Past pregnancy outcomes among women living in the vicinity of a lead smelter in Kosovo, Yugoslavia.


:This analysis compares the rates of spontaneous abortion among women living in the vicinity of a lead smelter with those of women living in a town where blood lead levels were low. Data derive from the obstetric histories of both groups of women obtained while seeking prenatal care for a later pregnancy. A total of 639 women (304 exposed, 335 unexposed) had at least one previous pregnancy and lived at the same address since their first pregnancy. The geometric mean blood lead concentrations in the sample at the time of the interviews were 0.77 mumol/L in the exposed town and 0.25 mumol/L in the unexposed town. The rates of spontaneous abortions in first pregnancies were similar, with 16.4 percent of women in the exposed town and 14.0 percent in the unexposed town reporting loss. The adjusted odds ratio relating town of residence to spontaneous abortion was 1.1 (95% CI = 0.9, 1.4). This analysis represents the first systematic attempt to seek an association between environmental lead exposure and spontaneous abortion. As such, the failure to find a positive association strongly suggests that at the levels of exposure represented in our sample, such an association does not exist.


Am J Public Health


Murphy MJ,Graziano JH,Popovac D,Kline JK,Mehmeti A,Factor-Litvak P,Ahmedi G,Shrout P,Rajovic B,Nenezic DU




Has Abstract,Author List Incomplete


1990-01-01 00:00:00












  • Community Vision and Interagency Alignment: A Community Planning Process to Promote Active Transportation.

    abstract::In 2010, the Brooklyn Active Transportation Community Planning Initiative launched in 2 New York City neighborhoods. Over a 2-year planning period, residents participated in surveys, school and community forums, neighborhood street assessments, and activation events-activities that highlighted the need for safer stree...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: DeGregory ST,Chaudhury N,Kennedy P,Noyes P,Maybank A

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in Canadian women's mammography rates since the implementation of mass screening programs.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study reports on Canadian mammography rates between 1990, when mass screening programs were launched, and 1994/95. METHODS:Mammography rates from 2 national surveys were compared according to the presence of a provincial screening program. RESULTS:Mammography rates among women aged 50 to 69 years (the...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Grasse CE,O'Connor AM,Boulet J,Edwards N,Bryant H,Breithaupt K

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Identifying unaddressed systemic health conditions at dental visits: patients who visited dental practices but not general health care providers in 2008.

    abstract::We assessed the proportion and characteristics of patients who do not regularly visit general health care providers but do visit dentists and whose unaddressed systemic health conditions could therefore be identified by their dentist. Of the 26.0% of children and 24.1% of adults that did not access general outpatient ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Strauss SM,Alfano MC,Shelley D,Fulmer T

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Gender and cancer in Britain, 1860-1910: the emergence of cancer as a public health concern.

    abstract::Historical work on cancer has suggested that a range of political, social, and medical concerns stimulated the emergence of cancer as a public health problem in the early 20th century.I argue that anxiety about cervical cancer mortality was instrumental in establishing cancer as a major focus of concern for the Britis...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Moscucci O

    更新日期:2005-08-01 00:00:00

  • NAVIGATING the future through the past: the enduring historical legacy of federal children's health programs in the United States.

    abstract::The United States excels at treating the most complex medical conditions, but our low-ranking health statistics (relative to other countries) do not match our high-end health care spending. One way to understand this paradox is to examine the history of federal children's health programs. In the 1800s, children's heal...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Brosco JP

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Integrating Systems Science and Community-Based Participatory Research to Achieve Health Equity.

    abstract::Unanswered questions about racial and socioeconomic health disparities may be addressed using community-based participatory research and systems science. Community-based participatory research is an orientation to research that prioritizes developing capacity, improving trust, and translating knowledge to action. Syst...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 信件


    authors: Frerichs L,Lich KH,Dave G,Corbie-Smith G

    更新日期:2016-02-01 00:00:00

  • The role of occupational health clinics in surveillance of occupational disease.

    abstract::Academic occupational health centers can support state-based occupational disease surveillance by playing a role in case identification and management, physician education, workplace investigation, and surveillance case criteria development. The existing centers can also serve as models for developing new clinics. As ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Welch L

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • Validity of Single-Item Screening for Limited Health Literacy in English and Spanish Speakers.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate 3 single-item screening measures for limited health literacy in a community-based population of English and Spanish speakers. METHODS:We recruited 324 English and 314 Spanish speakers from a community research registry in Dallas, Texas, enrolled between 2009 and 2012. We used 3 screening measure...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bishop WP,Craddock Lee SJ,Skinner CS,Jones TM,McCallister K,Tiro JA

