Photosynthetic and cellular toxicity of cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris.


:The toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris were investigated by following the response to Cd of various toxicity endpoints (cell growth, cell size, photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light or Φ(PSII), maximal photochemical efficiency or Fv/Fm, chlorophyll a fluorescence, esterase activity, and cell viability). These toxicity endpoints were studied in laboratory batch cultures of C. vulgaris over a long-term 96-h exposure to different Cd concentrations using flow cytometry and pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry. The sequence of sensitivity of these toxicity endpoints was: cell yield > Φ(PSII) ≈ esterase activity > Fv/Fm > chlorophyll a fluorescence ≈ cell viability. It is shown that cell apoptosis or cell death only accounted for a minor part of the reduction in cell yield even at very high algistatic free Cd²⁺ concentrations, and other mechanisms such as blocked cell divisions are major contributors to cell yield inhibition. Furthermore, cadmium may affect both the electron donors and acceptors of the electron transport chain at high free Cd²⁺ concentration. Finally, the resistance of cells to cell death was size-dependent; medium-sized cells had the highest toxicity threshold. The present study brings new insights into the toxicity mechanisms of Cd in C. vulgaris and provides a detailed comparison of the sensitivity of various Cd toxicity endpoints.


Environ Toxicol Chem


Ou-Yang HL,Kong XZ,Lavoie M,He W,Qin N,He QS,Yang B,Wang R,Xu FL




Has Abstract


2013-12-01 00:00:00












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    abstract::The majority of studies on pesticide impacts have evaluated the effects of single exposures. However, multiple exposures to a pesticide may be more prevalent. The objective of our study was to determine how multiple exposures versus single exposure at different times during development affected survival to metamorphos...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boone MD,Bridges CM

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Correlation of Tetrahymena and Pimephales toxicity: evaluation of 100 additional compounds.

    abstract::In the summary/recommendations for the Ecotoxicology Session of TestSmart--A Humane and Efficient Approach to Screening Information Data Sets (SIDS) Data Workshop, it was recommended that more population growth impairment data using Tetrahymena be generated and compared with available lethality data for the fathead mi...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sinks GD,Schultz TW

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of chronic cadmium exposure on American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles.

    abstract::American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles were exposed to cadmium from shortly after hatching through metamorphosis. Cadmium at 540 microg/L decreased percentage survival and metamorphosis; 5 and 54 microg/L increased growth relative to controls. Amphibians exposed to cadmium as tadpoles may be less tolerant of natural...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: James SM,Little EE

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of global climate change on the scientific foundations and applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: introduction to a SETAC international workshop.

    abstract::This is the first of seven papers resulting from a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) international workshop titled "The Influence of Global Climate Change on the Scientific Foundations and Applications of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry." The workshop involved 36 scientists from 11 count...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stahl RG Jr,Hooper MJ,Balbus JM,Clements W,Fritz A,Gouin T,Helm R,Hickey C,Landis W,Moe SJ

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sediment chemical contamination and toxicity associated with a coastal golf course complex.

    abstract::The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sediments impacted by a coastal gol...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lewis MA,Foss SS,Harris PS,Stanley RS,Moore JC

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Interaction between nickel and cobalt toxicity in Enchytraeus crypticus is due to competitive uptake.

    abstract::Uptake and toxicity of Ni-Co mixtures in Enchytraeus crypticus were determined after 4 d, 7 d, 10 d, and 14 d exposure. Generally, body concentrations of Ni and Co increased with increasing exposure concentrations. Ni body concentration was significantly reduced in the presence of Co, whereas Ni only marginally affect...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: He E,Baas J,Van Gestel CA

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Chemosensory cues alter earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance of lead-contaminated soil.

    abstract::Earthworms were shown to significantly avoid soils spiked with Pb at concentrations lower than or comparable to concentrations that demonstrate significant effects for other endpoints. It was also shown that inclusion of a microorganism-produced volatile compound that attracts earthworms, ethyl valerate, decreased avo...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Syed Z,Alexander D,Ali J,Unrine J,Shoults-Wilson WA

    更新日期:2017-04-01 00:00:00

  • Body size-dependent bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, and trophic and maternal transfer of phenolic endocrine-disrupting contaminants in a freshwater ecosystem.

    abstract::Parabens, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, and triclocarban are recognized endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs); and their occurrence in the environment has attracted increasing concern. Body size-dependent bioaccumulation, tissue distribution, trophic magnification, and maternal transfer of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-,...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peng X,Zheng K,Liu J,Fan Y,Tang C,Xiong S

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Implications of interacting microscale habitat heterogeneity and disturbance events on Folsomia candida (Collembola) population dynamics: a modeling approach.

