Antibiotics for sore throat.


BACKGROUND:Sore throat is a very common reason for people to seek medical care. It is a disease that remits spontaneously, that is, 'cure' is not dependent on treatment. Nonetheless primary care doctors commonly prescribe antibiotics for sore throat and other upper respiratory tract infections. OBJECTIVES:To assess the benefits of antibiotics in the management of sore throat. SEARCH STRATEGY:Systematic search of the literature from 1945 to 2003, using electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, issue 2, 2003); MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2003); EMBASE (January 1990 to March 2003), and the reference sections of the articles identified. We applied no language restrictions. We used abstracts of identified articles to identify trials. SELECTION CRITERIA:Trials of antibiotic against control with either measures of the typical symptoms (throat soreness, headache or fever), or suppurative complications (meaning: forming pus) and non-suppurative complications of sore throat. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two reviewers independently screened potential studies for inclusion and resolved differences in opinion by discussion. The reviewers then independently extracted the data from the selected studies. We contacted the authors of three studies to acquire additional information not available in published articles. Potential studies were screened independently by two reviewers for inclusion, with differences in opinion resolved by discussion. Data was then independently extracted from studies selected by inclusion by two reviewers. Authors of three studies were contacted to acquire additional information not available in published articles. MAIN RESULTS:We included twenty-six studies, covering 12,669 cases of sore throat in the review.1. Non-suppurative complications There was a trend for protection against acute glomerulonephritis by antibiotics, but insufficient cases were recorded to be sure of this effect. Several studies found that antibiotics reduced acute rheumatic fever, to less than one third (odds ratio (OR) = 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.20 to 0.45). 2. Suppurative complications Antibiotics reduced the incidence of acute otitis media to about one quarter of that in the placebo group (OR = 0.22; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.43) and reduced the incidence of acute sinusitis to about one half of that in the placebo group (OR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.10 to 2.05). The incidence of quinsy was also reduced in relation to placebo group (OR = 0.16; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.35). 3. Symptoms Symptoms of headache, throat soreness and fever were reduced by antibiotics to about one half. The greatest time for this to be evident was at about three and a half days (when the symptoms of about 50% of untreated patients had settled). About 90% of treated and untreated patients were free of symptoms by one week. The overall number needed to treat to prevent one sore throat at day three was about 5.0 (95% CI 4.5 to 5.8); and at one week was 14.2 (95% CI 11.5 to 20.6). 4. Subgroup analyses of symptom reduction Subgroup analysis by age; blind versus unblinded; or use of antipyretics yielded no significant differences. The results of swabs of the throat for Streptococcus influenced the effect of antibiotics. If the swab was positive, antibiotics were more effective (the OR reduced to 0.16, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.26) than if it was negative (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.38 to 1.12). REVIEWERS' CONCLUSIONS:Antibiotics confer relative benefits in the treatment of sore throat. However, the absolute benefits are modest. Protecting sore throat sufferers against suppurative and non-suppurative complications in modern Western society can be achieved only by treating with antibiotics many who will derive no benefit. In emerging economies where rates of for example acute rheumatic fever are high, the number needed to treat may be much lower. Antibiotics shorten the duration of symptoms by a mean of one day about half way through the illness (the time of maximal effect), and by about sixteen hours overall.


Del Mar CB,Glasziou PP,Spinks AB





Has Abstract


2004-01-01 00:00:00








  • Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although medication is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, always, some sort of informal or formal talking therapy is indicated. In cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) links are made between the person's feelings and patterns of thinking which underpin their distress. OBJECTIVES:To review the effec...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jones C,Cormac I,Mota J,Campbell C

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interventions for hereditary haemochromatosis: an attempted network meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hereditary haemochromatosis is a genetic disorder related to proteins involved in iron transport, resulting in iron load and deposition of iron in various tissues of the body. This iron overload leads to complications including liver cirrhosis (and related complications such as liver failure and hepatocellul...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Buzzetti E,Kalafateli M,Thorburn D,Davidson BR,Tsochatzis E,Gurusamy KS

    更新日期:2017-03-08 00:00:00

  • Oestrogen and progestogen hormone replacement therapy for peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women: weight and body fat distribution.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is commonly prescribed to treat menopausal symptoms and to prevent post-menopausal bone loss. However, many women are concerned about hormonal replacement therapy because they believe that such treatment will result in weight gain. The effect of HRT on weight and body fat di...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Norman RJ,Flight IH,Rees MC

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pulmonary artery flow catheters for directing management in pre-eclampsia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia can cause fluid shifts. Pulmonary oedema and renal failure can result from these shifts. Fluid management is crucial in managing pre-eclampsia, especially in the context of pulmonary oedema and renal failure. Pulmonary artery catheterisation may be a method of effec...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Li YH,Novikova N

