Effects of Racial Prejudice on the Health of Communities: A Multilevel Survival Analysis.


OBJECTIVES:We examined whether and how racial prejudice at both the individual and community levels contributes to mortality risk among majority as well as minority group members. METHODS:We used data on racial attitudes from the General Social Survey (1993-2002) prospectively linked to mortality data from the National Death Index through 2008. RESULTS:Whites and Blacks living in communities with higher levels of racial prejudice were at an elevated risk of mortality, independent of individual and community sociodemographic characteristics and individually held racist beliefs (odds ratio = 1.24; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 1.49). Living in a highly prejudiced community had similar harmful effects among both Blacks and Whites. Furthermore, the interaction observed between individual- and community-level racial prejudice indicated that respondents with higher levels of racial prejudice had lower survival rates if they lived in communities with low degrees of racial prejudice. Community-level social capital explained the relationship between community racial prejudice and mortality. CONCLUSIONS:Community-level racial prejudice may disrupt social capital, and reduced social capital is associated with increased mortality risk among both Whites and Blacks. Our results contribute to an emerging body of literature documenting the negative consequences of prejudice for population health.


Am J Public Health


Lee Y,Muennig P,Kawachi I,Hatzenbuehler ML




Has Abstract


2015-11-01 00:00:00












  • Association of smoking cessation with financial stress and material well-being: results from a prospective study of a population-based national survey.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We used 4 waves of prospective data to examine the association of smoking cessation with financial stress and material well-being. METHODS:Data (n = 5699 at baseline) came from 4 consecutive waves (2001-2005) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey. We used mixed models to examine th...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Siahpush M,Spittal M,Singh GK

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Risk of infection from needle reuse at a phlebotomy center.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study determined infection risk for HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) from needle reuse at a phlebotomy center that possibly exposed 3810 patients to infection. METHODS:We used a model for the risk of infection per blood draw, supplemented by subsequent testing results from 1699...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Porco TC,Aragón TJ,Fernyak SE,Cody SH,Vugia DJ,Katz MH,Bangsberg DR

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • Predictors of successful aging: a twelve-year study of Manitoba elderly.

    abstract::In Manitoba, Canada, a representative cohort of elderly individuals ages 65 to 84 (n = 3,573) were interviewed in 1971 and the survivors of this cohort were reinterviewed in 1983. This analysis assesses the determinants of successful aging--whether or not an individual will live to an advanced age, continue to functio...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roos NP,Havens B

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • Etiology of developmental disabilities in Soweto, South Africa.

    abstract::A retrospective review was undertaken of the records of 725 children who attended the neurodevelopmental clinic at the Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, South Africa. Most children presented at an early age (less than 2-6 years). The etiological factors were prenatal, 4 per cent; perinatal, 41 per cent; postnatal, 21 pe...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rubin IL,Davis M

    更新日期:1986-09-01 00:00:00

  • Intradermal immunization with human diploid cell rabies vaccine: serological and clinical responses of immunized persons to intradermal booster vaccination.

    abstract::Rabies antibody titers ranged from 0-9.3 IU/mL in 117 human volunteers one year after intradermal vaccination with one or two doses of human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV). At that time, each volunteer received one 0.1-mL booster dose of HDCV intradermally. All 117 volunteers showed good anamnestic responses, with...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burridge MJ,Sumner JW,Baer GM

    更新日期:1984-05-01 00:00:00

  • Syndemic theory and HIV-related risk among young transgender women: the role of multiple, co-occurring health problems and social marginalization.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We assessed whether multiple psychosocial factors are additive in their relationship to sexual risk behavior and self-reported HIV status (i.e., can be characterized as a syndemic) among young transgender women and the relationship of indicators of social marginalization to psychosocial factors. METHODS:Par...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brennan J,Kuhns LM,Johnson AK,Belzer M,Wilson EC,Garofalo R,Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV\/AIDS Interventions.

