The resistance of Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn to insect attack by Trichoplusia ni (Hübn.).


:Resistance of Pteridium aquilinum to insect attack was studied by incorporating air dried bracken leaf meal and extracts of bracken leaf meal into an artificial diet for Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). When larvae are reared on diets containing 6% bracken leaf meal, they do not mature past the second instar and after 16 days the average weight is approximately 1 mg compared to 70 mg for control larvae. Feeding initiation studies indicate that a feeding deterrent is present in bracken fern but feeding rates and food utilization efficiency studies suggest that either the deterrent or another compound also functions as a toxin. This toxin does not affect growth, feeding rates, or utilization efficiency for the first 4 days after third instar larvae are transferred to a diet containing the water extract of bracken leaf meal; thereafter growth is terminated and feeding is greatly reduced. The active factor is water soluble, heat labile, and non-volatile and this partial characterization indicates that neither the bracken ecdysones or the anti-thiamine factor of bracken is involved in the resistance of this fern to insect attack by T. ni.






Hendrix SD




Has Abstract


1977-12-01 00:00:00














  • Population dynamics of the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) : V. Estimation of the effect of predation by spiders on the mortality of imaginal wasps based on the precipitin test.

    abstract::During the course of a 10-year investigation on the population dynamics of Dryocosmus kuriphilus, a rapid decrease in the number of individuals was noticed in the adult stage. To detect the role of predation by spiders in causing this high adult mortality, spiders collected from the survey station were tested for thei...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nakamura M,Nakamura K

    更新日期:1977-06-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of temperature on the respiration and production of the freshwater nematode Anonchus sp.

    abstract::Growth and respiration were measured in a species of Anonchus (Nematoda: Plectidae) at 5°C, 10°C, 15°C, 20°C and 25°C. At 5°C no growth was measurable but the organisms remained active. Maximum production occurred at 15°C, but the highest rate of growth occurred at 20°C. Thus, adult size attained is dependent on the t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laybourn J

    更新日期:1979-08-01 00:00:00

  • Altered trophic pathway and parasitism in a native predator (Lepomis gibbosus) feeding on introduced prey (Dreissena polymorpha).

    abstract::Populations of invasive species tend to have fewer parasites in their introduced ranges than in their native ranges and are also thought to have fewer parasites than native prey. This 'release' from parasites has unstudied implications for native predators feeding on exotic prey. In particular, shifts from native to e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Locke SA,Bulté G,Marcogliese DJ,Forbes MR

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • The economics of escape behaviour in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    abstract::Pea aphids have several alternative responses to the detection of alarm pheromone produced by conspecifics. One of these, dropping from the feeding site to the ground, is potentially costly owing to the risk of desiccation-induced mortality on the ground before another host plant can be reached. Both dropping and walk...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dill LM,Fraser AH,Roitberg BD

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of vines on an oligohaline marsh community: results of a removal and fertilization study.

    abstract::The effects of competitive suppression by vines on the non-vine plant community have received little attention in temperate habitats. This study investigated the impact vines have on their herbaceous hosts in a wetland community at two soil fertility levels. Plots in an oligohaline marsh were treated in a 2 × 2 factor...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gough L,Grace JB

    更新日期:1997-10-01 00:00:00

  • Productivity of Agave deserti: measurement by dry weight and monthly prediction using physiological responses to environmental parameters.

    abstract::An "environmental productivity index" based on physiological responses to three environmental variables was used to predict the net productivity of a common succulent perennial of the Sonoran Desert, Agave deserti, on a monthly basis. Productivity was also independently measured in the field from dry weight changes. T...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nobel PS

    更新日期:1984-09-01 00:00:00

  • Context-dependent resistance against butterfly herbivory in a polyploid herb.

    abstract::Spatial variation in biotic interactions and natural selection are fundamental parts of natural systems, and can be driven by differences in both trait distributions and the local environmental context of the interaction. Most studies of plant-animal interactions have been performed only in natural settings, making it...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: König MA,Wiklund C,Ehrlén J

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of intraspecific density and cover on home range of a plethodontid salamander.

    abstract::Hypotheses about the influence of intraspecific density and available cover on home range size (=mean activity radius) of a plethodontid salamander (Desmognathus monticola) were tested by field experimentation from June 1980 to October 1981. A second order mountain stream in southwestern North Carolina was marked into...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kleeberger SR

    更新日期:1985-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of canopy structure and species diversity on primary production in upper Great Lakes forests.

    abstract::Canopy structure and tree species diversity, shaped by succession, disturbance, and community composition, are linked to numerous ecosystem functions, including net primary production (NPP). Understanding of how ecosystem structural metrics are interrelated and mechanistically link to NPP, however, is incomplete. We c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scheuermann CM,Nave LE,Fahey RT,Nadelhoffer KJ,Gough CM

