Having your cake and eating it: office of fair trading proposal for funding new drugs to benefit patients and innovative companies.


:There are insufficient resources in the UK to fund all new technologies and new indications approved by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Diverting funding from existing sources will have a detrimental effect on the provision of other priority services. The UK Office of Fair Trading (OFT) recently suggested a value-based pricing approach that appears workable but has generated considerable debate. Their proposal of a 25% premium for the originator product once generics are available is more generous than seen in a number of other European countries, where typically only the lowest priced product is reimbursed. The OFT proposal for a maximum 50% premium for patent-protected products, versus the prices of generics in a class or related classes, is also more generous than the proposed reforms for the pricing of proton pump inhibitors in Sweden or current reforms in Germany. In our opinion, the OFT proposals are persuasive and in accordance with the reforms seen in other European countries, and therefore should be adopted. The alternatives to fully funding new drugs or new indications as approved by NICE are either tightening the cost per QALY threshold, giving NICE an annual national budget to fund its advice alongside suggested areas for disinvestment, proactively switching patients from high-cost brand-name drugs to generics, or further delaying funding for new drugs and new indications approved by NICE. The majority of these suggestions are not in the best interests of patients or innovative pharmaceutical companies seeking to reap the rewards of their efforts.






Godman B,Haycox A,Schwabe U,Joppi R,Garattini S




Has Abstract


2008-01-01 00:00:00














  • The Monetary Value of Informal Care: Obtaining Pure Time Valuations Using a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Interventions in health care often not only have an effect on patients, but also on their informal caregivers. Caregiving can have a profound impact on the health and wellbeing of carers. Ignoring these spillovers in economic evaluations risks labelling interventions mistakenly as cost-effective, at the expe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoefman RJ,van Exel J,Brouwer WBF

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Economic Considerations in the Use of Novel Targeted Therapies for Lung Cancer: Review of Current Literature.

    abstract::Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death and economic burden worldwide. Despite the heavy toll of lung cancer, multiple new advances have improved patient outcomes, largely through precision medicine and targeted therapy. The associated rising economic burden however may impact the uptake of novel...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Albaba H,Lim C,Leighl NB

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • An economic analysis of the Survival and Ventricular Enlargement (SAVE) Study. Application to the United Kingdom.

    abstract::Recent studies have shown that ACE inhibitors reduce morbidity and mortality after myocardial infarction (MI). While these trials have obvious clinical implications, the widespread introduction of a new treatment for a condition as common as MI also has clear cost implications. The results of the post-MI studies with ...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Hummel S,Piercy J,Wright R,Davie A,Bagust A,McMurray J

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of capecitabine compared with bolus 5-fluorouracil/l-leucovorin for the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer in Japan.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:A cost-effectiveness analysis of oral capecitabine versus intravenous bolus 5-fluorouracil/l-leucovorin (FU/LV) as adjuvant therapy in patients with stage 3 colon cancer was performed from a Japanese healthcare payer perspective. METHODS:Adjuvant therapy comprised 24 weeks of treatment with either oral capec...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shiroiwa T,Fukuda T,Shimozuma K,Ohashi Y,Tsutani K

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Economic evaluation of three two-drug chemotherapy regimens in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:During the 1990s, a number of new cytotoxic agents with clinically relevant activity in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and with a more favourable therapeutic index than drugs already in use, became available. Given the high prices of these new drugs and the large number of patients affected, it is impor...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neymark N,Lianes P,Smit EF,van Meerbeeck JP

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Economic evaluation of orlistat in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the economic value of pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in overweight and obese patients using orlistat in addition to standard diabetes therapy (i.e., a sulphonlyurea, metformin or insulin) and weight management strategies as compared with standard diabetes therapy and weight ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maetzel A,Ruof J,Covington M,Wolf A

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Economic burden of multiple sclerosis: a systematic review of the literature.

    abstract::Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the CNS, typically striking adults during the primary productive time of their life. The symptoms of MS can restrict the individual's physical activity and income-earning ability, resulting in a major financial burden on the patient, family, health system and society. This syste...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Naci H,Fleurence R,Birt J,Duhig A

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Economic evaluation of levetiracetam as an add-on therapy in patients with refractory epilepsy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study provides the results of a cost-effectiveness analysis of levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment for refractory epilepsy from the Canadian Ministry of Health perspective. The main objective is to estimate the expected cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as the incremental cost per seizure-free day...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blais L,Sheehy O,St-Hilaire JM,Bernier G,Godfroid P,LeLorier JJ

