Deaths due to Intentional Explosions in Selected Governorates of Iraq from 2010 to 2013: Prospective Surveillance.


INTRODUCTION:The aim of this study was to describe the most recent trends and epidemiologic patterns of fatal injuries resulting from explosions in Iraq, one of the countries most affected by violence from explosive devices. METHODS:Iraqi Ministry of Health (MoH) routine prospective injury surveillance collects information on all fatal injuries recorded by coroners from physical examinations, police reports, and family members in eight governorates of Iraq: Baghdad, Al-Anbar, Basrah, Erbil, Kerbala, Maysan, Ninevah, and Al-Sulaimaniya. This study analyzed explosive-related fatal injuries that occurred from January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2013. RESULTS:Analysis included 2,803 fatal injuries. The number of fatal injuries declined from 2010 through 2012, followed by an increase in 2013. One-thousand one-hundred and one explosion-related fatalities were documented in 2013, more than twice as many as in 2012 or in 2011. Most fatalities were among men aged 20-39 years. Of all causalities, 194 (6.9%) were among females and 302 (10.8%) were among children aged less than 18 years. The majority of fatalities were caused by improvised explosive devices (IEDs): car bombs (15.3%), suicide bombs (4.0%), and other IEDs (29.6%). The highest number of fatalities occurred in streets and roads. Of all deaths, 95.6% occurred in three governorates: Baghdad, Ninevah, and Al-Anbar. CONCLUSIONS:Explosives continue to result in a high number of fatal injuries in Iraq. Following a period of declining violence from explosives, in 2013, fatalities increased. Most explosion-related injuries resulted from IEDs; males aged 20-39 years were at greatest risk.


Prehosp Disaster Med


Bilukha OO,Leidman EZ,Sultan AS,Jaffar Hussain S




Has Abstract


2015-12-01 00:00:00














  • Adenosine for the treatment of PSVT in the prehospital arena: efficacy of an initial 6 mg dosing regimen.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To confirm the efficacy of prehospital administration of adenosine, using a 6 milligram (mg) initial dosing regimen, for the treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). METHODS:Urban, suburban, rural emergency medical services (EMS) system in Clark County, Washington with advanced life suppo...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Wittwer LK,Muhr MD

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

  • Disaster health education and training: a pilot questionnaire to understand current status.

    abstract::In October 2004, a World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) Seminar was convened in Brusselsby the Education Committee to discuss Disaster Education and Training. During this seminar, it became apparent that there was no single tool available to assess knowledge, skills, and resources within this ...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murray V,Clifford J,Seynaeve G,Fisher JM

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Does basic life support in a rural EMS system influence the outcome of patients with respiratory distress?

    abstract:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to determine whether basic life support, prehospital emergency medical care in a rural area affects the hospital course of patients with respiratory distress. METHODS:Medical records for patients admitted from the emergency department with a discharge diagnosis related to respirat...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brown LH,Prasad NH,Whitley TW,Benson NH,Corlette A

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • Preventing post-injury hypothermia during prolonged prehospital evacuation.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Post-injury hypothermia is a risk predictor in trauma patients whose physiology is deranged. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of simple, in-field, hypothermia prevention to victims of penetrating trauma during long prehospital evacuations. METHODS:A total of 170 consecutively injured...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Husum H,Olsen T,Murad M,Heng YV,Wisborg T,Gilbert M

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Mass-casualty terrorist bombings in Istanbul, Turkey, November 2003: report of the events and the prehospital emergency response.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This paper describes the two mass-casualty, terrorist attacks that occurred in Istanbul, Turkey in November 2003, and the resulting pre-hospital emergency response. METHODS:A complex, retrospective, descriptive study was performed, using open source reports, interviews, direct measurements of street distanc...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodoplu U,Arnold JL,Tokyay R,Ersoy G,Cetiner S,Yücel T

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemic and bioterrorism preparation among emergency medical services systems.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The purpose of this research was to determine the preparedness of emergency medical services (EMS) agencies in one US state to cope with a massive epidemic event. METHODS:Data were collected primarily through telephone interviews with EMS officials throughout the State. To provide a comparison, nine out-o...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maguire BJ,Dean S,Bissell RA,Walz BJ,Bumbak AK

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Terrorism in Indonesia.

    abstract::Indonesia has had its share of natural and manmade disasters. From 1997 to 2002, Indonesia has experienced 90 incidents of terrorist bomb attacks. In 13 (14.4%) of the terrorist attacks, the bombs did not explode. A total of 224 persons have been killed, and 340 persons have been injured. Most of those killed or injur...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pusponegoro AD