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Bone mineral density in postmenopausal women as determined by prior oral contraceptive use.

    abstract::The long-term consequences of prior oral contraceptive use for bone mineral density were examined in 239 postmenopausal women, 35.1% of whom reported prior oral contraceptive use. Women who had used oral contraceptives for 6 or more years had significantly higher bone densities of the lumbar spine and femoral neck, bu...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kritz-Silverstein D,Barrett-Connor E

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sexual orientation disparities in Papanicolaou test use among US women: the role of sexual and reproductive health services.

    abstract::We investigated sexual orientation disparities in Papanicolaou screening among US women aged 21 to 44 years (n = 9581) in the 2006 to 2010 National Survey of Family Growth. The odds ratios for lesbian versus heterosexual women and women with no versus only male sexual partners were 0.40 and 0.32, respectively, and wer...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Agénor M,Krieger N,Austin SB,Haneuse S,Gottlieb BR

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease: the implications of progress in molecular medicine.

    abstract::We review the current status as well as the risks and benefits of a recently developed DNA test of risk for Alzheimer's disease: the apolipoprotein E genotype. While apolipoprotein E genotypes may indicate a degree of susceptibility, the gene is neither necessary nor sufficient to cause the disease; thus, many questio...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mayeux R,Schupf N

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiologic evidence and motor vehicle policy making.

    abstract::After being randomly assigned to receive policy effectiveness information expressed as attributable benefit, attributable risk, or relative risk, 318 graduate students were asked to indicate their preferences for the current voluntary seat belt use policy, a mandatory seat belt policy, or mandatory passive restraints....

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Runyan CW,Earp JA

    更新日期:1985-04-01 00:00:00

  • Herpes zoster and exposure to the varicella zoster virus in an era of varicella vaccination.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We performed a case-control study to determine if participants with herpes zoster had fewer contacts with persons with varicella or zoster, and with young children, to explore the hypothesis that exposure to persons with varicella zoster virus (VZV) results in "immune boosting." METHODS:Participants were pa...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Donahue JG,Kieke BA,Gargiullo PM,Jumaan AO,Berger NR,McCauley JS,Belongia EA

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • When is a disease eradicable? 100 years of lessons learned.

    abstract::Since the 1915 launch of the first international eradication initiative targeting a human pathogen, much has been learned about the determinants of eradicability of an organism. The authors outline the first 4 eradication efforts, summarizing the lessons learned in terms of the 3 types of criteria for disease eradicat...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Aylward B,Hennessey KA,Zagaria N,Olivé JM,Cochi S

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Side effects of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid in adults.

    abstract::During a mass diphtheria-tetanus immunization campaign in November 1975, more than 220,000 doses of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid, adult type were administered to adults throughout Alaska. In Anchorage, where more than 87,000 doses were given, a survey was conducted to determine the frequency of side effects. Postcard que...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Middaugh JP

    更新日期:1979-03-01 00:00:00

  • The changing role of the World Bank in global health.

    abstract::The World Bank began operations on June 25, 1946. Although it was established to finance European reconstruction after World War II, the bank today is a considerable force in the health, nutrition, and population (HNP) sector in developing countries. Indeed, it has evolved from having virtually no presence in global h...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Ruger JP

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Injury and disability in matched men's and women's intercollegiate sports.

    abstract::Eight matched men's and women's intercollegiate varsity teams were studied prospectively for one academic year to determine the incidence of athletic injury and resulting disability. Sports in which both men and women participated in a comparable manner were chosen: basketball, fencing, gymnastics, swimming, tennis, i...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lanese RR,Strauss RH,Leizman DJ,Rotondi AM

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • Toward a strategic approach for reducing disparities in infant mortality.

    abstract::The United States' international ranking for infant mortality slipped from 19th in the 1980s to 27th in 1997. This slippage may be related to the segregation of priorities that occurred early in the 1990s, when national concern was diverted from infant mortality to minority health. To rekindle concern about infant mor...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hogue CJ,Vasquez C

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Relevance of the "Immigrant Health Paradox" for the Health of Arab Americans in California.

    abstract::Objectives. To assess the validity of the immigrant health paradox among Arab Americans in California.Methods. We used data from the 2003 to 2017 California Health Interview Survey (n = 1425). We used survey-weighted χ2 and logistic regression analyses to compare Arabs by immigrant generation on socioeconomic indicato...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abuelezam NN,El-Sayed AM,Galea S

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Voluntary participation and informed consent to international genetic research.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We compared voluntary participation and comprehension of informed consent among individuals of African ancestry enrolled in similarly designed genetic studies of hypertension in the United States and Nigeria. METHODS:Survey questionnaires were used to evaluate factors associated with voluntariness (the numb...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marshall PA,Adebamowo CA,Adeyemo AA,Ogundiran TO,Vekich M,Strenski T,Zhou J,Prewitt TE,Cooper RS,Rotimi CN

