Crofelemer for the symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy.


:Chronic diarrhea remains a common condition that affects people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) despite the widespread use of potent antiretroviral therapy. It is important that providers control this condition, as the persistence of diarrhea affects the quality of life of patients and may contribute to decreased adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Strategies to control diarrhea in patients with HIV infection include switching to a new antiretroviral regimen and/or the use of specific medications to control the diarrhea. This review aims to provide a concise evaluation of a newly approved medication (crofelemer) that has a novel mechanism of action and has received approval for the symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV on anti-retroviral therapy.


Castro JG,Chin-Beckford N




Has Abstract


2015-01-01 00:00:00












  • Methods for optimizing statistical analyses in pharmacogenomics research.

    abstract::Pharmacogenomics is a rapidly developing sector of human genetics research with arguably the highest potential for immediate benefit. There is a considerable body of evidence demonstrating that variability in drug-treatment response can be explained in part by genetic variation. Subsequently, much research has ensued ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Turner SD,Crawford DC,Ritchie MD

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Daunorubicin and cytarabine for certain types of poor-prognosis acute myeloid leukemia: a systematic literature review.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Induction chemotherapy based on anthracyclines and cytarabine (Ara-C) combination remains the standard of care for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients who are considered candidate for intensive and curative approaches. However, the toxicity of this regimen is high, with disappointing clinical outcomes am...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Megías-Vericat JE,Martínez-Cuadrón D,Sanz MÁ,Poveda JL,Montesinos P

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • The genetics of vascular incidents associated with second-generation antipsychotic administration.

    abstract::Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) have been associated with risk of stroke in elderly patients, but the molecular and genetic background under this association has been poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to prioritize a list of genes with an SGA altered expression in order to characterize the g...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cocchi E,Drago A,de Ronchi D,Serretti A

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS 12) for prevention of pregnancy for up to five years.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:A new five-year low dose, smaller-framed, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive system (LNG-IUS 12) has been introduced to complement the currently available systems. Areas Covered: This article will provide an overview of this new intrauterine system - its composition and its mechanisms of a...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nelson AL

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • New problems arising from old drugs: second-generation effects of acetaminophen.

    abstract::Acetaminophen (APAP)/paracetamol is one of the most commonly used over-the-counter drugs taken worldwide for treatment of pain and fever. Although considered as safe when taken in recommended doses not higher than 4 g/day, APAP overdose is currently the most important cause of acute liver failure (ALF). ALF may requir...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tiegs G,Karimi K,Brune K,Arck P

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiovascular adverse events by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: when the benefits outweigh the risks.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Therapeutic efficiency of NSAID is handicapped by ongoing discussion of cardiovascular (CV) safety. Areas covered: We update meta-analyses on NSAIDs in patients with and without cardiovascular (CV) diseases and analyse the association between NSAIDs and cardiovascular events in patients with inflammation. ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zingler G,Hermann B,Fischer T,Herdegen T

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • VEGF-targeted therapy and beyond: pharmacotherapy and emerging treatments in agerelated macular degeneration.

    abstract::Treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has changed dramatically over the last decade. It has evolved from primarily destructive therapies (laser-based treatment strategies) to nondestructive therapies (intravitreal pharmacotherapies that target angiogenesis). Intermittent intravitreal ranibizumab, an inhi...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McGimpsey SJ,Chakravarthy U

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Inflammation-mediated changes in drug transporter expression/activity: implications for therapeutic drug response.

    abstract::Inflammation plays a critical role in host defense, maintaining cellular and tissue integrity following chemical, physical and biological insults. Inflammation presents in a variety of acute and chronic disease states and can contribute to disease resolution or progression depending upon the type, magnitude and durati...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cressman AM,Petrovic V,Piquette-Miller M

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • The role of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the placenta: a growing research field.

