Multicellular spheroids in ovarian cancer metastases: Biology and pathology.


:Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a relatively high mortality rate ( approximately 55%). One of the presiding causes is that the current chemotherapeutic regimes are unable to achieve sustained remission, despite frequently producing a positive response at first treatment. One of the reasons that EOC is difficult to treat is that the mechanism of dissemination is unusual. EOC dissemination characteristically involves local invasion of pelvic and abdominal organs. Unlike many epithelial cancers, initial dissemination rarely requires the vasculature, although the vasculature is often implicated in the advanced stages of disease. Recently, it has become apparent that aggregates of malignant cells (spheroids) contained within malignant ascites represent a significant impediment to efficacious treatment of late stage EOC. In vivo, spheroids are present in the malignant ascites of EOC patients, while in vitro cultured spheroids are capable of tumorgenesis in vivo and display a reduced response to chemotherapeutic drugs when compared to monolayers. A major problem associated with the current generation of chemotherapy agents is that they do not address the anchorage- and vascular-independent growth conditions associated with a 3-dimensional structure that has formed and/or grown in suspension. Thus, spheroid formation may represent a key component of platinum/taxane-sensitive recurrence. If this is correct, a better understanding of spheroid biology may contribute to the identification of new treatment opportunities for the sustained treatment of metastatic EOC. This review article outlines the key biological features of spheroids, specifically discussing their role in EOC dissemination and chemo-response as well as providing insights into spheroid functionality.


Gynecol Oncol


Gynecologic oncology


Shield K,Ackland ML,Ahmed N,Rice GE




Has Abstract


2009-04-01 00:00:00














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    abstract:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus type 16 variants have been described and may have different biologic activities: this has implications for the design of HPV vaccines. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to see if the HPV16 variant E-G 131 can be detected in women with preinvasive disease and to consider the histologi...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Etherington IJ,Ellis JR,Luesley DM,Moffitt DD,Young LS

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Bilateral oophorectomy (BOE) is often recommended in order to prevent cancer at hysterectomy for non-malignant diseases and when familial risk of ovarian and breast cancer has been identified. Surgical menopause increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality, however, the intervening mechanisms are not clear....

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dørum A,Tonstad S,Liavaag AH,Michelsen TM,Hildrum B,Dahl AA

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • A phase II study of cetuximab/paclitaxel/carboplatin for the initial treatment of advanced-stage ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Determine the safety and efficacy of cetuximab plus paclitaxel and carboplatin as initial treatment of stage III/IV ovarian cancer. METHODS:An initial intravenous [IV] dose of cetuximab (400 mg/m(2)) was administered over 120 min followed by weekly IV infusions of cetuximab (250 mg/m(2)) administered over 60...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Konner J,Schilder RJ,DeRosa FA,Gerst SR,Tew WP,Sabbatini PJ,Hensley ML,Spriggs DR,Aghajanian CA

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva: Are two therapies better than one?

    abstract::As gynecologic surgeons garnered a better understanding of various clinical-pathological prognostic factors, there evolved a number of modifications in the surgical approach allowing for more individualized therapy with less morbidity, while still retaining the curative potential of the radical vulvectomy operation. T...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Moore DH

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Immunohistochemical detection of somatostatin receptors in human ovarian tumors.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:It is well established that many human tumors can express somatostatin receptors. This is the molecular basis for the application of long-acting somatostatin analogues for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. However, there are discrepancies in earlier studies regarding the prevalence of somatostatin receptor...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schulz S,Schmitt J,Quednow C,Roessner A,Weise W

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Topotecan combined with carboplatin in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: results of a single-institutional phase II study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this trial was to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of a relative high-dose of topotecan combined with carboplatin in recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS:Patients participating in this phase II trial received topotecan at a dose of 1.0 mg/m(2)/day intravenously (IV...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kang H,Kim TJ,Lee YY,Choi CH,Lee JW,Bae DS,Kim BG