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    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meli M,Palmqvist A,Forbes VE

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Predicting chemical contaminants in freshwater sediments through the use of historical biochemical endpoints in resident fish species.

    abstract::Previous studies in Bayou Bartholomew, Arkansas, USA, indicated significant relationships between the individual health of fish sampled from 13 sites and specific biochemical responses. Evaluation of several biochemical endpoints in 1994 indicated the bioavailable occurrence of either polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) co...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schlenk D,Sapozhnikova Y,Baquirian JP,Mason A

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of potential immunotoxic effects caused by cypermethrin, fluoxetine, and thiabendazole using heat shock protein 70 and interleukin-1β mRNA expression in the anuran Xenopus laevis.

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    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martini F,Fernández C,Segundo LS,Tarazona JV,Pablos MV

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • How does growth temperature affect cadmium toxicity measured on different life history traits in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans?

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    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nørhave NJ,Spurgeon D,Svendsen C,Cedergreen N

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Ecotoxicological assessment of glyphosate-based herbicides: Effects on different organisms.

    abstract::Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most commonly used worldwide because they are effective and relatively nontoxic to nontarget species. Unlimited and uncontrolled use of such pesticides can have serious consequences for human health and ecological balance. The present study evaluated the acute toxicity and genotoxic...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Brito Rodrigues L,de Oliveira R,Abe FR,Brito LB,Moura DS,Valadares MC,Grisolia CK,de Oliveira DP,de Oliveira GAR

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Christensen JR,Bishop CA,Richardson JS,Pauli B,Elliott J

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kharoune M,Kharoune L,Lebault JM,Pauss A

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • A nonlethal microsampling technique to monitor the effects of mercury on wild bird eggs.

    abstract::Methylmercury is the predominant chemical form of mercury reported in the eggs of wild birds, and the embryo is the most sensitive life stage to methylmercury toxicity. Protective guidelines have been based mainly on captive-breeding studies with chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stebbins KR,Klimstra JD,Eagles-Smith CA,Ackerman JT,Heinz GH

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of lead-contaminated soil from Canadian prairie skeet ranges on the neutral red retention assay and fecundity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    abstract::The sublethal effects of lead (Pb) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida were evaluated in the laboratory using freshly spiked soil and soil collected from Canadian prairie skeet ranges. After a four-week exposure to soil spiked with lead acetate, earthworm neutral red retention time (NRRT). soil Pb concentrations, and eart...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Booth L,Palasz F,Darling C,Lanno R,Wickstrom M

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Pesticide has asymmetric effects on two tadpole species across density gradient.

    abstract::Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) have been disappearing throughout their range. The causes for extirpations have been elusive, although habitat alteration appears to be a major factor. Pesticides have been implicated in declines in western amphibians, but no mechanism has been identified. We tested the hypothesis...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Distel CA,Boone MD

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • High sensitivity of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to copper and the prediction of copper toxicity.

    abstract::Microcystis aeruginosa is a dominant cyanobacterium commonly found in Chinese freshwater ecosystems during phytoplankton blooms, and copper sulfate is one of the most frequently used algicides for controlling the nuisance blooms. In this study, we examined the effects of varied water chemistry (dissolved organic matte...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zeng J,Yang L,Wang WX

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Predicted-no-effect concentrations for the steroid estrogens estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, and 17α-ethinylestradiol.

    abstract::The authors derive predicted-no-effect concentrations (PNECs) for the steroid estrogens (estrone [E1], 17β-estradiol [E2], estriol [E3], and 17α-ethinylestradiol [EE2]) appropriate for use in risk assessment of aquatic organisms. In a previous study, they developed a PNEC of 0.35 ng/L for EE2 from a species sensitivit...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Caldwell DJ,Mastrocco F,Anderson PD,Länge R,Sumpter JP

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • A molecular modeling analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by naphthalene dioxygenase.

