Crofelemer for the symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy.


:Chronic diarrhea remains a common condition that affects people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) despite the widespread use of potent antiretroviral therapy. It is important that providers control this condition, as the persistence of diarrhea affects the quality of life of patients and may contribute to decreased adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Strategies to control diarrhea in patients with HIV infection include switching to a new antiretroviral regimen and/or the use of specific medications to control the diarrhea. This review aims to provide a concise evaluation of a newly approved medication (crofelemer) that has a novel mechanism of action and has received approval for the symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV on anti-retroviral therapy.


Castro JG,Chin-Beckford N




Has Abstract


2015-01-01 00:00:00












  • Polypharmacy among adult and older adult users of primary care services delivered through the Unified Health System in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To estimate the prevalence of polypharmacy (≥5 drugs) among adults and to analyze related factors. METHODS:Cross-sectional study with 1,159 interviewees distributed across 104 cities and 253 primary healthcare services delivered through the Brazilian Unified Health System. Polypharmacy-related factors were ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moreira T,Alvares-Teodoro J,Barbosa MM,Do Nascimento RCRM,Guerra Júnior AA,Acurcio FA

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Phytotherapy as an alternative to conventional antimicrobials: combating microbial resistance.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:In the modern antimicrobial era, the rapid spread of resistance to antibiotics and introduction of new and mutating viruses is a global concern. Combating antimicrobial resistant microbes (AMR) requires coordinated international efforts that incorporate new conventional antibiotic development as well as de...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Enioutina EY,Teng L,Fateeva TV,Brown JCS,Job KM,Bortnikova VV,Krepkova LV,Gubarev MI,Sherwin CMT

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of red wine on established markers of arterial structure and function in human studies: current knowledge and future research directions.

    abstract::Evidence from observational studies suggests that mild-to-moderate consumption of red wine is associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Various individual chemical components of red wine also show salutary effects on vascular homeostasis, that is, enhanced endothelial function and arterial disten...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mangoni AA,Stockley CS,Woodman RJ

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Antioxidants in the prevention of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    abstract::In acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) the optimal treatment is rapid revascularization by angioplasty or pharmacological thrombolysis. While this is essential to resuscitate the ischemic myocardium, it results in further reperfusion injury and extension of the infarction. The main hypothesis for the mechanism of reperfus...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qin C,Yap S,Woodman OL

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical pharmacology of linezolid: an oxazolidinone antimicrobial agent.

    abstract::The oxazolidinones are a new class of antibiotics whose mechanism of action is the inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. Linezolid is the first member of this class of antibiotics to be approved by the US FDA and other regulatory bodies for the treatment of infections cause...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tan TQ,Yogev R

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Sex and gender influences on pharmacological response: an overview.

    abstract::Research on the specific effects of sex and gender on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as safety profile tolerability and drug efficacy, of medications remain meager because female animals and women have only recently been included in the pharmacological domain. To date, the influence of sex and gender o...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Franconi F,Campesi I

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Daunorubicin and cytarabine for certain types of poor-prognosis acute myeloid leukemia: a systematic literature review.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Induction chemotherapy based on anthracyclines and cytarabine (Ara-C) combination remains the standard of care for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients who are considered candidate for intensive and curative approaches. However, the toxicity of this regimen is high, with disappointing clinical outcomes am...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Megías-Vericat JE,Martínez-Cuadrón D,Sanz MÁ,Poveda JL,Montesinos P

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Use of quantitative pharmacology tools to improve malaria treatments.

    abstract::The use of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data to inform antimalarial treatment regimens has accelerated in the past few decades, due in no small part to the stimulus provided by progressive development of parasite resistance to most of the currently available drugs. An understanding of the disposition,...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Davis TM,Moore BR,Salman S,Page-Sharp M,Batty KT,Manning L

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical pharmacology in HIV cure research - what impact have we seen?

    abstract::Introduction: Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has transformed an inexorably fatal disease into a chronic pathology, shifting the focus of research from the control of viral replication to the possibility of HIV cure. Areas covered: The present review assesses the principal pharmacological strategies that have b...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Giacomelli A,de Rose S,Rusconi S