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of radioactive signals from surveillance of an emergency department.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Since the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, concerns have been raised regarding the threat of a radiological terrorist weapon. Although the probability of the employment of a nuclear device is remote, the potential of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or "dirty bomb" is of conce...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guyette F,Suyama J,Rosen J,Allswede M

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • The Association between Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Out-of-Hospital Settings and Chest Injuries: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to assess the risk of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed in out-of-hospital settings for chest injuries in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS:This retrospective, observational study was conducted in an emergency critical care medical center in J...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takayama W,Koguchi H,Endo A,Otomo Y

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Terrorists Use of Ambulances for Terror Attacks: A Review.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Using an ambulance as an attack modality offers many advantages to a terrorist organization. Ambulances can carry more explosives than most vehicles and can often bypass security. Yet, studies examining how terrorist organizations have incorporated ambulances into their attacks are lacking. STUDY OBJECTIV...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jasani GN,Alfalasi R,Cavaliere GA,Ciottone GR,Lawner BJ

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • Surviving collapsed structure entrapment after earthquakes: a "time-to-rescue" analysis.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Massive earthquakes often cause structures to collapse, trapping victims under dense rubble for long periods of time. Commonly, this spurs resource intensive, dangerous, and frustrating attempts to find and extricate live victims. The search and rescue phase usually is maintained for many days beyond the l...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Macintyre AG,Barbera JA,Smith ER

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prehospital management and fluid resuscitation in hypotensive trauma patients admitted to Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Few previous studies have been conducted on the prehospital management of hypotensive trauma patients in Stockholm County. The aim of this study was to describe the prehospital management of hypotensive trauma patients admitted to the largest trauma center in Sweden, and to assess whether prehospital traum...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Talving P,Pålstedt J,Riddez L

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Accuracy, Efficiency, and Inappropriate Actions Using JumpSTART Triage in MCI Simulations.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Using the pediatric version of the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (JumpSTART) algorithm for the triage of pediatric patients in a mass-casualty incident (MCI) requires assessing the results of each step and determining whether to move to the next appropriate action. Inappropriate application can lead to...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Claudius I,Kaji AH,Santillanes G,Cicero MX,Donofrio JJ,Gausche-Hill M,Srinivasan S,Chang TP

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • A Descriptive Analysis of Prehospital Response to Hazardous Materials Events.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Little is known about the overall frequency of hazardous materials (HazMat) events in the United States and the nature of prehospital care for those exposed. The purpose of the current study was to perform a descriptive analysis of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) activations reported to a national EMS databa...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martin AJ,Lohse CM,Sztajnkrycer MD

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • An Overview of Chicago (Illinois USA) Marathon Prehospital Care Demographics, Patient Care Operations, and Injury Patterns.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Large-scale mass-sporting events are increasingly requiring greater prehospital event planning and preparation to address inherent event-associated medical conditions in addition to incidents that may be unexpected. The Bank of America Chicago Marathon (Chicago, Illinois USA) is one of the largest marathon...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chan JL,Constantinou V,Fokas J,Van Deusen Phillips S,Chiampas G

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Spinal Immobilization in Disasters: A Systematic Review.

    abstract::In response to the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR; Niel, Belgium) release of an updated recommendation related to out-of-hospital spinal immobilization (SI) practice in 2015, a systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cuthbertson JL,Weinstein ES

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Principles of disaster management. Lesson 2: Program planning.

    abstract::Many of the problems that develop in disaster management can be avoided with good program planning. Assessment following a disaster is essential. Needs assessment is essential in the early phases of a disaster and situation assessments become more important as the disaster process continues. Both are dynamic and conti...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cuny FC

    更新日期:1998-04-01 00:00:00

  • Making disaster care count: consensus formulation of measures of effectiveness for natural disaster acute phase medical response.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:No standard exists for provision of care following catastrophic natural disasters. Host nations, funders, and overseeing agencies need a method to identify the most effective interventions when allocating finite resources. Measures of effectiveness are real-time indicators that can be used to link early ac...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Daftary RK,Cruz AT,Reaves EJ,Burkle FM,Christian MD,Fagbuyi DB,Garrett AL,Kapur GB,Sirbaugh PE

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • The Asian Tsunami: PAHO disaster guidelines in action in India.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:On 26 December 2004, an earthquake (9.0 Richter, 10 kilometers below the sea) near Sumatra, Indonesia, triggered a tsunami, which traveled at approximately 800 km per hour to strike the Indian coastline. The disaster response at a 100-bed hospital situated on the beach front (2,028 km from the epicenter) i...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roy N