    abstract::Introduction: The placenta is a temporary and unique organ that allows for the physical connection between a mother and fetus; this organ regulates the transport of gases and nutrients mediating the elimination of waste products contained in the fetal circulation. The placenta performs metabolic and excretion function...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Blanco-Castañeda R,Galaviz-Hernández C,Souto PCS,Lima VV,Giachini FR,Escudero C,Damiano AE,Barragán-Zúñiga LJ,Martínez-Aguilar G,Sosa-Macías M

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Participants' written informed consent in low-risk pragmatic clinical trials with medicines.

    abstract::Introduction: An important gap within modern medicine is the lack of enough comparative effectiveness research of marketed medicines. Low-risk pragmatic randomized controlled trials (pRCTs) are those conducted resembling usual clinical practice that poses no or minimal incremental risk compared with normal clinical pr...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dal-Ré R

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • JAK3-selective inhibitor peficitinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract::Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease characterized by synovitis as well as symmetric and destructive arthropathy. Although several disease modified antirheumatic-drugs (DMARDs) have widely used in clinical practice, certain patients are nonresponsive to or cannot take suc...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Qiu Q,Feng Q,Tan X,Guo M

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Lipid-based delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides for cancer immunotherapy.

    abstract::The anti-tumor activity of CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been well established in numerous animal models and confirmed in a number of early clinical trials. While the use of chemical modifications has effectively reduced the sensitivity of ODNs to nuclease degradation and a number of human trials hav...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilson KD,Tam YK

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Establishing pharmacovigilance programs in resource-limited settings: the example of treating malaria.

    abstract::The unprecedented levels of political, technical and financial support for improved malaria control, and particularly for changes in the malaria treatment policy, have heralded a renewed appreciation of the role of pharmacovigilance, its relationship with other areas of public health and the development of novel appro...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mehta U,Allen E,Barnes KI

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological treatment of pediatric Gaucher disease.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (b-glucosidase), associated with varying degrees of visceral, bone and central nervous system pathology, leading to wide phenotypic diversity. Response to therapy and clinical ou...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gupta P,Pastores G

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Phytotherapy as an alternative to conventional antimicrobials: combating microbial resistance.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:In the modern antimicrobial era, the rapid spread of resistance to antibiotics and introduction of new and mutating viruses is a global concern. Combating antimicrobial resistant microbes (AMR) requires coordinated international efforts that incorporate new conventional antibiotic development as well as de...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Enioutina EY,Teng L,Fateeva TV,Brown JCS,Job KM,Bortnikova VV,Krepkova LV,Gubarev MI,Sherwin CMT

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • Gemtuzumab ozogamicin for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) is an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of a monoclonal antibody targeting CD33 linked to a cytotoxic derivative of calicheamicin. Despite the known clinical efficacy in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML), GO was withdrawn from the market in 2010 due to increased e...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Baron J,Wang ES

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical applications of pharmacogenomics to adverse drug reactions.

    abstract::The problem of adverse drug reactions is a well-documented global public health problem. Recent withdrawals of several widely used prescription medications in the USA and other countries have raised concerns among patients, clinicians, scientists and policy makers. The increasing interest and concern regarding withdra...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Issa AM

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Optimization of anti-TNF therapy in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    abstract::After the introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents, the clinical outcome of patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has improved significantly. However, use of anti-TNF therapy is complicated by loss of response. In order to maintain remission, adequate serum levels are required. Hence, ther...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Strik AS,Bots SJ,D'Haens G,Löwenberg M

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Bupropion-SR plus naltrexone-SR for the treatment of mild-to-moderate obesity.

    abstract::Naltrexone-bupropion is a recently approved drug combination for chronic weight management. In this article, we discuss the rationale for its use as a combination followed by a comprehensive review of safety and efficacy data from major preclinical, phase II and III clinical trials. ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ali KF,Shukla AP,Aronne LJ