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Lucinactant for the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants.

    abstract::Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in premature infants. It is caused by surfactant deficiency and lung immaturity. Lucinactant is a synthetic surfactant containing sinapultide, a bioengineered peptide mimic of surfactant-associated protein B. A meta-analysis o...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jordan BK,Donn SM

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Children in clinical trials: towards evidence-based pediatric pharmacotherapy using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:In pediatric pharmacotherapy, many drugs are still used off-label, and their efficacy and safety is not well characterized. Different efficacy and safety profiles in children of varying ages may be anticipated, due to developmental changes occurring across pediatric life. AREAS COVERED:Beside pharmacokine...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brussee JM,Calvier EA,Krekels EH,Välitalo PA,Tibboel D,Allegaert K,Knibbe CA

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Dinutuximab for the treatment of pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.

    abstract::Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra cranial solid tumor of childhood, with 60% of patients presenting with high risk (HR) NB by means of clinical, pathological and biological features. The 5-year survival rate for HR-NB remains below 40%, with the majority of patients suffering relapse from chemorefractory tum...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mora J

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • A clinical perspective on escalating or de-escalating adjuvant therapy in HER2+ breast cancer.

    abstract::Introduction: Patients with early HER2-positive breast cancer (BC) benefit from HER2-targeted systemic therapy. The endorsed standard adjuvant treatment for patients with early HER2-positive breast cancer is chemotherapy plus trastuzumab administered for 1 year. Areas covered: Several trials have investigated modifica...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Esposito A,Viale G,Criscitiello C,Curigliano G

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Seek and destroy: improving PK/PD profiles of anticancer agents with nanoparticles.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) relationships with cytotoxics are usually based on a steepening concentration-effect relationship; the greater the drug amount, the greater the effect. The Maximum Tolerated Dose paradigm, finding the balance between efficacy, while keeping toxicities at their ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rodallec A,Fanciullino R,Lacarelle B,Ciccolini J

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Adverse reactions to oncologic drugs: spontaneous reporting and signal detection.

    abstract::Oncology is one of the areas of medicine with the most active research being conducted on new drugs. New pharmacological entities frequently enter the clinical arena, and therefore, the safety profile of anticancer products deserves continuous monitoring. However, only very severe and (unusual) suspected adverse drug ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tuccori M,Montagnani S,Capogrosso-Sansone A,Mantarro S,Antonioli L,Fornai M,Blandizzi C

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Magnetic nanoparticles: an emerging technology for malignant brain tumor imaging and therapy.

    abstract::Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a promising nanomaterial for the targeted therapy and imaging of malignant brain tumors. Conjugation of peptides or antibodies to the surface of MNPs allows direct targeting of the tumor cell surface and potential disruption of active signaling pathways present in tumor cells. D...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wankhede M,Bouras A,Kaluzova M,Hadjipanayis CG

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ocular dysfunctions and toxicities induced by antiepileptic medications: Types, pathogenic mechanisms, and treatment strategies.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Ocular dysfunctions and toxicities induced by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are rarely reviewed and not frequently received attention by treating physicians compared to other adverse effects (e.g. endocrinologic, cognitive and metabolic). However, some are frequent and progressive even in therapeutic concentr...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hamed SA

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Dapsone-associated fixed drug eruption.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Dapsone is a sulfone drug used to treat infectious conditions and also numerous dermatologic diseases. Fixed drug eruption is a distinctive adverse cutaneous reaction associated with the initial administration and subsequent delivery of a specific agent. Areas covered: The authors preformed a literature se...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Garcia D,Cohen PR

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Combining hydroxychloroquine and minocycline: potential role in moderate to severe COVID-19 infection.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection require specific drugs to prevent the morbidity and mortality. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has shown some promise in the management of COVID 19. Minocycline, because of its anticytokine and other useful properties can be an ideal candidate for combining with...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gautam SS,Gautam CS,Garg VK,Singh H

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Glucosamine therapy for knee osteoarthritis: pharmacokinetic considerations.