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Formulary management of antiulcer drugs: economic considerations.

    abstract::Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a common medical problem costing billions of dollars annually around the world. Since the availability of the first histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine, many economic analyses have been conducted to compare the impact of this drug class on resource consumption. H2-Antagonists h...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tucker PP,Nash DB

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00

  • Economic aspects of general anaesthesia.

    abstract::Proper economic evaluation involves comparative analysis of alternative courses of action in terms of both costs and outcome. This is difficult for general anaesthesia as there are few alternatives and measurement of outcome is difficult to define. All that is generally available is a cost description of different a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rhodes SP,Ridley S

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • Indirect costs in ambulatory patients with HIV/AIDS in Spain: a pilot study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To estimate indirect costs in Spanish ambulatory patients with HIV/AIDS and to identify changes in employment status and their current QOL. METHOD:Information was obtained through 32 interviews/enquiries carried out with ambulatory patients receiving medical attention at Gregorio Marañón and Puerta de Hierro...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oliva J,Roa C,del Llano J

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Denosumab for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures in post-menopausal women: a NICE single technology appraisal.

    abstract::The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of denosumab (Amgen Inc., UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of denosumab for the prevention of fragility fractures in post-menopausal women, as part of the Institute's single technology appraisal (STA...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Scotland G,Waugh N,Royle P,McNamee P,Henderson R,Hollick R

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Cefotaxime. A pharmacoeconomic review of its use in the treatment of infections.

    abstract::Cefotaxime is a parenterally administered third generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. After more than a decade of use, cefotaxime continues to play an important role in the treatment of patients with serious infections, particularly those caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Clinical t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Plosker GL,Foster RH,Benfield P

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Evolocumab for Treating Primary Hypercholesterolaemia and Mixed Dyslipidaemia: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    abstract::As part of its Single Technology Appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of evolocumab (Amgen) to submit evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of evolocumab. The appraisal assessed evolocumab as monotherapy or in combination with a statin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Carroll C,Tappenden P,Rafia R,Hamilton J,Chambers D,Clowes M,Durrington P,Qureshi N,Wierzbicki AS

    更新日期:2016-11-16 00:00:00

  • Comparing dihydroergotamine mesylate and sumatriptan in the management of acute migraine. A retrospective cost-efficacy analysis.

    abstract::The annual cost of managing migraine totals billions of US dollars. This retrospective economic analysis of a clinical trial comparing subcutaneous dihydroergotamine mesylate (DHE) with subcutaneous sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine is appropriate because, although each product has been shown to be effica...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Payne K,Kozma CM,Lawrence BJ

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • A model to compute the medical cost of patients in intensive care.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to identify, among the information routinely collected on patients in intensive care units (ICUs), data that determine the total cost for a given patient. DESIGN:We developed a model that could help physicians in medical ICUs to estimate the cost of care for their patients when no cost data...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Chaix C,Durand-Zaleski I,Alberti C,Brun-Buisson C

    更新日期:1999-06-01 00:00:00

  • Cost-Effectiveness of Proton Pump Inhibitor Co-Therapy in Patients Taking Aspirin for Secondary Prevention of Ischemic Stroke.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Low-dose aspirin (ASA) is effective for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke but can increase the risks of hemorrhagic stroke, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), and dyspepsia. Prophylactic administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduces the risks of these digestive symptoms. We investigated ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takabayashi N,Murata K,Tanaka S,Kawakami K

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Lopinavir/ritonavir versus darunavir plus ritonavir for HIV infection: a cost-effectiveness analysis for the United States.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The ARTEMIS trial compared first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) to darunavir plus ritonavir (DRV + RTV) for HIV-1-infected subjects. In order to fully assess the implications of this study, economic modelling extrapolating over a longer term is required. OBJECTIVE:The aim...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simpson KN,Pei PP,Möller J,Baran RW,Dietz B,Woodward W,Migliaccio-Walle K,Caro JJ

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Impacts of health insurance benefit design on percutaneous coronary intervention use and inpatient costs among patients with acute myocardial infarction in Shanghai, China.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Currently, the most popular hospital payment method in China is fee-for-service (FFS) with a global budget cap. As of December 2009, a policy change means that heart stents are covered by public health insurance, whereas previously they were not. This policy change provides us an opportunity to study how a c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yuan S,Liu Y,Li N,Zhang Y,Zhang Z,Tao J,Shi L,Quan H,Lu M,Ma J