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Strategies for recombinant production of antimicrobial peptides with pharmacological potential.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The need to develop new drugs for the control of pathogenic microorganisms has redoubled efforts to prospect for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from natural sources and to characterize its structure and function. These molecules present a broad spectrum of action against different microorganisms and frequen...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sampaio de Oliveira KB,Leite ML,Rodrigues GR,Duque HM,da Costa RA,Cunha VA,de Loiola Costa LS,da Cunha NB,Franco OL,Dias SC

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Sugammadex: a novel selective relaxant binding agent.

    abstract::Sugammadex, a modified γ-cyclodextrin, is the first selective relaxant binding agent. Sugammadex forms very tight complexes in a 1:1 ratio with steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents (rocuronium > vecuronium > pancuronium). This guest-host complex, which exists in equilibrium, is stable because of its very high assoc...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Naguib M,Brull SJ

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Current perspectives on the modulation of thermo-TRP channels: new advances and therapeutic implications.

    abstract::The thermo transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, a recently discovered family of ion channels activated by temperature, are expressed in primary sensory nerve terminals, where they provide information regarding thermal changes in the environment. Six thermo-TRPs have been characterized to date: TRPV1-4, whi...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vay L,Gu C,McNaughton PA

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Significance and applications of nanoparticles in siRNA delivery for cancer therapy.

    abstract::RNAi is a powerful gene silencing process that holds great promise in cancer therapy by the use of siRNA. The aim of this review is to give an outline on different approaches to deliver siRNA and to describe the advantages and disadvantages of these systems. The prospects for siRNA are to be substantially better than ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ali HM,Urbinati G,Raouane M,Massaad-Massade L

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Atezolizumab for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The immune system can restrain or promote cancer development and growth. Antibodies targeting immune checkpoints have revolutionized cancer treatment. Among the best responses have been in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which is largely caused by chronic exposure to carcinogens; associated with high ne...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Santini FC,Rudin CM

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive impairment with diabetes mellitus and metabolic disease: innovative insights with the mechanistic target of rapamycin and circadian clock gene pathways.

    abstract::Introduction: Dementia is the 7th leading cause of death that imposes a significant financial and service burden on the global population. Presently, only symptomatic care exists for cognitive loss, such as Alzheimer's disease.Areas covered: Given the advancing age of the global population, it becomes imperative to de...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maiese K

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Hydrogen sulfide in the endocrine and reproductive systems.

    abstract::Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is now considered a member of a group of signaling molecules termed 'gasotransmitters'. H(2)S has been shown to be generated in the endocrine and reproductive organs and elicits various actions. H(2)S modulates insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Adipose tissues have the ability to produce...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhu XY,Gu H,Ni X

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and spondyloarthritis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:More than half of the patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experience at least one extra-intestinal manifestation (EIM). The most common EIM in patients with IBD is spondyloarthritis (SpA). Microscopic intestinal inflammation is documented in almost 50% of the patients with SpA. Areas covered: We...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pouillon L,Bossuyt P,Vanderstukken J,Moulin D,Netter P,Danese S,Jouzeau JY,Loeuille D,Peyrin-Biroulet L

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Aripiprazole long-acting injectable formulations for schizophrenia: aripiprazole monohydrate and aripiprazole lauroxil.

    abstract::Aripiprazole monohydrate (AM) and aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) are two different long-acting injectable formulations of aripiprazole. AM 400 mg administered once monthly demonstrated efficacy in an acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, as well as in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, rando...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Citrome L

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Three-month paliperidone palmitate - a new treatment option for schizophrenia.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIAs) were introduced to improve treatment adherence and tolerability of oral formulations. After risperidone was introduced as the first long-acting injectable second-generation antipsychotic, during the last five years olanzapine pamoate, once-monthly paliperidone ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bernardo M,Bioque M

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of red wine on established markers of arterial structure and function in human studies: current knowledge and future research directions.

    abstract::Evidence from observational studies suggests that mild-to-moderate consumption of red wine is associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Various individual chemical components of red wine also show salutary effects on vascular homeostasis, that is, enhanced endothelial function and arterial disten...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mangoni AA,Stockley CS,Woodman RJ

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00