    abstract::Knee osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. Given the aging of the world's population, the burden of this disease is expected to increase significantly over the next few decades. As a pharmacological agent, glucosamine has been investigated for the treatment of symptoms and progression of knee osteoarthr...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Altman RD

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • Strategies for recombinant production of antimicrobial peptides with pharmacological potential.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The need to develop new drugs for the control of pathogenic microorganisms has redoubled efforts to prospect for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from natural sources and to characterize its structure and function. These molecules present a broad spectrum of action against different microorganisms and frequen...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sampaio de Oliveira KB,Leite ML,Rodrigues GR,Duque HM,da Costa RA,Cunha VA,de Loiola Costa LS,da Cunha NB,Franco OL,Dias SC

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiovascular adverse events by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: when the benefits outweigh the risks.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Therapeutic efficiency of NSAID is handicapped by ongoing discussion of cardiovascular (CV) safety. Areas covered: We update meta-analyses on NSAIDs in patients with and without cardiovascular (CV) diseases and analyse the association between NSAIDs and cardiovascular events in patients with inflammation. ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zingler G,Hermann B,Fischer T,Herdegen T

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • MicroRNAs as potential circulating biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury: key current and future issues for translation to humans.

    abstract::Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a common form of adverse drug reaction seen within the clinic. Sensitive, specific and non-invasive biomarkers of liver toxicity are required to help diagnose hepatotoxicity and also to identify safety liabilities during drug development. Limitations exist in the current gold standa...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hornby RJ,Starkey Lewis P,Dear J,Goldring C,Park BK

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological resources, diagnostic approach and coordination of care in joint hypermobility-related disorders.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Joint hypermobility (JH) is the hallmark of many hereditary soft connective tissue disorders, including Ehlers-Danlos syndromes and related disorders, disorders of the TGFβ-pathway, lateral meningocele syndrome, arterial tortuosity syndrome, and cutis laxa syndromes. Contemporary practice separates individ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Baban A,Castori M

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence for a potential protective effect of carnitine-pantothenic acid co-treatment on valproic acid-induced hepatotoxicity.

    abstract::Valproic acid is approved for treatment of seizures and manic episodes of bipolar disorder, and continues to be one of the most commonly prescribed antiepileptic drugs in the world. Hepatotoxicity is a rare but serious side effect resulting from its use, particularly in young patients. This adverse effect does not dis...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Felker D,Lynn A,Wang S,Johnson DE

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Use of strong opioids for chronic pain in osteoarthritis: an insight into the Latin American reality.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Osteoarthritis is the most common cause of arthritis and one of the main causes of chronic pain. Although opioids are frequently employed for chronic pain treatment, their usage for osteoarthritis pain remains controversial due to the associated adverse effects. Most guidelines reserve their use for refrac...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ruiz Iban MA,Benavides J,Forero JP,Bittelman S,Martinez R,Mite MA,Diaz Heredia J,Ulloa S,Lizárraga Ferrand MM

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Selecting immuno-oncology-based drug combinations - what should we be considering?

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of many advanced stage cancers. Preexisting immunity is necessary for a response to these agents, which are most effective in inflamed tumors since they principally act by reinforcing preexisting antitumor T-cell responses. An important go...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Festino L,Vanella V,Trojaniello C,Ascierto PA

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • What if there were no new antibiotics? A look at alternatives.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. With this panorama, there is a serious danger that we may be entering the 'post-antibiotic era'. Areas covered: We assess why so few new classes of antibiotics have been developed in the past y...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rello J,Bunsow E,Perez A

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Immunopharmacology: utilizing antibodies as ion channel modulators.

    abstract::Development of the patch clamp technique by the Nobel Prize winners Bert Sakmann and Erwin Neher led to huge advances in ion channel research. Their work laid the foundations and revolutionized electrophysiological studies of cells and ion channels. These ion channels underlie many basic cellular physiological process...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dallas ML,Deuchars SA,Deuchars J

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS 12) for prevention of pregnancy for up to five years.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:A new five-year low dose, smaller-framed, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive system (LNG-IUS 12) has been introduced to complement the currently available systems. Areas Covered: This article will provide an overview of this new intrauterine system - its composition and its mechanisms of a...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nelson AL

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00