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Health care spending and utilization by race/ethnicity under the Affordable Care Act's dependent coverage expansion.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We estimated the effect of the ACA expansion of dependents' coverage on health care expenditures and utilization for young adults by race/ethnicity. METHODS:We used difference-in-difference models to estimate the impact of the ACA expansion on health care expenditures, out-of-pocket payments (OOP) as a shar...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen J,Bustamante AV,Tom SE

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Identification and evaluation of competencies of public health nutritionists.

    abstract::The Delphi Technique was used to elicit a number of essential competencies expected of the "entry-level" public health nutritionist from members of Graduate Faculties of Programs in Public Health Nutrition. Questionnaires composed of "competency statements" were constructed from these responses and sent to practitione...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sims LS

    更新日期:1979-11-01 00:00:00

  • Potential national and state medical care savings from primary disease prevention.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We estimated national and state-level potential medical care cost savings achievable through modest reductions in the prevalence of several diseases associated with the same lifestyle-related risk factors. METHODS:Using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component data (2003-2005), we estimated the ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ormond BA,Spillman BC,Waidmann TA,Caswell KJ,Tereshchenko B

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluating the effectiveness of public health leadership training: the NEPHLI experience.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We assessed the effect of public health leadership training on the capacity of public health leaders to perform competencies derived from the list of "Ten Essential Public Health Services" presented in 1994 by the steering committee of the Public Health Functions Project. METHODS:Graduating scholars of the ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saleh SS,Williams D,Balougan M

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS): Overview of Design and Methodology.

    abstract::Data System. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing state-based surveillance system of maternal behaviors, attitudes, and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. PRAMS is conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Reproductive Health in col...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shulman HB,D'Angelo DV,Harrison L,Smith RA,Warner L

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Social Network Diagramming as an Applied Tool for Public Health: Lessons Learned From an HCV Cluster.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We present an applied example of social network diagramming from 2010 to 2012 that was used to guide follow-up in a large HCV cluster in rural Wisconsin. METHODS:In addition to collecting standard individual-level attributes, we also obtained partner-level information. Both sets of data were input into a ne...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grande KM,Stanley M,Redo C,Wergin A,Guilfoyle S,Gasiorowicz M

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of a parental notification law on adolescent abortion decision-making.

    abstract::In 1984, we investigated the impact of a parental notification statue with judicial bypass procedures in Minnesota. Subjects were interviewed on the day of their abortion at four Minnesota and two Wisconsin clinics. Relatively few were aware of the statute in Minnesota. Parental notification rates were similar in Minn...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blum RW,Resnick MD,Stark TA

    更新日期:1987-05-01 00:00:00

  • Visits to physicians before and after exposure to urea formaldehyde foam insulation.

    abstract::The average number of visits to a physician made by a sample of 351 residents of homes insulated with urea formaldehyde foam insulation in Montreal in the one year period before exposure was 5.25, and in the year following 5.62, an increase of 7 per cent (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.15). The increase in visits i...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: L'Abbé KA,Hoey JR,Hanley J,Wacholder S,Nantel A

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • Mycoplasma genitalium among young adults in the United States: an emerging sexually transmitted infection.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We sought to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with Mycoplasma genitalium infection in a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States. METHODS:Urine specimens from 1714 women and 1218 men who participated in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adoles...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Manhart LE,Holmes KK,Hughes JP,Houston LS,Totten PA

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of DRGs on community-based service providers: implications for the elderly.

    abstract::We investigated changes in community-based agencies following the implementation of the Medicare prospective payment system for hospitals utilizing DRGs (diagnosis-related groups). Data were collected in 1986 and 1987 from 771 community service providers. There were five major findings: 1) hospital discharge planners,...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wood JB,Estes CL

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • Insurance coverage of smoking cessation treatment for state employees.

    abstract::Public health experts recommend that health insurance include coverage for smoking cessation treatment as an evidence-based strategy to reduce smoking. As employers, states can implement this policy for more than 5 million individuals nationwide. This study identified the extent to which states require smoking cessati...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burns ME,Bosworth TW,Fiore MC

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Childhood pesticide exposures on the Texas-Mexico border: clinical manifestations and poison center use.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to describe differences in childhood pesticide exposures between counties on the Texas-Mexico border and nonborder counties. METHOD:The authors reviewed all pesticide exposures among children younger than 6 years reported to the South Texas Poison Center during 1997 through 200...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Belson M,Kieszak S,Watson W,Blindauer KM,Phan K,Backer L,Rubin C

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00