The ecology, evolution, and biogeography of dioecy in the genus Solanum: with paradigms from the strong dioecy in Solanum polygamum, to the unsuspected and cryptic dioecy in Solanum conocarpum.


UNLABELLED:• PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Island plants are over-exploited and "under-explored." Understanding the reproductive biology of plants, especially rare species, is fundamental to clarifying their evolution, estimating potential for change, and for creating effective conservation plans. Clarification of sexual systems like dioecy, and unusual manifestations of it in specific studies within Solanum, helps elucidate evolutionary patterns and genetic and ecological control of sex expression.• METHODS:Studies of reproductive systems of two Caribbean endemics, S. polygamum and S. conocarpum, combined multifaceted analyses of field populations and of multiple generations of greenhouse plants.• KEY RESULTS:The dioecy in both species is, like that in other solanums, largely cryptic, although the gender of S. polygamum flowers is obvious. The rare S. conocarpum is recognized as dioecious; floral gender is not obvious. Variation in sex expression facilitated experiments and promoted hypotheses on control and significance of morphological features and sex expression.• CONCLUSIONS:Confirmed dioecy in at least 15 solanums is distributed across the genus, with perhaps 6 independent origins, and with crypticity in the form of morphologically hermaphroditic, but functionally unisexual, flowers characterizing all species. Dioecy is not more strongly associated with islands. Inaperturate pollen in pistillate flowers characterizes almost all, but not the two dioecious species studied herein. Dioecy in both species indicates leakiness (rare hermaphroditic flowers on male plants) that helps explain island colonization and radiation. Leakiness allowed confirmation-usually impossible for dioecious species-of self-compatibility for S. polygamum, and thus support for the hypothesis that dioecy evolved to promote outcrossing.


Am J Bot


Anderson GJ,Anderson MK,Patel N




Has Abstract


2015-03-01 00:00:00















    abstract::To determine the effects of density, genotype, and their interaction on individual seed mass in Raphanus sativus L., we replicated maternal and paternal families of seed across two planting densities in an experimental garden. Seeds were produced by a nested breeding design performed in the greenhouse. Among garden-ra...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mazer SJ,Wolfe LM

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • A new fossil flower from the Turonian of New Jersey: Dressiantha bicarpellata gen. et sp. nov. (Capparales).

    abstract::Recent discoveries of fossil reproductive structures from deposits of the Raritan Formation in New Jersey (Turonian, Upper Cretaceous, ~90 million years BP) include a previously undescribed representative of the Order Capparales. The fossils are usually charcoalified with three-dimensional structure and excellent anat...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gandolfo M,Nixon K,Crepet W

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Basal cactus phylogeny: implications of Pereskia (Cactaceae) paraphyly for the transition to the cactus life form.

    abstract::The cacti are well-known desert plants, widely recognized by their specialized growth form and essentially leafless condition. Pereskia, a group of 17 species with regular leaf development and function, is generally viewed as representing the "ancestral cactus," although its placement within Cactaceae has remained unc...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Edwards EJ,Nyffeler R,Donoghue MJ

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Mixed mating in a recently derived self-compatible population of Leavenworthia alabamica (Brassicaceae).

    abstract:UNLABELLED: PREMISE OF THE STUDY:A mixture of outcrossing and selfing is often observed in plant populations. Although mixed mating is ubiquitous, it has several potential evolutionary explanations. Mixed mating may be actively maintained by selection, passively determined by the pollination environment, or a transiti...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Busch JW,Herlihy CR,Gunn L,Werner WJ

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • Apical organization and maturation of the cortex and vascular cylinder inArabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) roots.

    abstract::Developmental and physiological studies of roots are frequently limited to a post-germination stage. In Arabidopsis, a developmental change in the root meristem architecture during plant ontogenesis has not previously been studied and is addressed presently. Arabidopsis thaliana have closed root apical organization, i...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baum SF,Dubrovsky JG,Rost TL

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Invasive congeners are unlikely to hybridize with native Hawaiian Bidens (Asteraceae).

    abstract:UNLABELLED: PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Invasive plant species threaten native plants in multiple ways, one of which is genetic assimilation through hybridization. However, information regarding hybridization between related alien and native plant species is generally lacking. In Hawaii, the invasive Central American species...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knope ML,Pender RJ,Crawford DJ,Wieczorek AM

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • The structure and development of incompletely closed carpels in an apocarpous species, Sagittaria trifolia (Alismataceae).

    abstract::• Premise of the study: Carpel closure is commonly considered as a key innovation in angiosperms; however, some families continue to exhibit a variety of forms of incomplete carpel closure. The carpel of Sagittaria species contains an unusual structure. In this study, we confirm the closure type of the carpel of Sagit...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang LJ,Wang XW,Wang XF

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Plant tropisms: from Darwin to the International Space Station.

