Crofelemer for the symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy.


:Chronic diarrhea remains a common condition that affects people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) despite the widespread use of potent antiretroviral therapy. It is important that providers control this condition, as the persistence of diarrhea affects the quality of life of patients and may contribute to decreased adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Strategies to control diarrhea in patients with HIV infection include switching to a new antiretroviral regimen and/or the use of specific medications to control the diarrhea. This review aims to provide a concise evaluation of a newly approved medication (crofelemer) that has a novel mechanism of action and has received approval for the symptomatic relief of non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients with HIV on anti-retroviral therapy.


Castro JG,Chin-Beckford N




Has Abstract


2015-01-01 00:00:00












  • The pathophysiological and pharmacological basis of current drug treatment of migraine headache.

    abstract::Migraine is a common neurological syndrome that affects approximately 10-20% of the population. The pathophysiology of migraine is unclear. 5-hydroxytriptamine is a key mediator in the pathogenesis of migraine and thus 5-HT1-receptor agonists are the principal drugs for acute migraine therapy. There are three classes ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Reddy DS

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Daunorubicin and cytarabine for certain types of poor-prognosis acute myeloid leukemia: a systematic literature review.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Induction chemotherapy based on anthracyclines and cytarabine (Ara-C) combination remains the standard of care for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients who are considered candidate for intensive and curative approaches. However, the toxicity of this regimen is high, with disappointing clinical outcomes am...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Megías-Vericat JE,Martínez-Cuadrón D,Sanz MÁ,Poveda JL,Montesinos P

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical pharmacology of old age.

    abstract::Introduction: With the majority of elderly persons consuming multiple drugs, inappropriate drug use is a major issue in geriatric medicine. Areas covered: We reviewed PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to 1 May 2019 for potentially inappropriate use of medications, polypharmacy, and age-dependent changes in p...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Koren G,Nordon G,Radinsky K,Shalev V

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Amlodipine and celecoxib for treatment of hypertension and osteoarthritis pain.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Osteoarthritis constitutes one of the leading causes of pain and disability worldwide with a significant impact on health-care costs. Patients with osteoarthritis are often affected by a number of cardiovascular comorbidities, including hypertension, which is present in about 40% of cases. Just recently, a...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Angeli F,Trapasso M,Signorotti S,Verdecchia P,Reboldi G

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Zanamivir for the treatment of avian influenza infections in humans.

    abstract::Zanamivir is currently not recommended by the WHO for the first-line treatment of human influenza A (H5N1) infections. Zanamivir pharmacokinetics and antiviral efficacy were reviewed to assess the basis for this recommendation. Following inhalation of 10 mg zanamivir in healthy humans, the drug is widely distributed t...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reece PA

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gemtuzumab ozogamicin for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) is an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of a monoclonal antibody targeting CD33 linked to a cytotoxic derivative of calicheamicin. Despite the known clinical efficacy in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML), GO was withdrawn from the market in 2010 due to increased e...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Baron J,Wang ES

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS 12) for prevention of pregnancy for up to five years.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:A new five-year low dose, smaller-framed, levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive system (LNG-IUS 12) has been introduced to complement the currently available systems. Areas Covered: This article will provide an overview of this new intrauterine system - its composition and its mechanisms of a...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nelson AL

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and spondyloarthritis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:More than half of the patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experience at least one extra-intestinal manifestation (EIM). The most common EIM in patients with IBD is spondyloarthritis (SpA). Microscopic intestinal inflammation is documented in almost 50% of the patients with SpA. Areas covered: We...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pouillon L,Bossuyt P,Vanderstukken J,Moulin D,Netter P,Danese S,Jouzeau JY,Loeuille D,Peyrin-Biroulet L

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Immunotherapy for gastric cancers: emerging role and future perspectives.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The broad use of immunotherapy is revolutionizing the treatment paradigms of many solid tumors. Although chemotherapy remains the treatment backbone for advanced gastric cancer, improvements in its molecular characterization and progresses in understanding its underpinning biology have supported clinical d...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bonotto M,Garattini SK,Basile D,Ongaro E,Fanotto V,Cattaneo M,Cortiula F,Iacono D,Cardellino GG,Pella N,Fasola G,Antonuzzo L,Silvestris N,Aprile G

