebstein anomaly is a congenital malformation involving primarily the tricuspid valve, with failure of delamination from the underlying myocardium and right ventricular myopathy. Echocardiography is diagnostic in most patients and demonstrates apical displacement of the septal leaflet and variable tethering of leaflet ...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fuchs MM,Connolly HM

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical presentation of infective endocarditis.

    abstract::Despite the decline in rheumatic heart disease worldwide and the use of antibiotic prophylaxis, there is no evidence that the incidence of infective endocarditis is decreasing. In fact, some data suggest it may be increasing. The classical fever of unknown origin presentation represents a minority of infective endocar...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Crawford MH,Durack DT

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • Noninvasive strategies to image cardiovascular apoptosis.

    abstract::Apoptosis consists of a complex set of biochemical events initiated by an array of different stimuli and enzymatic pathways. There is a set of common morphologic and biochemical features of apoptosis that could be exploited as hot or cold targets to image cardiovascular apoptosis. First, the authors review the potenti...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Blankenberg FG,Strauss HW

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • The pathology of acute myocardial infarction: definition, location, pathogenesis, effects of reperfusion, complications, and sequelae.

    abstract::This article reviews the definition, locations, and pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction and provides a review of the pathology of acute reperfusion therapy. Various complications and sequelae of acute myocardial infarction are also surveyed. ...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Waller BF

    更新日期:1988-02-01 00:00:00

  • Global Shifts in Cardiovascular Disease, the Epidemiologic Transition, and Other Contributing Factors: Toward a New Practice of Global Health Cardiology.

    abstract::One of the major drivers of change in the practice of cardiology is population change. This article discusses the current debate about epidemiologic transition paired with other ongoing transitions with direct relevance to cardiovascular conditions. Challenges specific to patterns of risk factors over time; readiness ...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mendoza W,Miranda JJ

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Exercise testing in special situations.

    abstract::This article discusses exercise testing in valvular heart disease, hypertension, and the evaluation of patients for surgery. It also provides information on the effects of drugs on the exercise test and the clinical significance of block patterns and arrhythmias encountered during exercise. ...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ellestad MH

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • The role of pacemakers in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation.

    abstract::This article reviews the wide range of implantable device-based therapies (mainly pacemakers) that are being used in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter, and atrial tachycardia. The role of pacemakers in the management of patients with AF and in the prevention of AF has been extensively studied....

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kalahasty G,Ellenbogen K

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Programming of sensor driven pacemakers.

    abstract::The chronotropic response is the most important means by which cardiac output is increased and oxygen delivery is maintained in response to increased oxygen consumption during exercise or stress. When the chronotropic response is suboptimal or absent, exercise intolerance results. This condition, called chronotropic i...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Strobel JS,Kay GN

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of Complex Thoracoabdominal Aortic Disease.

    abstract::Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms are increasing in incidence. Rupture is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The historic gold standard of open repair can be performed with low rates of complications at centers of excellence. However, these results are not universally achievable, with significantl...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kuo EC,Han SM

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiac catheterization techniques in pulmonary hypertension.

    abstract::Once considered dangerous and potentially life threatening, cardiac catheterization of the patient with pulmonary hypertension can be performed safely and provides essential information in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary hypertension. This article summarizes the modern techniques used for right-heart cathete...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Guillinta P,Peterson KL,Ben-Yehuda O

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Total artificial heart: destination therapy.

    abstract::The AbioCor is a revolutionary device. It is the only device of its kind in the clinical world. The role of the AbioCor is to provide permanent replacement of the failing heart for patients who are not transplant candidates. The clinical trial has been successful in the majority (four of seven) of patients implanted t...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Samuels LE,Dowling R

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of cardiac valves using multidetector CT.

    abstract::Cardiac CT is an accurate and reasonable alternative modality for valvular imaging. It is used primarily for the evaluation of coronary artery disease; however, important information regarding valvular anatomy and function can be derived from CT. Calcification is a common CT finding in various valvular abnormalities a...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gaztanaga J,Pizarro G,Sanz J

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pathogenesis and clinical physiology of hypertension.

    abstract::Significant advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis and clinical physiology of primary hypertension. This article presents an overview of the physiology of normal blood pressure control and the pathophysiologic mechanisms that predispose individuals and populations to primary hypertension. The role o...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Singh M,Mensah GA,Bakris G

