A total market approach for condoms in Myanmar: the need for the private, public and socially marketed sectors to work together for a sustainable condom market for HIV prevention.


BACKGROUND:Concerns about appropriate pricing strategies and the high market share of subsidized condoms prompted Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar to adopt a total market approach (TMA). This article presents data on the size and composition of the Myanmar condom market, identifies inefficiencies and recommends methods for better targeting public subsidy. METHODOLOGY:Data on condom need and condom use came from PSI/Myanmar's (PSI/M's) behavioural surveys; data for key populations' socioeconomic status profiles came from the same surveys and the National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey. Data on market share, volumes, value and number of condoms were from PSI/M's quarterly retail audits and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). RESULTS:Between 2008 and 2010, the universal need for condoms decreased from 112.9 to 98.2 million while condom use increased from 32 to 46%. Free and socially marketed condoms dominated the market (94%) in 2009-11 with an increase in the proportion of free condoms over time. The retail price of socially marketed condoms was artificially low at 44 kyats ($0.05 USD) in 2011 while the price for commercial condoms was 119-399 kyats ($0.15-$0.49 USD). Equity analyses demonstrated an equal distribution of female sex workers across national wealth quintiles, but 54% of men who have sex with men and 55% of male clients were in the highest two quintiles. Donor subsidies for condoms increased over time; from $434,000 USD in 2009 to $577,000 USD in 2011. CONCLUSION:The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the public, socially marketed and commercial sectors.


Health Policy Plan


Htat HW,Longfield K,Mundy G,Win Z,Montagu D




Has Abstract


2015-03-01 00:00:00










30 Suppl 1


  • Information quality in a remote rural maternity unit in Ghana.

    abstract::The collection of accurate maternal outcome data enables causes of morbidity and mortality to be identified, which in turn permits interventions to be targeted appropriately. It also allows estimates to be made about the importance of various indicators in predicting birth outcome. These indicators can then be compare...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allotey PA,Reidpath D

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • Who benefits from healthcare spending in Cambodia? Evidence for a universal health coverage policy.

    abstract::Cambodia's healthcare system has seen significant improvements in the last two decades. Despite this, access to quality care remains problematic, particularly for poor rural Cambodians. The government has committed to universal health coverage (UHC) and is reforming the health financing system to align with this goal....

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asante AD,Ir P,Jacobs B,Supon L,Liverani M,Hayen A,Jan S,Wiseman V

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • From favours to entitlements: community voice and action and health service quality in Zambia.

    abstract::Social accountability is increasingly invoked as a way of improving health services. This article presents a theory-driven qualitative study of the context, mechanisms and outcomes of a social accountability program, Citizen Voice and Action (CVA), implemented by World Vision (WV) in Zambia. Primary data were collecte...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schaaf M,Topp SM,Ngulube M

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • Supervision of community health nurses in Ghana: a mixed-methods study on experiences and mentorship needs.

    abstract::Adequate supervision is critical to maintain the performance of health workers who provide essential maternal and child health services in low-resource areas. Supportive supervision emphasizing problem-solving, skill development and mentorship has been shown to improve the motivation and effectiveness of health worker...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bellerose M,Alva S,Magalona S,Awoonor-Williams K,Sacks E

    更新日期:2020-12-22 00:00:00

  • The effect of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness on observed quality of care of under-fives in rural Tanzania.

    abstract::Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) has been adopted by over 80 countries as a strategy for reducing child mortality and improving child health and development. It includes complementary interventions designed to address the major causes of child mortality at community, health facility, and health system...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Armstrong Schellenberg J,Bryce J,de Savigny D,Lambrechts T,Mbuya C,Mgalula L,Wilczynska K,Tanzania IMCI Multi-Country Evaluation Health Facility Survey Study Group.

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Is there primary health care in the UK?

    abstract::In the period since the Alma-Ata Declaration, there has been much activity in many countries in drawing up strategies for primary health care (PHC). This paper argues that the UK, though a signatory to the Declaration, has failed to provide an adequate framework for such a strategy, and that, in spite of the strong re...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Green A

    更新日期:1987-06-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of the obstetrical risk insurance scheme in Mauritania on maternal healthcare utilization: a propensity score matching analysis.

    abstract::In Mauritania, obstetrical risk insurance (ORI) has been progressively implemented at the health district level since 2002 and was available in 25% of public healthcare facilities in 2015. The ORI scheme is based on pre-payment scheme principles and focuses on increasing the quality of and access to both maternal and ...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ravit M,Ravalihasy A,Audibert M,Ridde V,Bonnet E,Raffalli B,Roy FA,N'Landu A,Dumont A

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • The appropriateness of use of coronary angiography in Lebanon: implications for health policy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Lebanon, characterized by a free-market health care system, has one of the highest reported per capita rates of cardiac catheterization facilities and coronary angiographies in the world. The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriateness of performance of coronary angiography procedures in Lebanon. M...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sibai AM,Tohme RA,Saade GA,Ghanem G,Alam S,Lebanese Interventional Coronary Registry Working Group (LICOR).