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Anti-inflammatory strategies in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    abstract::Schizophrenia is a major mental illness with a lifetime prevalence of about 1%. Antipsychotic drugs, with a primary mechanism of action that involves dopamine receptor blockade, are the mainstay in the treatment of the disorder. However, despite optimum antipsychotic treatment, few patients return to pre-morbid levels...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Andrade C

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical pharmacology of linezolid: an oxazolidinone antimicrobial agent.

    abstract::The oxazolidinones are a new class of antibiotics whose mechanism of action is the inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. Linezolid is the first member of this class of antibiotics to be approved by the US FDA and other regulatory bodies for the treatment of infections cause...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tan TQ,Yogev R

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Radical metastasectomy followed by sorafenib versus observation in patients withclear cell renal cell carcinoma: extended follow -up of efficacy results from the randomized phase II RESORT trial.

    abstract::Background: The RESORT trial showed no longer relapse free survival (RFS) with sorafenib following radical metastasectomy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We present the updated 42-month follow-up data. Methods: The phase II RESORT trial randomized patients to sorafenib or observation within 12 weeks from surgery. ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mennitto A,Verzoni E,Cognetti F,Miceli R,Milella M,Mosca A,Chiuri VE,Bearz A,Morelli F,Ortega C,Atzori F,Donini M,Claps M,Guadalupi V,Sepe P,Cappelletti V,de Braud FG,Procopio G

    更新日期:2021-01-31 00:00:00

  • Evidence for a potential protective effect of carnitine-pantothenic acid co-treatment on valproic acid-induced hepatotoxicity.

    abstract::Valproic acid is approved for treatment of seizures and manic episodes of bipolar disorder, and continues to be one of the most commonly prescribed antiepileptic drugs in the world. Hepatotoxicity is a rare but serious side effect resulting from its use, particularly in young patients. This adverse effect does not dis...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Felker D,Lynn A,Wang S,Johnson DE

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Polypharmacy among adult and older adult users of primary care services delivered through the Unified Health System in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To estimate the prevalence of polypharmacy (≥5 drugs) among adults and to analyze related factors. METHODS:Cross-sectional study with 1,159 interviewees distributed across 104 cities and 253 primary healthcare services delivered through the Brazilian Unified Health System. Polypharmacy-related factors were ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moreira T,Alvares-Teodoro J,Barbosa MM,Do Nascimento RCRM,Guerra Júnior AA,Acurcio FA

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing pharmacological interventions for bone metastases: the need for more patient-centered outcomes.

    abstract::Bone metastases are associated with a broad spectrum of clinical sequelae. Pain, reduced mobility, skeletal complications and treatment-related events reduce quality of life. Numerous randomized controlled trials have evaluated pharmacological interventions to treat bone metastases. The primary outcomes used have evol...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ford JA,Mowatt G,Jones R

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Strategies for recombinant production of antimicrobial peptides with pharmacological potential.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The need to develop new drugs for the control of pathogenic microorganisms has redoubled efforts to prospect for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from natural sources and to characterize its structure and function. These molecules present a broad spectrum of action against different microorganisms and frequen...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sampaio de Oliveira KB,Leite ML,Rodrigues GR,Duque HM,da Costa RA,Cunha VA,de Loiola Costa LS,da Cunha NB,Franco OL,Dias SC

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Pegloticase and the patient with treatment-failure gout.

    abstract::Gout is an inflammatory arthritis characterized by sudden, painful inflammation. Gout can affect any joint in an asymmetric distribution. Gouty attacks may be isolated or can be followed by years of recurrent flares. Over time, elevated serum urate levels and tophaceous deposits can lead to deformity and disability fr...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dave AJ,Kelly VM,Krishnan E

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Statins and muscle pain.

    abstract::Introduction: Statins remain among the most frequently prescribed drugs and constitute a cornerstone in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, muscle symptoms are often reported from patients on statins. Muscle symptoms are frequently reported as adverse events associated with statin therapy.Areas covered:...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pergolizzi JV Jr,Coluzzi F,Colucci RD,Olsson H,LeQuang JA,Al-Saadi J,Magnusson P