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • Hospital responses to acute-onset disasters: a review.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Hospitals the world over have been involved in disasters, both internal and external. These two types of disasters are independent, but not mutually exclusive. Internal disasters are isolated to the hospital and occur more frequently than do external disasters. External disasters affect the community as we...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Milsten A

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographic Study (LEADS) Design and Methodology.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study is to describe the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Attributes and Demographic Study (LEADS) design, instrument development, pilot testing, sampling procedures, and data collection methodology. Response rates are provided, along with results of follow-up surveys of ...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Levine R

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • The Effect of Older Age on EMS Use for Transportation to an Emergency Department.

    abstract::Introduction Previous studies have found that older adults are more likely to use Emergency Medical Services (EMS) than younger adults, but the reasons for this remain understudied. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to determine if older age is associated with using EMS for transportation to an emergency department ...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones CMC,Wasserman EB,Li T,Amidon A,Abbott M,Shah MN

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Randomized, controlled trial of three levels of critical incident stress intervention.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Stress debriefing following exposure to a critical incident is becoming more prevalent. Its aim is to prevent or minimize the development of excessive stress response symptoms that lead to loss of productivity or effectiveness in the workplace or at home. There is little evidence that any form of psychologic...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Macnab A,Sun C,Lowe J

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • Assessment of hospital disaster preparedness for the 2010 FIFA World Cup using an internet-based, long-distance tabletop drill.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The State University of New York at Downstate (SUNY) conducted a web-based long-distance tabletop drill (LDTT) designed to identify vulnerabilities in safety, security, communications, supplies, incident management, and surge capacity for a number of hospitals preceding the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The tableto...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Valesky W,Silverberg M,Gillett B,Roblin P,Adelaine J,Wallis LA,Smith W,Arquilla B

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Regional Birth Outcomes after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in Miyagi Prefecture.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study was aimed to analyze post-disaster birth outcomes in coastal and inland regions of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. METHODS:Primary data sets were compiled from birth records of obstetric facilities and 12,808 patients were analyzed for baseline birth outcomes by region. Regional risk analysis of the lo...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sugawara J,Iwama N,Hoshiai T,Tokunaga H,Nishigori H,Metoki H,Okamura K,Yaegashi N

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Prehospital Airway Management in Emergency and Trauma Patients: A Cross-sectional Study of Ambulance Service Providers and Staff in a Low- and Middle-income Country.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prehospital airway management (AM) is the first priority in the care of emergency and trauma victims as it has shown to improve survival in these patients. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess training and knowledge of ambulance staff and availability of AM equipment in ambulances of Karachi, Pakis...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ismail S,Zia N,Samad K,Naeem R,Ahmad H,Raza A,Baqir M,Khan UR

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Utility of Prehospital Quantitative End Tidal CO2?

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:End tidal CO2 (ETCO2) has been established as a standard for confirmation of an airway, but its role is expanding. In certain settings ETCO2 closely approximates the partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2) and has been described as a tool to optimize a patient's ventilatory status. ETCO2 monitors are incr...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cooper CJ,Kraatz JJ,Kubiak DS,Kessel JW,Barnes SL

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • The Forgotten Responders: The Ongoing Impact of 9/11 on the Ground Zero Recovery Workers.

    abstract::In the years following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks (9/11; New York USA), emergency first responders began experiencing a range of physical health and psychosocial impacts. Publications documenting these tended to focus on firefighters, while emerging reports are starting to focus on other first responders...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith EC,Burkle FM

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • Integrated plan to augment surge capacity.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Surge capacity is defined as a healthcare system's ability to rapidly expand beyond normal services to meet the increased demand for appropriate space, qualified personnel, medical care, and public health in the event ofbioterrorism, disaster, or other large-scale, public health emergencies. There are many...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dayton C,Ibrahim J,Augenbraun M,Brooks S,Mody K,Holford D,Roblin P,Arquilla B

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • External factors impacting hospital evacuations caused by Hurricane Rita: the role of situational awareness.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:The 2005 Gulf Coast hurricane season was one of the most costly and deadly in US history. Hurricane Rita stressed hospitals and led to multiple, simultaneous evacuations. This study systematically identified community factors associated with patient movement out of seven hospitals evacuated during Hurrican...

    journal_title:Prehospital and disaster medicine

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Downey EL,Andress K,Schultz CH

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00