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Current perceptions of the epidemiology of atrial fibrillation.

    abstract::Atrial fibrillation (AF), an escalating dysrhythmia, is accountable for extensive population morbidity and mortality. In the United States, approximately 2.3 million people are presently diagnosed with AF and it is estimated that this prevalence may increase to 5.6 million by 2050. Foremost predisposing risk factors f...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kannel WB,Benjamin EJ

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Bioresorbable Coronary Scaffold Technologies: What's New?

    abstract::To overcome the not negligible metallic drug-eluting stents adverse events rate, the polymeric or metallic bioresorbable scaffolds were designed to provide early drug delivery and mechanical support followed by complete resorption. However, the long-term evidence, focusing on the leading Absorb BVS technology, showed ...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Masiero G,Rodinò G,Matsuda J,Tarantini G

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of Chest Pain and Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    abstract::Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department, and it is the job of clinicians to rule out life-threatening diagnoses such as acute coronary syndrome. The history, physical examination, cardiac risk factors, electrocardiogram findings, and clinician judgment are often not enough to distinguish between c...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chang AM,Fischman DL,Hollander JE

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Morphologic observations in coronary arteries, aortocoronary saphenous vein bypass grafts, and infant aortae following balloon angioplasty procedures.

    abstract::Morphologic observations following transluminal balloon angioplasty are summarized from eight adult patients undergoing coronary or saphenous vein bypass graft angioplasty and from an infant with aortic valve stenosis angioplasty. Possible mechanisms of dilation injury and complications of balloon bursting are discuss...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Waller BF,Gorfinkel HJ,Dillon JC,Girod DA,Rothbaum DA

    更新日期:1984-11-01 00:00:00

  • Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke: Making Sense of Recent Observations on Anticoagulation.

    abstract::Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most prevalent heart rhythm disorder. AF accounts for a great proportion of deaths because it independently increases all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality risks. Ischemic stroke is the most common cardiovascular adverse event in AF patients. Oral anticoagulation (OAC) therap...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Proietti M,Lip GY

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of diastolic dysfunction. Invasive modalities.

    abstract::In this article, the author sought to review the two primary components of diastolic function that are most directly and accurately determined using invasive methodologies. For chamber relaxation this is optimally achieved using a micromanometer catheter, whereas for chamber compliance (or its inverse stiffness) this ...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kass DA

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Who needs an RVAD in addition to an LVAD?

    abstract::Mechanical circulatory support using left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) has become an accepted mode of therapy for both bridging patients with end-stage heart failure to transplant and as a destination therapy. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is common after LVAD insertion and is a significant source of morbidi...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaczorowski DJ,Woo YJ

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Hemodynamics of the right ventricle in normal and disease states.

    abstract::The physiology and hemodynamic functions of the right ventricle in normal and disease states differ considerably from those of the left ventricle. To illuminate these differences, the right ventricle's essential functions in the normal circulation are reviewed, its functional anatomy and blood supply are described, pr...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lee FA

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • Three-dimensional echocardiography: an alternative imaging choice for evaluation of tricuspid valve disorders.

    abstract::This article presents an approach to real-time three-dimensional imaging of the tricuspid valve from three different views. This is followed by some representative cases that illustrate these views and some unique tricuspid valve abnormalities, including one case of corrected transposition. ...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahlgrim AA,Nanda NC,Berther E,Gill EA

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Silent myocardial ischemia as a mechanism of sudden cardiac death.

    abstract::Sudden death, a major cause of mortality in the Western world, usually results from electrophysiologic phenomena in chronically damaged hearts with advanced coronary atherosclerosis. The exact pathophysiologic mechanisms are not known, but there is reasonable circumstantial evidence to implicate myocardial ischemia--c...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meissner MD,Morganroth J

    更新日期:1986-11-01 00:00:00

  • Controversies in heart failure. Are beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors attenuated by aspirin in patients with heart failure?

    abstract::To whatever extent the improvement in symptoms and survival rendered by treatment with ACE inhibitors is attributable to their effects on the circulation and the kidneys, this benefit can be rescinded by concomitant administration of aspirin. Although some useful prostaglandin-independent actions may persist, shutting...

    journal_title:Cardiology clinics

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hall D

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00