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Cognitive impairment with diabetes mellitus and metabolic disease: innovative insights with the mechanistic target of rapamycin and circadian clock gene pathways.

    abstract::Introduction: Dementia is the 7th leading cause of death that imposes a significant financial and service burden on the global population. Presently, only symptomatic care exists for cognitive loss, such as Alzheimer's disease.Areas covered: Given the advancing age of the global population, it becomes imperative to de...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maiese K

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • What if there were no new antibiotics? A look at alternatives.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. With this panorama, there is a serious danger that we may be entering the 'post-antibiotic era'. Areas covered: We assess why so few new classes of antibiotics have been developed in the past y...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rello J,Bunsow E,Perez A

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Dinutuximab for the treatment of pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.

    abstract::Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra cranial solid tumor of childhood, with 60% of patients presenting with high risk (HR) NB by means of clinical, pathological and biological features. The 5-year survival rate for HR-NB remains below 40%, with the majority of patients suffering relapse from chemorefractory tum...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mora J

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions with methotrexate in oncology.

    abstract::Methotrexate is an antifolate agent used in the treatment of various cancers and some autoimmune diseases. In oncology, methotrexate is frequently administered at a high dose (>1 g/m(2)) and comes with various procedures to reduce the occurrence of toxicity and particularly to ensure optimal renal elimination. Drug-dr...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Levêque D,Santucci R,Gourieux B,Herbrecht R

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • JAK3-selective inhibitor peficitinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract::Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease characterized by synovitis as well as symmetric and destructive arthropathy. Although several disease modified antirheumatic-drugs (DMARDs) have widely used in clinical practice, certain patients are nonresponsive to or cannot take suc...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Qiu Q,Feng Q,Tan X,Guo M

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Hydrogen sulfide in the endocrine and reproductive systems.

    abstract::Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is now considered a member of a group of signaling molecules termed 'gasotransmitters'. H(2)S has been shown to be generated in the endocrine and reproductive organs and elicits various actions. H(2)S modulates insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. Adipose tissues have the ability to produce...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhu XY,Gu H,Ni X

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Potential new clinical therapies for Chagas disease.

    abstract::Chagas disease is the highest impact parasitic disease in the Americas but often goes untreated due to the shortcomings of currently available therapeutics. Thus there is an urgent need for new treatment options and growing interest in drug development for the infection. This review summarizes some of the recent advan...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bustamante JM,Tarleton RL

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • The genetics of vascular incidents associated with second-generation antipsychotic administration.

    abstract::Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) have been associated with risk of stroke in elderly patients, but the molecular and genetic background under this association has been poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to prioritize a list of genes with an SGA altered expression in order to characterize the g...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cocchi E,Drago A,de Ronchi D,Serretti A

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • A meta-analysis of apremilast on psoriatic arthritis long-term assessment of clinical efficacy (PALACE).

    abstract::The aim of this article was to assess the efficacy and safety of apremilast in treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with meta-analysis method. We included four randomized clinical trials identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, "ISRCTN Register" and "" which compared apremilast with place...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Qu X,Zhang S,Tao L,Song Y

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Optimization of anti-TNF therapy in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    abstract::After the introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents, the clinical outcome of patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has improved significantly. However, use of anti-TNF therapy is complicated by loss of response. In order to maintain remission, adequate serum levels are required. Hence, ther...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Strik AS,Bots SJ,D'Haens G,Löwenberg M

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Seek and destroy: improving PK/PD profiles of anticancer agents with nanoparticles.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) relationships with cytotoxics are usually based on a steepening concentration-effect relationship; the greater the drug amount, the greater the effect. The Maximum Tolerated Dose paradigm, finding the balance between efficacy, while keeping toxicities at their ...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rodallec A,Fanciullino R,Lacarelle B,Ciccolini J

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Use of quantitative pharmacology tools to improve malaria treatments.

    abstract::The use of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data to inform antimalarial treatment regimens has accelerated in the past few decades, due in no small part to the stimulus provided by progressive development of parasite resistance to most of the currently available drugs. An understanding of the disposition,...

    journal_title:Expert review of clinical pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Davis TM,Moore BR,Salman S,Page-Sharp M,Batty KT,Manning L

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00