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Induced defence in detached uninfested plant leaves: effects on behaviour of herbivores and their predators.

    abstract::Induction of plant defence against herbivores may include the attraction by volatile infochemicals of natural enemies of the herbivore. The emitted volatiles that mediate this attraction may also affect the behaviour of the herbivore itself. In this paper we investigate the response of the herbivorous spider miteTetra...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dicke M,Dijkman H

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Spatial and temporal patterns of seed attack and germination in a large-seeded neotropical tree species.

    abstract::It has long been argued that seed dispersal enhances recruitment in tropical trees by allowing offspring to `escape' strong density/distance-dependent attack by insects, pathogens and rodents. Here we examined the effects of canopy openness and parent-offspring distance upon the frequency and timing of Chlorocardium r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hammond DS,Brown VK,Zagt R

    更新日期:1999-05-01 00:00:00

  • Possibilities for flight in the carabid beetle Nebria brevicollis (F.) : The importance of food during larval growth.

    abstract::The carabid beetle Nebria brevicollis (F.), despite being macropterous, has a very low flight potential. Only a few percent of the beetles has functional flight muscles, flight motivation is low, and the period favourable for flight is short. The inability to fly is caused mainly by arrested development of the flight ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nelemans MN

    更新日期:1987-07-01 00:00:00

  • Anthropogenic disturbance reduces seed-dispersal services for myrmecochorous plants in the Brazilian Caatinga.

    abstract::Anthropogenic disturbance can have important indirect effects on ecosystems by disrupting species interactions. Here we examine the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on distance dispersal by ants for the diaspores of myrmecochorous Euphorbiaceae in Brazilian Caatinga. Rates of diaspore removal and distances removed...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leal LC,Andersen AN,Leal IR

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Surfactants: their role in preventing the precipitation of proteins by tannins in insect guts.

    abstract::Much more tannic acid or pin oak tannin is required to precipitate the abundant leaf protein, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPC), from Manduca sexta gut fluid adjusted to pH 6.5 than is required to precipitate this protein from an aqueous buffer at the same pH. This finding demonstrates that some ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martin MM,Martin JS

    更新日期:1984-03-01 00:00:00

  • Mass or pace? Seasonal energy management in wintering boreal passerines.

    abstract::Research on winter energy management in small vertebrates has focused on the regulation of body mass (BM) within a framework of starvation-predation trade-off. Winter-acclimatized birds exhibit a seasonal increase in both BM and basal metabolic rate (BMR), although the patterns of co-variation between the two traits r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Broggi J,Nilsson JF,Koivula K,Hohtola E,Nilsson JÅ

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Agricultural land-use history does not reduce woodland understory herb establishment.

    abstract::Agricultural land use is a leading cause of habitat degradation, leaving a legacy of ecological impacts long after agriculture has ceased. Yet the mechanisms for legacy effects, such as altered plant community composition, are not well understood. In particular, whether plant community recovery is limited by an inabil...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barker CA,Turley NE,Orrock JL,Ledvina JA,Brudvig LA

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Inducible defenses in Olympia oysters in response to an invasive predator.

    abstract::The prey naiveté hypothesis suggests that native prey may be vulnerable to introduced predators because they have not evolved appropriate defenses. However, recent evidence suggests that native prey sometimes exhibit induced defenses to introduced predators, as a result of rapid evolution or other processes. We examin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bible JM,Griffith KR,Sanford E

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Gas exchange characteristics and temperature relations of two desert annuals: A comparison of a winter-active and a summer-active species.

    abstract::The gas exchange characteristics of two C3 desert annuals with contrasting phenologies, Geraea canescens T. & G. (winter-active) and Dicoria canescens T. & G. (summer-active), both Asteraceae, were determined for plants grown under a moderate (25°/15° C, day/night temperature) and a high (40°/27° C) growth temperature...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Toft NL,Pearcy RW

    更新日期:1982-11-01 00:00:00

  • Species replacement by a nonnative salmonid alters ecosystem function by reducing prey subsidies that support riparian spiders.

    abstract::Replacement of a native species by a nonnative can have strong effects on ecosystem function, such as altering nutrient cycling or disturbance frequency. Replacements may cause shifts in ecosystem function because nonnatives establish at different biomass, or because they differ from native species in traits like fora...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Benjamin JR,Fausch KD,Baxter CV

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Genetically-based variation between two spider populations in foraging behavior.

