Cisplatin in Combination with MDM2 Inhibition Downregulates Rad51 Recombinase in a Bimodal Manner to Inhibit Homologous Recombination and Augment Tumor Cell Kill.

Abstract:

:Dysfunction of p53 and resistance to cancer drugs can arise through mutually exclusive overexpression of MDM2 or MDM4. Cisplatin-resistant cells, however, can demonstrate increased binding of both MDM2 and MDM4 to p53 but in absence of cellular overexpression. Whether MDM2 inhibitors alone can activate p53 in these resistant cells was investigated with the goal to establish the mechanism for potential synergy with cisplatin. Thus, growth inhibition by individual drugs and combinations was assessed by a colorimetric assay. Drug-treated parental A2780 and resistant tumor cells were also examined for protein expression using immunoblot and reverse phase protein array (RPPA) and then subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, DNA damage by confocal microscopy, cell cycle by flow cytometry, and homologous recombination (HR) by a GFP reporter assay. Our results demonstrate that Nutlin-3 but not RITA (reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis) effectively disrupted the p53-MDM2-MDM4 complex to activate p53, which increased robustly with cisplatin/Nutlin-3 combination and enhanced antitumor effects more than either agent alone. RPPA, IPA, and confocal microscopy provided evidence for an "apparent" increase in DNA damage resulting from HR inhibition by cisplatin/Nutlin-3. Molecularly, the specific HR protein Rad51 was severely downregulated by the combination via two mechanisms: p53-dependent transrepression and p53/MDM2-mediated proteasomal degradation. In conclusion, Nutlin-3 fully destabilizes the p53-MDM2-MDM4 complex and synergizes with cisplatin to intensify p53 function, which then downregulates Rad51 through a bimodal mechanism. As a result, HR is inhibited and antitumor activity enhanced in otherwise HR-proficient sensitive and resistant tumor cells. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Rad51 downregulation by the combination of cisplatin and Nutlin-3 inhibits homologous recombination (HR), which leads to persistence in DNA damage but not an increase. Thus, inhibition of HR enhances antitumor activity in otherwise HR-proficient sensitive and resistant tumor cells.

journal_name

Mol Pharmacol

journal_title

Molecular pharmacology

authors

Xie X,He G,Siddik ZH

doi

10.1124/mol.119.117564

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2020-04-01 00:00:00

pages

237-249

issue

4

eissn

0026-895X

issn

1521-0111

pii

mol.119.117564

journal_volume

97

pub_type

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