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • A systematic review to assess the policy-making relevance of dementia cost-of-illness studies in the US and Canada.

    abstract::A systematic review of dementia cost-of-illness (COI) studies in the US and Canada was conducted to explore the policy-making relevance of these studies. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EconLit, AMED and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to March 2010 for English-language COI articles. Content analysis was used to ex...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Oremus M,Aguilar SC

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cost-minimisation analysis of sequential treatment with ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin in hospitalised patients.

    abstract::This study evaluated the cost of sequential treatment with once-daily ofloxacin or twice-daily ciprofloxacin in 474 hospitalised patients in different countries. The patients were treated intravenously for at least 3 days, then orally for 7 to 10 days or for 3 days beyond the disappearance of infection-related symptom...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salewski E,Bassaris HP,Calangu S,Kitzes R,Kosmidis J,Raz R,Kompan L

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Modelling the cost effectiveness of cholinesterase inhibitors in the management of mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To estimate the cost effectiveness (from the UK NHS and personal social services perspective) of the cholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine compared with usual care in the treatment of mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease. Patients had a mean age of 74 years, a mean disease...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Green C,Picot J,Loveman E,Takeda A,Kirby J,Clegg A

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Recent developments in decision-analytic modelling for economic evaluation.

    abstract::The past few years have seen rapid changes in the methods of decision-analytic modelling of healthcare programmes for the purposes of economic evaluation. This paper focuses on four developments in modelling that have emerged over the past few years or have become more widely used. First, no one optimal method for ext...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Weinstein MC

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cost analysis of 2 empiric antibacterial regimens containing glycopeptides for the treatment of febrile neutropenia in patients with acute leukaemia.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Patients with cancer-associated neutropenia are at high risk of developing severe infections which can be fatal if treatment is not promptly administered. For this reason, fever is treated as soon as possible with broad spectrum antibacterial therapy. The objective of this study was to conduct a cost analysis...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Bucaneve G,Menichetti F,Del Favero A

    更新日期:1999-01-01 00:00:00

  • How Qualitative Methods Can be Used to Inform Model Development.

    abstract::Decision-analytic models play a key role in informing healthcare resource allocation decisions. However, there are ongoing concerns with the credibility of models. Modelling methods guidance can encourage good practice within model development, but its value is dependent on its ability to address the areas that modell...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Husbands S,Jowett S,Barton P,Coast J

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • The role of pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacoeconomics in promoting access and stimulating innovation.

    abstract::Answering the demanding questions asked of pharmacotherapy in the 21st century will require more reliance on the disciplines of pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacoeconomics. Pharmacoepidemiology can help assess patterns and appropriateness of drug utilisation, provide explanations for poor compliance, quantify the frequ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Avorn J

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Single-inhaler combination therapy for asthma: a review of cost effectiveness.

    abstract::Clinical studies have shown that the combination of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) for patients with asthma is more effective than the use of ICS alone in equivalent or higher doses, as well as the use of other combinations. However, the relatively higher acquisit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Akazawa M,Stempel DA

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Economic evaluation of influenza vaccination and economic modelling. Can results be pooled?

    abstract::Scientific reviewing methods were applied to economic studies of influenza vaccination, and an economic model of influenza vaccination was developed from these primary sources. Issues arising from the secondary literature review include the quality of evidence on the effectiveness of the vaccines, the absence of a tra...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jefferson T,Demicheli V

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • The Use of Risk-Sharing Contracts in Healthcare: Theoretical and Empirical Assessments.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the literature on risk-sharing agreements, including conceptual, theoretical and empirical (number of agreements and their achievements) perspectives, and stakeholders'  perceptions. METHODS:We conducted a systematic literature search in MEDLINE from 2000 to ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Antonanzas F,Juárez-Castelló C,Lorente R,Rodríguez-Ibeas R

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Acknowledging patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation : a systematic literature review.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Patient heterogeneity is the part of variability that can be explained by certain patient characteristics (e.g. age, disease stage). Population reimbursement decisions that acknowledge patient heterogeneity could potentially save money and increase population health. To date, however, economic ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Grutters JP,Sculpher M,Briggs AH,Severens JL,Candel MJ,Stahl JE,De Ruysscher D,Boer A,Ramaekers BL,Joore MA

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00