    abstract::Optimal foraging theory is based on the assumption that at least some aspects of foraging behavior are genetically determined (Pyke et al. 1977; Kamil and Sargent 1980; Pyke 1984). Nonetheless, very few studies have examined the role of genetics in foraging behavior. Here, we report on geographical differences in the ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hedrick AV,Riechert SE

    更新日期:1989-09-01 00:00:00

  • Energy partitioning in three species of nematode from polysaprobic environments.

    abstract::The partitioning of energy in three species of nematode, Paroigolaimella bernensis, Diplogasteritus nudicapitatus and Rhabditis curvicaudata, from a polysaprobic environment is considered. Temperature was shown to have a profound impact on the rate at which these organisms obtained food resources and on the partitioni...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Woombs M,Laybourn-Parry J

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanisms of recovery and resilience of different components of mosaics of habitats on shallow rocky reefs.

    abstract::Understanding the mechanisms producing and maintaining discontinuities between patches in mosaics of habitats is necessary to predict changes in patterns of abundance and distribution of species. On temperate rocky reefs, physical and biological disturbance can result in a mosaic of patches of encrusting coralline, tu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bulleri F,Benedetti-Cecchi L

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • The contributions of larval growth and pupal duration to protandry in the black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes.

    abstract::Shorter male larval and pupal durations were sufficient to produce the protandrous emergence pattern of the black swallowtail butterfly. In 9 broods observed under natural conditions, the first male was seen 7.1±6.5 days before the first female, although the peak of captures relative to the first capture was similar i...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lederhouse RC,Finke MD,Scriber JM

    更新日期:1982-06-01 00:00:00

  • Controls of fine root dynamics across a gradient of gap sizes in a pine woodland.

    abstract::Controls of fine dynamics were investigated in a Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine) woodland subjected to two understory vegetation treatments (control versus removed) and four overstory treatments (no gap control, and canopy gaps of three sizes with constant total gap area per stand). Fine root (<2 mm diameter) dy...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones RH,Mitchell RJ,Stevens G,Pecot S

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Structure of the mating calls and relationships of the European tree frogs (Hylidae, anura).

    abstract::As an extension of earlier investigations, the mating calls ofHyla arborea kretensis, Hyla a. molleri, andHyla a. sarda were studied, and variations in the calls with air temperature were determined. The mating calls of these species exhibit the typical structure, made up of short pulses of varying amplitude. The call...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schneider H

    更新日期:1974-03-01 00:00:00

  • Demography and life history characteristics of two honey bee races (Apis mellifera).

    abstract::Intra-colony demography and life history characteristics of neotropical Africanized and temperate European honey bearaces were compared under simulated feral conditions. Major differences in colony demography were found which nevertheless resulted in some similar reproductive characteristics. European colonies were la...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Winston ML,Dropkin JA,Taylor OR

    更新日期:1981-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of habitat disruption on the activity of nectarivorous bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in a dry tropical forest: implications for the reproductive success of the neotropical tree Ceiba grandiflora.

    abstract::In the tropical dry forest of the central Pacific coast of Mexico the pollination and reproductive success of the bombacaceous tree Ceiba grandiflora was negatively affected by habitat disruption. Two of the three bat species that function as effective pollinators for this species ( Glossophaga soricina and Musonycter...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Quesada M,Stoner KE,Rosas-Guerrero V,Palacios-Guevara C,Lobo JA

    更新日期:2003-05-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence for the promotion of aboveground grassland production by native large herbivores in Yellowstone National Park.

    abstract::We examined the effect of native large herbivores on aboveground primary production of nonforested habitat in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Productivity of vegetation grazed by elk (Cervus elaphus) and bison (Bison bison) was compared with that of ungrazed (permanently fenced) vegetation at four sites. Two metho...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frank DA,McNaughton SJ

    更新日期:1993-11-01 00:00:00

  • Establishing pathways of energy flow for insect predators using stable isotope ratios: field and laboratory evidence.

    abstract:: Quantifying pathways of energy transfer between plants, pests, and beneficial insects is a necessary step toward maintaining pest stable agroecosystems in the absence of chemical subsidies. A diet switching experiment utilizing a predatory ladybird beetle, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), evaluated the use of naturally ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ostrom PH,Colunga-Garcia M,Gage SH

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Anti-predator strategies in oviposition site selection of Pyrrhosoma nymphula (Zygoptera: Odonata).

    abstract::Selection of sites for oviposition when the risk of predation by green frogs was variable studied in tandems of the damselfly Pyrrhosoma nymphula. In the absence of predators the number of tandems landing increased with the size of the oviposition site and with the number of pairs already present. Pairs approaching an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rehfeldt GE

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00