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • The private sector role in HIV/AIDS in the context of an expanded global response: expenditure trends in five sub-Saharan African countries.

    abstract::Global financing for the HIV response has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Over US$10 billion were mobilized in 2007, an effort credited with saving the lives of millions of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A relatively unexamined aspect of the global HIV response is the role of the private sector in finan...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sulzbach S,De S,Wang W

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Potential savings from generic prescribing and generic substitution in South Africa.

    abstract::Generic prescribing and generic substitution are mechanisms for reducing the cost of drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which generic prescribing by private medical practitioners and generic substitution by private pharmacists is practised in South Africa and to estimate the potential savings...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Karim SS,Pillai G,Ziqubu-Page TT,Cassimjee MH,Morar MS

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

  • The state of diet-related NCD policies in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Tunisia and Vietnam: a comparative assessment that introduces a 'policy cube' approach.

    abstract::We assessed the technical content of sugar, salt and trans-fats policies in six countries in relation to the World Health Organization 'Best Buys' guidelines for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). National research teams identified policies and strategies related to promoting healthy diets...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Buse K,Aftab W,Akhter S,Phuong LB,Chemli H,Dahal M,Feroz A,Hofiani S,Pradhan NA,Anwar I,Skhiri HA,El Ati J,Giang KB,Puri M,Noormal B,Rabbani F,Hawkes S

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Donor funding for health reform in Africa: is non-project assistance the right prescription?

    abstract::During the past 10 years, donors have recognized the need for major reforms to achieve sustainable development. Using non-project assistance they have attempted to leverage reforms by offering financing conditioned on the enactment of reform. The experience of USAID's health reform programmes in Niger and Nigeria sugg...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Foltz AM

    更新日期:1994-12-01 00:00:00

  • The worse the better? Quantile treatment effects of a conditional cash transfer programme on mental health.

    abstract::Poor mental health is a pressing global health problem, with high prevalence among poor populations from low-income countries. Existing studies of conditional cash transfer (CCT) effects on mental health have found positive effects. However, there is a gap in the literature on population-wide effects of cash transfers...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ohrnberger J,Fichera E,Sutton M,Anselmi L

    更新日期:2020-11-20 00:00:00

  • Effect of a prospective payment method for health facilities on direct medical expenditures in a low-resource setting: a paired pre-post study.

    abstract::Almost all sub-Saharan countries have adopted cost-reduction policies to facilitate access to health care. However, several studies underline the reimbursement delays experienced by health facilities, which lead to deficient implementation of these policies. In April 2016, for its free care policy, Burkina Faso shifte...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meda IB,Kouanda S,Dumont A,Ridde V

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Did contracting effect the use of primary health care units in Pakistan?

    abstract::For many years, Pakistan has had a wide network of Basic Health Units spread across the country, but their utilization by the population in rural and peri-urban areas has remained low. As of 2004, in an attempt to improve the utilization and performance of these public primary healthcare facilities, the government has...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Malik MA,Van de Poel E,Van Doorslaer E

    更新日期:2017-09-01 00:00:00

  • Delivery-related complications and determinants of caesarean section rates in India.

    abstract::Caesarean section rates have been increasing worldwide, raising the question of the appropriateness of the selection of cases for the procedure. This paper examines the levels and correlates of delivery-related complications and caesarean section deliveries in 18 selected states of India in terms of specific maternal ...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mishra US,Ramanathan M

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Health policy-making in central and eastern Europe: lessons from the inaction on injuries?

    abstract::The burden of disease due to injuries has elicited virtually no public health response in the countries of central and eastern Europe, even though injuries have long been a much greater problem in the east of Europe than in the west, with children especially affected. This paper seeks to identify factors that have inh...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McKee M,Zwi A,Koupilova I,Sethi D,Leon D

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Patient satisfaction with task shifting of antiretroviral services in Ethiopia: implications for universal health coverage.

    abstract::Formalized task shifting structures have been used to rapidly scale up antiretroviral service delivery to underserved populations in several countries, and may be a promising mechanism for accomplishing universal health coverage. However, studies evaluating the quality of service delivery through task shifting have la...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Asfaw E,Dominis S,Palen JG,Wong W,Bekele A,Kebede A,Johns B