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Getting beyond "Don't ask; don't tell": an evaluation of US Veterans Administration postdeployment mental health screening of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We sought to evaluate outcomes of the Veterans Administration (VA) Afghan and Iraq Post-Deployment Screen for mental health symptoms. METHODS:Veterans Administration clinicians were encouraged to refer Iraq or Afghanistan veterans who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or high-...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seal KH,Bertenthal D,Maguen S,Gima K,Chu A,Marmar CR

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Ocular and dermatologic health effects of ultraviolet radiation exposure from the ozone hole in southern Chile.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study sought to investigate numerous reports emanating from Punta Arenas, Chile (population 110,000, latitude 53 degrees S), that associated acute ocular and dermatologic disease in humans and animals with excess ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure in the setting of the thinning of the ozone column. METHODS:...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schein OD,Vicencio C,Muñoz B,Gelatt KN,Duncan DD,Nethercott J,Honeyman J,Koren HS,West S

    更新日期:1995-04-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of state laws limiting malpractice damage awards on health care expenditures.

    abstract::Twenty-eight states have laws that limit payments in malpractice cases, and several studies indicate that these laws reduce the frequency and severity of malpractice claims and lower premiums. Moreover, proponents believe that such laws reduce health care expenditures by reducing the practice of defensive medicine. Ho...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hellinger FJ,Encinosa WE

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • Longitudinal changes in blood lead level in children and their relationship to season, age, and exposure to paint or plaster.

    abstract::Children screened for lead poisoning in the Brownsville district of New York City in either summer or winter were followed with blood lead tests for approximately six months to one year from screening to measure longitudinal changes in blood lead level and to identify some determinants of the changes. Only minimal evi...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McCusker J

    更新日期:1979-04-01 00:00:00

  • RiskScape: A Data Visualization and Aggregation Platform for Public Health Surveillance Using Routine Electronic Health Record Data.

    abstract::Automated analysis of electronic health record (EHR) data is a complementary tool for public health surveillance. Analyzing and presenting these data, however, demands new methods of data communication optimized to the detail, flexibility, and timeliness of EHR data.RiskScape is an open-source, interactive, Web-based,...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cocoros NM,Kirby C,Zambarano B,Ochoa A,Eberhardt K,Rocchio Sb C,Ursprung WS,Nielsen VM,Durham NN,Menchaca JT,Josephson M,Erani D,Hafer E,Weiss M,Herrick B,Callahan M,Isaac T,Klompas M

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of the effects of the North Carolina Improved Pregnancy Outcome Project: implications for state-level decision-making.

    abstract::This study was designed to assess the effects of the North Carolina Improved Pregnancy Outcome (IPO) Project on use of prenatal care and incidence of low birthweight among its primarily Black registrants . Weighted least squares and stratified analysis procedures were used to scrutinize vital statistics data for subpo...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peoples MD,Grimson RC,Daughtry GL

    更新日期:1984-06-01 00:00:00

  • Unmet hearing health care needs: the Beaver Dam offspring study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We evaluated the use of hearing health care services (hearing testing and hearing aids) by adults aged 21 to 84 years. METHODS:Hearing was tested and medical and hearing health histories were obtained as part of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study between 2005 and 2008 (n = 3285, mean age = 49 years). RESULTS:O...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nash SD,Cruickshanks KJ,Huang GH,Klein BE,Klein R,Nieto FJ,Tweed TS

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Silicosis among gold miners: exposure--response analyses and risk assessment.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study sought to estimate the risk of silicosis by cumulative exposure-years in a cohort of miners exposed to silica, as well as the lifetime risk of silicosis under the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard (0.09 mg/m3). METHODS:In a cohort study of 3330 gold miners who ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Steenland K,Brown D

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Rubella in the workplace: the need for employee immunization.

    abstract::From 1983 to 1985, the New York City Department of Health investigated five workplace outbreaks of rubella. Approximately 40 per cent of the 265 cases were detected among women of child-bearing age (15-44 years). Data are reviewed from the 1983 Financial District outbreak to illustrate the continued susceptibility of ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goodman AK,Friedman SM,Beatrice ST,Bart SW

    更新日期:1987-06-01 00:00:00

  • Proliferation of nuclear weapons: opportunities for control and abolition.

    abstract::Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. "Horizontal" proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materi...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Sidel VW,Levy BS

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • Social support, exposure to violence and transphobia, and correlates of depression among male-to-female transgender women with a history of sex work.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We determined racial/ethnic differences in social support and exposure to violence and transphobia, and explored correlates of depression among male-to-female transgender women with a history of sex work (THSW). METHODS:A total of 573 THSW who worked or resided in San Francisco or Oakland, California, were ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nemoto T,Bödeker B,Iwamoto M

