Hydrochemistry of wet atmospheric precipitation over an urban area in northern indo-gangetic plains.

Abstract:

:Rain water samples were collected to study the chemical composition of wet atmospheric precipitation (first event) over the Lucknow city in the northern Indo-gangetic alluvial plains. The samples were collected in the month of July, 2005 from different sites. The wet precipitation samples were analyzed for pH, EC, major ions (HCO(-3), Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO(-3), PO4(-3), F(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), NH4+) and heavy metals (As, Cd, Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Hg, Pb, Se, Sn, Ti, V, Zn). The pH values of wet precipitation samples ranged between 6.5 and 8.7. The analysis of linear regression applied to the set of studied variables and computation of neutralization factors showed that neutralization occurred in precipitation samples and Ca(2+) had the maximum neutralization capacity. It was found that Cl(-), [Formula: see text], Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+) and K(+) in the precipitation samples originated mainly from crustal/anthropogenic sources in the region. On an average Fe, and Al accounted for >72% of the total concentration of trace metals in the wet precipitation samples followed by Zn (>10%). Enrichment factors calculated for heavy metals over reference background level in seawater and Earth's crust showed relatively higher enrichment of Zn. The principal component analysis (PCA) identified the possible sources of ionic species and heavy metals in the wet precipitation samples.

journal_name

Environ Monit Assess

authors

Singh KP,Singh VK,Malik A,Sharma N,Murthy RC,Kumar R

doi

10.1007/s10661-006-9472-6

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2007-08-01 00:00:00

pages

237-54

issue

1-3

eissn

0167-6369

issn

1573-2959

journal_volume

131

pub_type

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