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Supporting mental health in South African HIV-affected communities: primary health care professionals' understandings and responses.

    abstract::How do practitioners respond to the mental distress of HIV-affected women and communities? And do their understandings of patients' distress matter? The World Health Organization (WHO) along with advocates from the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) champion a primary mental health care model to address burgeoni...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burgess RA

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Papua New Guinea.

    abstract::In Papua New Guinea, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assess...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rudge JW,Phuanakoonon S,Nema KH,Mounier-Jack S,Coker R

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • How to do (or not to do) ... Tracking data on development assistance for health.

    abstract::Development assistance for health (DAH) has increased substantially in recent years and is seen as important to the improvement of health and health systems in developing countries. As a result, there has been increasing interest in tracking and understanding these resource flows from the global health community. A nu...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grépin KA,Leach-Kemon K,Schneider M,Sridhar D

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Removing user fees for facility-based delivery services: a difference-in-differences evaluation from ten sub-Saharan African countries.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa have recently adopted policies that remove user fees for facility-based delivery services. There is little rigorous evidence of the impact of these policies on utilization of delivery services and no evaluations have examined effects on neonatal mortality rates (NMR). ...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McKinnon B,Harper S,Kaufman JS,Bergevin Y

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Rehabilitating health services in Cambodia: the challenge of coordination in chronic political emergencies.

    abstract::The end of the Cold War brought with it opportunities to resolve a number of conflicts around the world, including those in Angola, Cambodia, El Salvador and Mozambique. International political efforts to negotiate peace in these countries were accompanied by significant aid programmes ostensibly designed to redress t...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lanjouw S,Macrae J,Zwi AB

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

  • Health insurance in South Africa: an empirical analysis of trends in risk-pooling and efficiency following deregulation.

    abstract::This paper reports an empirical investigation into the pattern of private health insurance coverage in South Africa before and after deregulation of the health insurance industry. More specifically, we sought to measure trends in risk-pooling over the period 1985-95, and to assess the impact of risk pooling on the cos...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Söderlund N,Hansl B

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Does household enrolment reduce adverse selection in a voluntary health insurance system? Evidence from the Ghanaian National Health Insurance System.

    abstract::In August 2003, the Ghanaian Government made history by implementing the first National Health Insurance System (NHIS) in sub-Saharan Africa. Within 2 years, over one-third of the country had voluntarily enrolled in the NHIS. To discourage households from selectively enrolling their sickest (high-risk) members, the NH...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rajkotia Y,Frick K

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Do community factors have a differential impact on the health outcomes of boys and girls? Evidence from rural Pakistan.

    abstract::In countries with large gender disparities in health status, can investments in local communities mitigate the gender bias observed in intra-household resource allocations? This paper explores the evidence for gender differences in the impact of community prices and infrastructure on child nutritional outcomes. Standa...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holmes J

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Transcalar networks for policy transfer and implementation: the case of global health policies for malaria and HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.

    abstract::This paper explores the nature and type of policy transfer promoted by global health partnerships to facilitate access to medication in Cameroon and the associated implementation challenges. Using concepts from policy transfer, multi-level governance and the politics of scale, the paper conceptualizes the social space...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ngoasong MZ

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • The Indonesian Mental Health Act: psychiatrists' views on the act and its implementation.

    abstract::In 2014, the Indonesian government passed the Mental Health Act (MHA) to address the country's complex mental health situation. The implementation of the MHA has been slow, and little is known about how the MHA is perceived by mental healthcare providers within local settings. This study aimed to obtain insight into p...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bikker AP,Lesmana CBJ,Tiliopoulos N

    更新日期:2020-11-23 00:00:00

  • Community-Based Interventions for Newborns in Ethiopia (COMBINE): Cost-effectiveness analysis.

    abstract::About 87 000 neonates die annually in Ethiopia, with slower progress than for child deaths and 85% of births are at home. As part of a multi-country, standardized economic evaluation, we examine the incremental benefit and costs of providing management of possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) for newborns at hea...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Mathewos B,Owen H,Sitrin D,Cousens S,Degefie T,Wall S,Bekele A,Lawn JE,Daviaud E

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • "This body does not want free medicines": South African consumer perceptions of drug quality.

    abstract::OBJECTIVES Like many other developing countries, South Africa provides free medicines through its public health care facilities. Recent policies encourage generic substitution in the private sector. This study explored South African consumer perceptions of drug quality and whether these perceptions influenced how peop...

    journal_title:Health policy and planning

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Patel A,Gauld R,Norris P,Rades T

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00