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in an older population: updated incidence and life expectancy with and without dementia.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We estimated dementia incidence rates, life expectancies with and without dementia, and percentage of total life expectancy without dementia. METHODS:We studied 3605 members of Group Health (Seattle, WA) aged 65 years or older who did not have dementia at enrollment to the Adult Changes in Thought study bet...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tom SE,Hubbard RA,Crane PK,Haneuse SJ,Bowen J,McCormick WC,McCurry S,Larson EB

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Harnessing the Question-Behavior Effect to Enhance Colorectal Cancer Screening in an mHealth Experiment.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To assess whether asking questions about a future behavior changes this behavior (i.e., the question-behavior effect) when applied to a population-level intervention to enhance colorectal cancer screening. METHODS:In 2013, text-message reminders were sent to a national sample of 50 000 Israeli women and men...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Hagoel L,Neter E,Stein N,Rennert G

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Global alcohol producers, science, and policy: the case of the International Center for Alcohol Policies.

    abstract::In this article, I document strategies used by alcohol producers to influence national and global science and policy. Their strategies include producing scholarly publications with incomplete, distorted views of the science underlying alcohol policies; pressuring national and international governmental institutions; ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jernigan DH

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of traditional classroom and distance continuing education: a theory-driven evaluation of a vaccine-preventable diseases course.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study evaluated the effects of a major federal immunization continuing education course, delivered in both traditional classroom and satellite broadcast versions, on public health professionals' knowledge, agreement, self-efficacy, and adherence in practice to recommendations. METHODS:The study used a ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Umble KE,Cervero RM,Yang B,Atkinson WL

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of Two Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Interventions on Risky Sexual Behavior: A Three-Arm Cluster Randomized Control Trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of Reducing the Risk (RTR) and Love Notes (LN) on reducing risky sexual behavior among youths yet to experience or cause a pregnancy. METHODS: The four dependent variables were ever had sex, condom use, birth control use, and number of sexual partners at 3- and 6-month follow-up in a 3...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barbee AP,Cunningham MR,van Zyl MA,Antle BF,Langley CN

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of a Medicaid managed care program on the adequacy of prenatal care utilization in Rhode Island.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to determine whether adequacy of prenatal care utilization improved after the implementation of a Medicaid managed care program in Rhode Island. METHODS:Rhode Island birth certificate data (1993-1995; n = 37021) were used to analyze pre- and post-program implementation changes ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Griffin JF,Hogan JW,Buechner JS,Leddy TM

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • Occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) among embalmers: a pilot seroprevalence study.

    abstract::We performed a serosurvey of 133 embalmers in an urban area where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is prevalent. Although we found histories of needlesticks to be common, and the seropositivity rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) (13%) was approximately twice that of a blood donor comparison group, HIV antibod...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Turner SB,Kunches LM,Gordon KF,Travers PH,Mueller NE

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Hepatitis C virus infection in young, low-income women: the role of sexually transmitted infection as a potential cofactor for HCV infection.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We evaluated risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in women residing in low-income neighborhoods of northern California. METHODS:A population-based sample of 1707 women, aged 18 to 29, were surveyed and screened for sexually transmitted infections and HCV. RESULTS:Women infected with HCV (2.5%) were m...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Page-Shafer KA,Cahoon-Young B,Klausner JD,Morrow S,Molitor F,Ruiz J,McFarland W,Young Women's Survey Team.

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Draw the line/respect the line: a randomized trial of a middle school intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study evaluated the long-term effectiveness of Draw the Line/Respect the Line, a theoretically based curriculum designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors among middle school adolescents. METHODS:The randomized controlled trial involved 19 schools in northern California. A cohort of 2829 sixth graders wa...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Coyle KK,Kirby DB,Marín BV,Gómez CA,Gregorich SE

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing Vouchers and Veterans' Homelessness, 2007-2017.

    abstract::Objectives. To determine what role the 88 000 Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUD-VASH) vouchers for permanent supportive housing among US veterans distributed between 2008 and 2017 played in the significant fall in veterans' homelessness over the same time period.Methods. Using a pa...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Evans WN,Kroeger S,Palmer C,Pohl E

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • A nurse-managed smoking cessation program for hospitalized smokers.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study evaluated a nurse-managed smoking cessation program for smokers hospitalized for a variety of conditions. METHODS:Hospitalized patients who smoked prior to hospitalization and who were motivated to quit (n = 660) were randomized to intervention or usual-care groups and followed for the next year....

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Taylor CB,Miller NH,Herman S,Smith PM,Sobel D,Fisher L,DeBusk RF

    更新日期:1996-11-01 00:00:00