Circadian variation of plasma calcitonin gene-related Peptide in man.


:Abstract Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is one of the most potent endogenous vasodilator peptides known so far. Almost all clinical studies using or measuring CGRP are conducted during the day, and hence this study was carried out to see any variations of CGRP levels in the circulation during this period. Three separate studies were conducted. In the first study, following an overnight fast, sequential samples of blood were taken from six healthy volunteers between 0900 and 2100 h and were assayed for CGRP using a highly sensitive and specific radioreceptor assay. A diurnal variation of CGRP in the circulation (P<0.0001) was demonstrated. No difference in the diurnal pattern of CGRP in plasma was seen between males and females. The range of plasma receptor-active CGRP was 2.8 to 13.0 pmol/l (mean +/-SEM, 7.03+/-0.28 pmol/l). Two peaks of CGRP were observed in the circulation (increases of approximately 100% from the basal levels obtained at 0900 h), one around midday (P<0.0001) and the other in the late afternoon (P< 0.005). To assess the contribution of CGRP released from the gut following food, a second study was carried out in which the protocol of the first study was repeated in three volunteers but avoiding any food during the day. Although a similar diurnal variation of receptor-recognized CGRP was seen in this study (P<0.01), the changes observed were significantly lower than those observed in the first study, suggesting that the effect of a meal exaggerates the response of diurnal variation of plasma CGRP. In a third study, circadian variation of receptor-recognized CGRP was examined in three volunteers over a 24 h period. In addition to the diurnal pattern seen with the first study, the plasma CGRP levels continued to decrease up to early morning. The lowest levels of CGRP were detected between 0300 and 0600 h. After this time the levels gradually rose towards midday. It is well accepted that the incidence of cardiovascular episodes is high during the early hours of the morning. Separate studies are necessary to determine if these low levels of 'biologically-active CGRP' in the early hours of the morning are a coincidence, or whether they play a role (e.g. relative deficiency of CGRP) in contributing to the occlusion of already diseased arteries. Furthermore, the diurnal variations of monomeric CGRP demonstrated here imply that, with any experiments relying on the measurement or infusion of CGRP, timing of blood sampling and relationship to meals are important and should be strictly adhered to in most physiological studies with CGRP. This is the first study which demonstrates the circadian variation in plasma concentrations of CGRP.


J Neuroendocrinol


Wimalawansa SJ




Has Abstract


1991-06-01 00:00:00














  • Lactation reduces glial activation induced by excitotoxicity in the rat hippocampus.

    abstract::Motherhood induces a series of adaptations in the physiology of the female, including an increase of maternal brain plasticity and a reduction of cell damage in the hippocampus caused by kainic acid (KA) excitotoxicity. We analysed the role of lactation in glial activation in the hippocampal fields of virgin and lacta...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cabrera V,Ramos E,González-Arenas A,Cerbón M,Camacho-Arroyo I,Morales T

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Estrogen receptor immunoreactivity in specific brain areas of the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is altered by sexual receptivity and genetic sex.

    abstract::The prairie vole is a small rodent with an unusual reproductive strategy. A sexually naive female vole requires male contact to initiate the maturation of her reproductive functions. Contact with an unfamiliar adult male vole increases blood estrogen levels, reproductive tissue weights, and brain nuclear estrogen rece...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hnatczuk OC,Lisciotto CA,DonCarlos LL,Carter CS,Morrell JI

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Sex and species differences in the vasopressin innervation of sexually naive and parental prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster and meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus.

    abstract::To study whether central systems that are implicated in functions associated with reproduction show different changes in males and females that become parental, the central vasopressin (AVP) innervation was compared in two species of voles: prairie voles, in which males and females provide parental care, and meadow vo...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bamshad M,Novak MA,De Vries GJ

    更新日期:1993-06-01 00:00:00

  • Expression and activity profiling of the steroidogenic enzymes of glucocorticoid biosynthesis and the fdx1 co-factors in zebrafish.

    abstract::The spatial and temporal expression of steroidogenic genes in zebrafish has not been fully characterised. Because zebrafish are increasingly employed in endocrine and stress research, a better characterisation of steroidogenic pathways is required to target specific steps in the biosynthetic pathways. In the present s...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weger M,Diotel N,Weger BD,Beil T,Zaucker A,Eachus HL,Oakes JA,do Rego JL,Storbeck KH,Gut P,Strähle U,Rastegar S,Müller F,Krone N

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Central and peripheral immunoreactivity of melanin-concentrating hormone in hypothalamic obese and lactating rats.

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun G,Tian Z,Murata T,Narita K,Honda K,Higuchi T

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • A subset of estrogen receptor-containing neurons project to the median eminence in the ewe.

    abstract::The neural pathways responsible for conveying the steroid feedback signals that ultimately affect reproductive neuroendocrine function remain largely undefined. One possibility involves a direct projection from estrogen receptor (ER)-containing neurons to the median eminence (ME), a site of neuroendocrine peptide rele...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jansen HT,Hileman SM,Lubbers LS,Jackson GL,Lehman MN

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  • Evidence for short-loop feedback effects of ACTH on CRF and vasopressin expression in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons.

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sawchenko PE,Arias C

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  • Differential expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta immunoreactivity by oxytocin neurons of rat paraventricular nucleus.