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • A prospective phase II study of chemoradiation followed by adjuvant chemotherapy for FIGO stage I-IIIA (1988) uterine papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To prospectively evaluate tumor control, survival, and toxic effects in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (1988) stage I-IIIA papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium treated with concurrent chemoradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS:Thirty-two patients were enro...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jhingran A,Ramondetta LM,Bodurka DC,Slomovitz BM,Brown J,Levy LB,Garcia ME,Eifel PJ,Lu KH,Burke TW

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Tumorigenesis of K-ras mutation in human endometrial carcinoma via upregulation of estrogen receptor.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the tumorigenesis of mutant [12Asp]-K-ras in endometrial carcinoma and its relationship with ER. METHODS:We constructed pcDI-[12Asp]K-ras4B by inserting full-length [12Asp]K-ras4B from human endometrial carcinoma Hec-1A cells, into pcDI vector. Cell proliferation of NIH3T3 after transfection w...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tu Z,Gui L,Wang J,Li X,Sun P,Wei L

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of the scalene lymph nodes in primary and recurrent cervical carcinoma.

    abstract::Open biopsy of the left scalene lymph nodes has been utilized to identify distant spread of cervical carcinoma in selected groups of patients who do not have other clinical evidence of disseminated disease. Twenty-one patients with primary cervical carcinoma and histologically proven para-aortic lymph node metastases ...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burke TW,Heller PB,Hoskins WJ,Weiser EB,Nash JD,Park RC

    更新日期:1987-11-01 00:00:00

  • Uterine leiomyosarcoma: A review of the literature and update on management options.

    abstract::Uterine leiomyosarcoma is the most common type of uterine sarcoma. It is an extremely aggressive malignancy associated with a poor overall prognosis. Women affected may vary in age, but are most often diagnosed in their perimenopausal years. Presenting symptoms may be vague and mimic other benign uterine conditions. P...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Roberts ME,Aynardi JT,Chu CS

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • A clinical study of optical biopsy of the uterine cervix using a multispectral imaging system.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To present the clinical application of the multispectral imaging colposcopic system (MIS colposcopy). METHODS:MIS colposcopy was performed on 123 enrolled women. After a 3% acetic acid application, sequential images were captured, analyzed, and stored automatically. Directed biopsies were taken from distinct...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Orfanoudaki IM,Themelis GC,Sifakis SK,Fragouli DH,Panayiotides JG,Vazgiouraki EM,Koumantakis EE

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy for borderline serous ovarian tumors with invasive implants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Most borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) are cured with surgery. However BOTs with invasive implants have a poor prognosis with a mortality of 20-40%. The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) in this setting remains poorly defined. METHODS:Retrospective study of serous BOT+invasive implants treated with adjuv...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leary A,Petrella MC,Pautier P,Duvillard P,Uzan C,Tazi Y,Ledoux F,Gouy S,Morice P,Lhommé C

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of endometrial cancer via molecular analysis of DNA collected with vaginal tampons.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We demonstrate the feasibility of detecting EC by combining minimally-invasive specimen collection techniques with sensitive molecular testing. METHODS:Prior to hysterectomy for EC or benign indications, women collected vaginal pool samples with intravaginal tampons and underwent endometrial brushing. Specim...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bakkum-Gamez JN,Wentzensen N,Maurer MJ,Hawthorne KM,Voss JS,Kroneman TN,Famuyide AO,Clayton AC,Halling KC,Kerr SE,Cliby WA,Dowdy SC,Kipp BR,Mariani A,Oberg AL,Podratz KC,Shridhar V,Sherman ME

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

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    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types using the hybrid capture technique to predict the presence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II,III in patients with repeated atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) an...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Fait G,Kupferminc MJ,Daniel Y,Geva E,Ron IG,Lessing JB,Bar-Am A