    更新日期:2012-06-13 00:00:00

  • Elective delivery in diabetic pregnant women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In pregnancies complicated by diabetes the major concerns during the third trimester are fetal distress and the potential for birth trauma associated with fetal macrosomia. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the effect of a policy of elective delivery, as compared to expectant management,...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Boulvain M,Stan C,Irion O

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Acne is a common skin disorder among women. Although no uniform approach to the management of acne exists, combination oral contraceptives (COCs), which contain an estrogen and a progestin, often are prescribed for women. OBJECTIVES:To determine the effectiveness of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) for t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Arowojolu AO,Gallo MF,Lopez LM,Grimes DA

    更新日期:2012-07-11 00:00:00

  • Cervical stitch (cerclage) for preventing preterm birth in singleton pregnancy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cervical cerclage is a well-known surgical procedure carried out during pregnancy. It involves positioning of a suture (stitch) around the neck of the womb (cervix), aiming to give a mechanical support to the cervix and thereby reducing the risk of preterm birth. The effectiveness and safety of this procedur...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Alfirevic Z,Stampalija T,Roberts D,Jorgensen AL

    更新日期:2012-04-18 00:00:00

  • Respiratory muscle training for cervical spinal cord injury.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) severely comprises respiratory function due to paralysis and impairment of the respiratory muscles. Various types of respiratory muscle training (RMT) to improve respiratory function for people with cervical SCI have been described in the literature. A systematic review of t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Berlowitz DJ,Tamplin J

    更新日期:2013-07-23 00:00:00

  • Quetiapine versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In many countries of the industrialised world second generation ('atypical') antipsychotic drugs have become the first line drug treatment for people with schizophrenia. It is not clear how the effects of the various second generation antipsychotic drugs differ. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effects of quetiap...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Komossa K,Rummel-Kluge C,Schmid F,Hunger H,Schwarz S,Srisurapanont M,Kissling W,Leucht S

    更新日期:2010-01-20 00:00:00

  • Feverfew for preventing migraine.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews on 'Feverfew for preventing migraine' (2004, Issue 1). Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) extract is a herbal remedy, which has been used for preventing attacks of migraine. OBJECTIVES:To systematically ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wider B,Pittler MH,Ernst E

    更新日期:2015-04-20 00:00:00

  • Inhaled fluticasone propionate for chronic asthma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) is a relatively new inhaled corticosteroid for the treatment of asthma. OBJECTIVES:1. To assess efficacy and safety outcomes in studies that compared FP to placebo for treatment of chronic asthma. 2. To explore the presence of a dose-response effect. SEARCH STRATEGY:We s...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Adams N,Bestall J,Jones PW

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing early central venous catheter Gram positive infections in oncology patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Long-term tunnelled central venous catheters (TCVC) are increasingly used in oncology patients. Despite guidelines on insertion, maintenance and use, infections remain an important complication. Most infections are caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Therefore antimicrobial prevention strategies aimed at these...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van de Wetering MD,van Woensel JB

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Memantine for dementia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Memantine, a low affinity antagonist to glutamate NMDA receptors, may prevent excitatory neurotoxicity in dementia. OBJECTIVES:To determine efficacy and safety of memantine for people with Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular (VD) and mixed dementia. SEARCH STRATEGY:The Specialized Register of the Cochrane D...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Areosa SA,Sherriff F,McShane R

    更新日期:2005-04-18 00:00:00

  • Opioids for neonates receiving mechanical ventilation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Mechanical ventilation is a potentially painful and discomforting intervention widely used in neonatal intensive care units. Newborn babies (neonates) demonstrate increased sensitivity to pain, which may affect clinical and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The use of drugs that reduce pain might be important in ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Bellù R,de Waal KA,Zanini R

    更新日期:2008-01-23 00:00:00

  • Oral or topical nasal steroids for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Otitis media with effusion (OME) is common and may cause hearing loss with associated developmental delay. Treatment remains controversial. OBJECTIVES:To examine evidence for or against treating children with hearing loss associated with OME with systemic or topical intranasal steroids. SEARCH STRATEGY:We ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Thomas CL,Simpson S,Butler CC,van der Voort JH

    更新日期:2006-07-19 00:00:00

  • Radioisotopes for metastatic bone pain.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Bone metastases manifest through pain, which can arise even before the injury is radiologically detected. Pain occurs as a result of bone destruction and, as more destruction ensues, more pain can be experienced. Radiculopathies, plexopathies and shrinkage of spinal nerves due to tumour growth and fractures ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Roqué M,Martinez MJ,Alonso P,Català E,Garcia JL,Ferrandiz M

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antibiotic lock for the prevention of catheter-related infection in neonates.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Use of a central venous catheter (CVC) in neonates is associated with an increase in nosocomial infection. Numerous strategies exist to prevent catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI); however, CRBSI continues to be a major problem. Antibiotic locking catheters is a new and promising treatment that po...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Taylor JE,Tan K,Lai NM,McDonald SJ