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Simonian SX,Herbison AE

    更新日期:1997-11-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::A number of studies have demonstrated seasonal regulation of the adrenocortical response to stress, or of corticosteroid binding globulins, but very few studies have examined seasonal regulation of corticosteroid receptor levels. As a result, there have been few attempts to produce an integrated picture of seasonal pl...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Breuner CW,Orchinik M

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • Sequential exposure to estrogen and testosterone (T) and subsequent withdrawal of T increases the level of arginine vasopressin messenger ribonucleic acid in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of the female rat.

    abstract::The hypothalamic peptides arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have been implicated as mediators of socio-sexual behaviors in addition to their roles in osmolar homeostasis (AVP), milk ejection and uterine contractility (OT). Within 24 h of parturition, OT and AVP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels incre...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thomas A,Kim NB,Amico JA

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • Autoradiographic detection of oxytocin- and vasopressin-binding sites in various subnuclei of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the rat. Effects of functional and experimental sexual steroid variations.

    abstract::Abstract Oxytocin- and vasopressin-binding sites were detected by autoradiography on films and on emulsion-coated sections of rat brains using highly selective [(125)|]-labelled oxytocin and vasopressin antagonists. Two distinct areas with high concentrations of oxytocin-binding sites were detected in the bed nucleus ...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kremarik P,Freund-Mercier MJ,Stoeckel ME

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  • The role of oxytocin release in the mediobasal hypothalamus of the sheep in relation to female sexual receptivity.

    abstract::In vivo microdialysis and retrodialysis were used to investigate the role of oxytocin (OXY) release in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of the ewe in the control of sexual receptivity. Initial experiments showed that OXY release was significantly increased in ovariectomized animals treated with progesterone and oestr...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kendrick KM,Fabre-Nys C,Blache D,Goode JA,Broad KD

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  • Thyroid hormone receptor β mediates acute illness-induced alterations in central thyroid hormone metabolism.

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

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    authors: Boelen A,Kwakkel J,Chassande O,Fliers E

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  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in chronic intermittently cold-stressed neonatally handled and non handled rats.

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

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    authors: Bhatnagar S,Meaney MJ

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  • Effects of osmotic pressure and brain-derived neurotrophic factor on the survival of postnatal hypothalamic oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic neurons in dissociated cell culture.

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

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    authors: Kusano K,House SB,Gainer H

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hypothalamic Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Secretion: Methodological Aspects of in vitro Systems.

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

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    authors: Wibullaksanakul S,Handelsman DJ

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  • Individual variation in the expression of maternal behaviour: a review of the neuroendocrine mechanisms in the sheep.

    abstract::Individual variation in the expression of maternal behaviour can affect offspring development and survival. Ewes showing a poorer quality of maternal behaviour (low levels of licking and grooming, infrequent low-pitched bleating, inconsistent udder acceptance) at parturition and throughout lactation (large ewe-lamb di...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

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    authors: Dwyer CM

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    abstract::The aromatization of testosterone into oestrogens plays a key role in the control of many behavioural and physiological aspects of reproduction. In the quail preoptic area (POA), aromatase activity and the number of aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cells are sexually differentiated (males > females). This sex differe...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

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    authors: Balthazart J,Tlemçani O,Harada N,Baillien M

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma oxytocin and vasopressin do not predict neuropeptide concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    abstract::The involvement of the neuropeptides oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) in human socio-emotional behaviours is attracting increasing attention. There is ample evidence for elevated plasma levels upon a wide variety of social and emotional stimuli and scenarios, ranging from romantic love via marital distress up to p...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

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    authors: Kagerbauer SM,Martin J,Schuster T,Blobner M,Kochs EF,Landgraf R

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  • It takes two! Exploring sex differences in parenting neurobiology and behaviour.

    abstract::Parents lay the foundation for their children's socio-emotional experiences by sensitively responding to their needs. The hormonal and neurobiological changes that occur during the transition to parenthood importantly contribute to the parents' caregiving behaviour toward their children. Much research has emphasised t...

    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

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    authors: Rajhans P,Goin-Kochel RP,Strathearn L,Kim S

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  • ACTH-suppressive and vasodilator actions of adrenomedullin in conscious sheep.

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    authors: Parkes DG,May CN

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  • Actions of prostaglandin E2 on rat supraoptic neurones.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sutarmo Setiadji V,Shibuya I,Kabashima N,Ibrahim N,Harayama N,Ueta Y,Yamashita H

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  • An insight to pituitary folliculo-stellate cells.

    abstract::Folliculo-stellate cells (FS-cells) are star-shaped and follicle-forming cells in the anterior pituitary gland that were first identified by electron microscopy as non-endocrine agranular cells. Light microscopy has revealed many of their cytophysiological features and the FS-cell is known to be positive for S-100 pro...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Devnath S,Inoue K

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

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    authors: Fèvre-Montange M,Dumontel C,Chevallier P,Isnard AK,Guigard MP,Trouillas J

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  • Folic acid, but not folate, regulates different stages of neurogenesis in the ventral hippocampus of adult female rats.

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qiu W,Gobinath AR,Wen Y,Austin J,Galea LAM

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Milanick WJ,Polo-Parada L,Dantzler HA,Kline DD

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bollengier F,Geerts A,Matton A,Mahler A,Velkeniers B,Hooghe-Peters E,Vanhaeist L

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Increase in mRNA concentrations of pituitary receptors for growth hormone-releasing hormone and growth hormone secretagogues after neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment.

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kovacs M,Kineman RD,Schally AV,Flerko B,Frohman LA

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  • Immunocytochemical detection of progesterone receptor in the female rabbit forebrain: distribution and regulation by oestradiol and progesterone.

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Caba M,Rovirosa MJ,Beyer C,González-Mariscal G

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    journal_title:Journal of neuroendocrinology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jiménez A,González-Mariscal G

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