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Selected cancer patients can benefit from home use of the jejunostomy catheter. The indications for this technique include chronic inability to meet basal fluid and caloric needs and risk of intestinal obstruction. This report describes the extended use of the jejunostomy catheter in 20 women with gynecologic malignan...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Soriero OM,Ballon SC

    更新日期:1984-10-01 00:00:00

  • Intraperitoneal chemotherapy: analysis of complications with an implanted subcutaneous port and catheter system.

    abstract::To determine the morbidity associated with delivery of intraperitoneal chemotherapy via subcutaneous semipermanent infusion catheters, we analyzed the data on 227 patients treated from April 1985 through December 1989. A total of 249 catheters were inserted and used to administer chemotherapy in these patients. There ...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Davidson SA,Rubin SC,Markman M,Jones WB,Hakes TB,Reichman B,Almadrones L,Chapman D,Lewis JL Jr,Hoskins WJ

    更新日期:1991-05-01 00:00:00

  • Technique for precaval and laterocaval nodes excision at extraperitoneal paraaortic lymphadenectomy.

    abstract:STUDY OBJECTIVE:To describe our technique for excision of the pre-caval and laterocaval nodes using an extraperitoneal approach. This technique was developed to make the dissection and excision of the less accessible nodes in an easier and safer way by minimizing the risk of great vessels injury and bleeding. DESIGN:S...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gorostidi M,Villalain C,Ruiz R,Jaunarena I,Lekuona A

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Reconstructive surgery following resection of primary vulvar cancers.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:This study describes the surgical treatment and follow-up of 213 patients with primary vulvar cancer; particular attention is given to reconstructive surgical procedures. METHODS:The clinical and pathological parameters of the patients were recorded according to standardized procedures, and the data concerni...

    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weikel W,Hofmann M,Steiner E,Knapstein PG,Koelbl H

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Fallopian tube abnormalities in uterine serous carcinoma.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is presumed to arise from endometrial intra-epithelial carcinoma (EIC), whereas tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas have similar precursor lesions in the Fallopian tube, i.e. serous tubal intra-epithelial carcinoma (STIC). The presence of Fallopian tube abnormalities and t...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Steenbeek MP,Bulten J,Snijders MPLM,Lombaers M,Hendriks J,van den Brand M,Kraayenbrink AA,Massuger LFAG,Sweegers S,de Hullu JA,Pijnenborg JMA,Küsters-Vandevelde HVN,Reijnen C

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    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Most precancerous lesions of the cervix are treated with surgery or ablative therapy. Chemoprevention, using natural and synthetic compounds, may intervene in the early precancerous stages of carcinogenesis and prevent the development of invasive disease. Our trial used indole-3-carbinol (I-3-C) administered ...

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    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


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    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Högberg T,Carstensen J,Simonsen E

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • HPV mRNA tests for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a systematic review.

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    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Burger EA,Kornør H,Klemp M,Lauvrak V,Kristiansen IS

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Groen RS,Gershenson DM,Fader AN

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Moore RG,Steinhoff MM,Granai CO,DeMars LR

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maxwell GL,Allard J,Gadisetti CV,Litzi T,Casablanca Y,Chandran U,Darcy KM,Levine DA,Berchuck A,Hamilton CA,Conrads TP,Risinger JI

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Toward understanding the natural history of ovarian carcinoma development: a clinicopathological approach.

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    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Horiuchi A,Itoh K,Shimizu M,Nakai I,Yamazaki T,Kimura K,Suzuki A,Shiozawa I,Ueda N,Konishi I

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bamias A,Karadimou A,Soupos N,Sotiropoulou M,Zagouri F,Haidopoulos D,Thomakos N,Rodolakis A,Antsaklis A,Dimopoulos MA

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barnes W,Delgado G,Kurman RJ,Petrilli ES,Smith DM,Ahmed S,Lorincz AT,Temple GF,Jenson AB,Lancaster WD

    更新日期:1988-03-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Gynecologic oncology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ringler GE,Senekjian EK,Smith FL,Little AG,Clinton S,Stephens JK

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00