    abstract::A theoretical analysis was performed to examine the role of naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) enzymes in determining differences in biodegradability and biodegradation rates of two- to four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via oxygenation and desaturation reactions. Investigation of the thermodynamics of PAH b...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wammer KH,Peters CA

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Combined effects of predatory fish and sublethal pesticide contamination on the behavior and mortality of mayfly nymphs.

    abstract::We evaluated the potential interaction of pesticide effect and predatory fish on behavior and mortality of a stream mayfly. Experiments in laboratory stream microcosms compared the activity, drift, and mortality of Baetis mayfly nymphs in the absence of fish with that in the presence of Cape galaxias (Galaxias zebratu...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schulz R,Dabrowski JM

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of ethynylestradiol on the reproductive physiology in zebrafish (Danio rerio): time dependency and reversibility.

    abstract::Environmental pollution with natural or synthetic estrogens may pose a serious threat to reproduction of wildlife species. This study describes the effects of 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) on fish reproductive organs in a laboratory model. Adult zebrafish were semistatically exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 1...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van den Belt K,Wester PW,van der Ven LT,Verheyen R,Witters H

    更新日期:2002-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of using synthetic sea salts when measuring and modeling copper toxicity in saltwater toxicity tests.

    abstract::Synthetic sea salts are often used to adjust the salinity of effluent, ambient, and laboratory water samples to perform toxicity tests with marine and estuarine species. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) provides guidance on salinity adjustment in its saltwater test guidelines. The U.S. EPA suggests ...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arnold WR,Cotsifas JS,Winter AR,Klinck JS,Smith DS,Playle RC

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of photosystem II inhibitors and their mixture on freshwater phytoplankton succession in outdoor mesocosms.

    abstract::Effects of three photosystem II inhibitors and of their mixture on a freshwater phytoplankton community were studied in outdoor mesocosms. Atrazine, isoproturon, and diuron were applied as 30% hazardous concentrations (HC30s) obtained from species-sensitivity distributions. Taking concentration addition into account, ...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knauert S,Dawo U,Hollender J,Hommen U,Knauer K

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • Quantifying copper and cadmium impacts on intrinsic rate of population increase in the terrestrial oligochaete Lumbricus rubellus.

    abstract::Demographic methods can translate toxicant effects on individuals into consequences for populations. To date few such studies have been conducted with longer-lived invertebrates. This is because full life-cycle experiments are difficult with such species. Here we report the effects of copper and cadmium on the key dem...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spurgeon DJ,Svendsen C,Weeks JM,Hankard PK,Stubberud HE,Kammenga JE

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

  • Knotting nets: Molecular junctions of interconnecting endocrine axes identified by application of the adverse outcome pathway concept.

    abstract::To be defined as an endocrine disruptor, a substance has to meet several criteria, including the induction of specific adverse effects, a specific endocrine mode of action, and a plausible link between both. The latter criterion in particular might not always be unequivocally determined, especially because the endocri...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Brüggemann M,Licht O,Fetter É,Teigeler M,Schäfers C,Eilebrecht E

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Using biofilms for monitoring metal contamination in lotic ecosystems: The protective effects of hardness and pH on metal bioaccumulation.

    abstract::Biofilms can make good bioindicators and biomarkers, offering a convenient tool to monitor metal contamination in streams that results from mine tailing sites. Biofilm metal content (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) as well as diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies (diatom abnormalities) were determined for biofilms from ri...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leguay S,Lavoie I,Levy JL,Fortin C

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Persistence of the effects of Jet-A in a microcosm with releases from the sediment.

    abstract::This study investigates both the methods and the multispecies and functional level effects of a release of a complex hydrocarbon mixture from sediments using a 60-d modified mixed flask culture (MFC) microcosm. Neat Jet-A was injected and mixed into the sediment with one nondosed and three dosed concentrations. Univar...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sandberg RS,Landis WG

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effects analysis of time-varying or repeated exposures in aquatic ecological risk assessment of agrochemicals.

    abstract::Exposure to agrochemicals in the aquatic environment often occurs as time-varying or repeated pulses. Time-varying exposures may occur due to runoff events and spray drift associated with precipitation and application events. Hydrologic dilution, dispersion, and degradation also produce pulsed exposures. Standard labo...

    journal_title:Environmental toxicology and chemistry

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reinert KH,Giddings JM,Judd L

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00