    更新日期:2015-06-04 00:00:00

  • Beta-sitosterols for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This systematic review aimed to assess the effects of beta-sitosterols (B-sitosterol) on urinary symptoms and flow measures in men with of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). SEARCH STRATEGY:Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Phytodok),...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wilt T,Ishani A,MacDonald R,Stark G,Mulrow C,Lau J

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring for the prevention of neonatal morbidity and mortality.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement is a fundamental evaluation in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), as both low and high values of CO2 might have detrimental effects on neonatal morbidity and mortality. Though measurement of CO2 in the arterial blood gas is the most accurate way to assess the amount of CO...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bruschettini M,Romantsik O,Zappettini S,Ramenghi LA,Calevo MG

    更新日期:2016-02-13 00:00:00

  • Continuous passive motion following total knee arthroplasty in people with arthritis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Total knee arthroplasty is a common intervention for patients with arthritis. Post-surgical rehabilitation often includes continuous passive motion. However, it is not clear whether continuous passive motion is effective. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effectiveness of continuous passive motion following total ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Harvey LA,Brosseau L,Herbert RD

    更新日期:2010-03-17 00:00:00

  • Oral immunoglobulin for the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in low birth weight infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Rotavirus infection is the most common neonatal nosocomial viral infection. It is a major health problem worldwide. Epidemics with the newer P(6)G9 strains have been reported in neonatal units globally. These strains can cause severe symptoms in most infected infants. Infection control measures become necess...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Pammi M,Haque KN

    更新日期:2011-10-05 00:00:00

  • Aripiprazole versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In most western industrialised countries, second generation (atypical) antipsychotics are recommended as first line drug treatments for people with schizophrenia. In this review we specifically examine how the efficacy and tolerability of one such agent - aripiprazole - differs from that of other comparable ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Khanna P,Komossa K,Rummel-Kluge C,Hunger H,Schwarz S,El-Sayeh HG,Leucht S

    更新日期:2013-02-28 00:00:00

  • Antenatal lower genital tract infection screening and treatment programs for preventing preterm delivery.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Genital tract infection is associated with preterm birth (before 37 weeks' gestation). Screening for infections during pregnancy may therefore reduce the numbers of babies being born prematurely. However, screening for infections may have some adverse effects, such as increased antibiotic drug resistance and...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sangkomkamhang US,Lumbiganon P,Prasertcharoensuk W,Laopaiboon M

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Antioxidants for male subfertility.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Between 30% to 80% of male subfertility cases are considered to be due to the damaging effects of oxidative stress on sperm. Oral supplementation with antioxidants may improve sperm quality by reducing oxidative stress.   OBJECTIVES:This Cochrane review aimed to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation w...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Showell MG,Brown J,Yazdani A,Stankiewicz MT,Hart RJ

    更新日期:2011-01-19 00:00:00

  • Olanzapine for schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is reported to be effective without producing the disabling extrapyramidal side effects associated with the older, typical antipsychotic drugs. OBJECTIVES:To determine the clinical effects and safety of olanzapine as compared with placebo, typical and other atypi...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Duggan L,Fenton M,Dardennes RM,El-Dosoky A,Indran S

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Biphasic versus monophasic waveforms for transthoracic defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Transthoracic defibrillation is a potentially life-saving treatment for people with ventricular fibrillation (VF) and haemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT). In recent years, biphasic waveforms have become more commonly used for defibrillation than monophasic waveforms. Clinical trials of int...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Faddy SC,Jennings PA

    更新日期:2016-02-10 00:00:00

  • Hip protectors for preventing hip fractures in the elderly.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hip fracture in the elderly is usually the result of a simple fall and hip protectors have been advocated as a means to reduce impact and consequences of such falls. OBJECTIVES:To determine if external hip protectors reduce the incidence of hip fractures in elderly persons following a fall. SEARCH STRATEGY...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Parker MJ,Gillespie LD,Gillespie WJ

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Techniques of monitoring blood glucose during pregnancy for women with pre-existing diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is recommended as a key component of the management plan for diabetes therapy during pregnancy. No existing systematic reviews consider the benefits/effectiveness of various techniques of blood glucose monitoring on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women wit...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Moy FM,Ray A,Buckley BS,West HM

    更新日期:2017-06-11 00:00:00

  • Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact on acceptance and uptake. OBJ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schiøler KL,Samuel M,Wai KL

    更新日期:2007-07-18 00:00:00

  • Interventions for the treatment of Paget's disease of the vulva.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Extra-mammary Paget's disease is a rare form of superficial skin cancer. The most common site of involvement is the vulva. It is seen mainly in postmenopausal white women. Paget's disease of the vulva often spreads in an occult fashion, with margins extending beyond the apparent edges of the lesion. There is...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Edey KA,Allan E,Murdoch JB,Cooper S,Bryant A

    更新日期:2013-10-26 00:00:00