    abstract::Plant tropisms play a fundamental role in shaping the growth form of plants, and these fascinating movements are the focus of this thematic issue of the American Journal of Botany. The issue includes 16 reviews of the current literature and eight original manuscripts written by a diverse group of international experts...

    journal_title:American journal of botany



    authors: Wyatt SE,Kiss JZ

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00


    abstract::Gas exchange was measured in two subalpine herbs during alternating periods of sun and shade that simulated natural cloud patterns. Stomatal conductance (g) in the subalpine herb Helianthella quinquenervis was reduced by as much as 75% during 5-min shade periods that ranged in photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD)...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knapp AK,Smith WK

    更新日期:1990-02-01 00:00:00

  • Plant biomechanical strategies in response to frequent disturbance: uprooting of Phyllostachys nidularia (Poaceae) growing on landslide-prone slopes in Sichuan, China.

    abstract::Bamboo is considered useful for controlling landslides, but we observed numerous shallow-slope failures in forests of big node bamboo (Phyllostachys nidularia) in Sichuan, China. Therefore, we inventoried landslide occurrence and vegetation type along one valley. To quantify bamboo root anchorage, we performed uprooti...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stokes A,Lucas A,Jouneau L

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Constructing a broadly inclusive seed plant phylogeny.

    abstract:PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Large phylogenies can help shed light on macroevolutionary patterns that inform our understanding of fundamental processes that shape the tree of life. These phylogenies also serve as tools that facilitate other systematic, evolutionary, and ecological analyses. Here we combine genetic data from pu...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith SA,Brown JW

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Phenology and demography of two species of Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae).

    abstract::Temporal and demographic aspects of the growth of Botrychium gallicomontanum and B. mormo were studied for 2 yr. A total of 219 B. gallicomontanum and 412 B. mormo plants were monitored in a prairie and maple-basswood forest, respectively. Growth events were divided into four stages: leaf emergence, leaf separation, s...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnson-Groh CL,Lee JM

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • The pollination biology of two paniculate agaves (Agavaceae) from northwestern Mexico: contrasting roles of bats as pollinators.

    abstract::Paniculate agaves from tropical deserts depend on nectar-feeding bats for their reproduction, while species from extratropical areas near the northern limit of Leptonycteris curasoae are pollinated by diurnal and nocturnal insects and birds. Agave angustifolia is a paniculate agave with a broad distribution in Mexico ...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Molina-Freaner F,Eguiarte LE

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • The African baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae): genetic resources in neglected populations of the Nuba Mountains, Sudan.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:• PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Adansonia digitata L. is one of the most important indigenous fruit trees of mainland Africa. Despite its significance for subsistence and income generation of local communities, little is known about the genetic and morphological variability of East African populations of A. digitata...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wiehle M,Prinz K,Kehlenbeck K,Goenster S,Mohamed SA,Finkeldey R,Buerkert A,Gebauer J

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Morphology and affinities of an Early Cretaceous Ephedra (Ephedraceae) from China.

    abstract::Detailed investigations on Lower Cretaceous Ephedra L. fossils (Gnetopsida) reveal morphological characters similar to those of extant Ephedra rhytidosperma Pachomova, including articulate branches with many fine longitudinal striations, a dichasial branching pattern, uni- or bi-ovulate cones with paired bracts, cones...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yang Y,Geng BY,Dilcher DL,Chen ZD,Lott TA

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic analyses of nickel tolerance in a North American serpentine endemic plant, Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae (Brassicaceae).

    abstract:PREMISE OF THE STUDY:The evolution of metal tolerance in plants is an important model for studies of adaptation to environment, population genetics, and speciation. Here, we investigated nickel tolerance in the North American serpentine endemic Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae in comparison with its nonserpentine...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burrell AM,Hawkins AK,Pepper AE

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00

  • Pollination by flies, bees, and beetles of Nuphar ozarkana and N. advena (Nymphaeaceae).

    abstract::Nuphar comprises 13 species of aquatic perennials distributed in the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The European species N. lutea and N. pumila in Norway, the Netherlands, and Germany are pollinated by bees and flies, including apparent Nuphar specialists. This contrasts with reports of predominant beetle pollination ...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lippok B,Gardine AA,Williamson PS,Renner SS

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • Sexual and natural selection on pollen morphology in Taraxacum.

    abstract:PREMISE:Spiny pollen has evolved independently in multiple entomophilous lineages. Sexual selection may act on exine traits that facilitate male mating success by influencing the transfer of pollen from the anther to the body of the pollinator, while natural selection acts to increase pollen survival. We postulated tha...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lynn A,Piotter E,Harrison E,Galen C

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Genome size and karyotype evolution in the slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae).

    abstract::Nuclear DNA contents (4C) were estimated by Feulgen microdensitometry in 27 species of slipper orchids. These data and recent information concerning the molecular systematics of Cypripedioideae allow an interesting re-evaluation of karyotype and genome size variation among slipper orchids in a phylogenetic context. DN...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cox A,Abdelnour G,Bennett M,Leitch I

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00


    abstract::The phenotype of maize plants that are homozygous recessive for the nuclear gene iojap is commonly an "anemic," grainy green appearance accompanied by white leaf stripes, white leaf margins, and reduced growth. In plants in which the iojap effect is occurring (homozygous ij/ij), we find affected tissue varies in exten...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Coe EH Jr,Thompson D,Walbot V

    更新日期:1988-05-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular systematics of Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer and plastid RPO C1 intron sequences.

    abstract::Evolutionary relationships among representatives of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) subfamily Apioideae have been inferred from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS 1 and ITS 2) and plastid rpoC1 intron sequences. High levels of nucleotide sequence variation preclude the use of the I...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Downie S,Ramanath S,Katz-Downie D,Llanas E

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • Geographic variation in climate as a proxy for climate change: Forecasting evolutionary trajectories from species differentiation and genetic correlations.

    abstract:PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Climate change models for California predict a warmer, drier future, potentially resulting in shorter growing seasons. If phenotypic differences between closely related species currently distributed across a moisture and temperature gradient represent adaptations to their abiotic environment, then ...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schneider HE,Mazer SJ

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Phylogeny of Rutaceae based on twononcoding regions from cpDNA.

    abstract::Primarily known only by the edible fruits of Citrus, Rutaceae comprise a large (c. 160 genera and 1900 species), morphologically diverse, cosmopolitan family. Of its extraordinary array of secondary chemical compounds, many have medicinal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, or herbicidal properties. To assist with the much-...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Groppo M,Pirani JR,Salatino ML,Blanco SR,Kallunki JA

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • C4 photosynthesis and transition of Kranz anatomy in cotyledons and leaves of Tetraena simplex.

    abstract:PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Tetraena simplex is an independently evolved C4 species in the Zygophylloideae (Zygophyllaceae) and a characteristic forb of saline flats in hot and sandy desert habitats. During early ontogeny, the species had a morphological shift from planar cotyledons (dorsiventral symmetry) to terete, succulen...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Muhaidat R,McKown AD,Al Zoubi M,Bani Domi Z,Otoum O

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Rolled liverwort mats explain major Prototaxites features: Response to commentaries.

    abstract::In volume 97(2) of the American Journal of Botany (pp. 268-275), we published an article entitled "Structural, physiological, and stable carbon isotopic evidence that the enigmatic Paleozoic fossil Prototaxites formed from rolled liverwort mats". Here, we respond to a letter and a commentary on our article in the pres...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Graham LE,Cook ME,Hanson DT,Pigg KB,Graham JM

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Optimized genotyping with microsatellite markers in the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Mycosphaerellaceae).

    abstract:UNLABELLED: PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Large-scale population genetics studies are required to investigate the dispersal processes underlying the emergence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, a fungal pathogen of banana. To this end, we have developed an optimized genotyping procedure combining novel microsatellite markers and a m...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Robert S,Rieux A,Argout X,Carlier J,Zapater MF

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Mentor effects in wild species of Helianthus (Asteraceae).

    abstract::Self-incompatibility (SI) is an effective method for limiting self-fertilization in flowering plant species, but there are circumstances in which an otherwise functional SI system may fail. One of the most intriguing of these is the induction of selfing by mixed loads of self and heterospecific pollen (the mentor effe...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Desrochers A,Rieseberg L

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of storage conditions on germination of seeds of 489 species from high elevation grasslands of the eastern Tibet Plateau and some implications for climate change.

    abstract:PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Little is known about the effect of environmental conditions on seed dormancy break at the community level or how it could be affected by climate change. This study tested the effects of storage conditions on germination of 489 species from high-elevation natural grasslands on the Tibet Plateau. M...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu K,Baskin JM,Baskin CC,Bu H,Liu M,Liu W,Du G

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Ancient paralogy in the cpDNA trnL-F region in Annonaceae: implications for plant molecular systematics.

    abstract::The plastid trnL-F region has proved useful in molecular phylogenetic studies addressing diverse evolutionary questions from biogeographic history to character evolution in a broad range of plant groups. An important assumption for phylogenetic reconstruction is that data used in combined analyses contain the same phy...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pirie MD,Vargas MP,Botermans M,Bakker FT,Chatrou LW

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • The potential for genetic assimilation of a native dandelion species, Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), by the exotic congener T. officinale.

    abstract::Exotic plant species can threaten closely related native congeners through asymmetric hybridization and subsequent backcrossing, the process known as genetic assimilation. I explore the initial stages of this process in Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), the native alpine dandelion, and the invasive apomict T. offic...

    journal_title:American journal of botany

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brock MT

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00